Calibration of Panoramic Cameras Using 3D Scene Information
This chapter proposes a novel approach for the calibration of a panoramic camera using geometric information available in real scenes. Panoramic cameras are of increasing importance for various applications in computer vision, computer graphics or robotics. Previously developed camera calibration methods (for ‘standard’ camera architectures following the pinhole camera model) are not applicable due to the non-linearity of the panoramic camera, defined by the existence of multiple (nonlinear) optical centers and a cylindrical image manifold. This article addresses the calibration subject of a more general yet flexible panoramic camera model for the first time. The chapter focuses on the calibration of two dominant parameters that characterize the camera model and provide flexibility in selecting different types of panoramas such as single-center (e.g. as assumed for QTVR), symmetric stereo, concentric or polycentric panoramas. We elaborate selected geometric constraints (for increasing numerical stability) with the corresponding solutions; summarize the experimental results with captured image data, and discuss the performance of different geometric constraints via error-sensitivity simulation and analysis.
KeywordsCamera Calibration Optical Center Distance Constraint Camera Model Panoramic Image
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