Advertisement

Prostate

  • Jeff M. Michalski
  • Gregory S. Merrick
  • Sten Nilsson
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Keywords

Prostate Cancer Radical Prostatectomy Seminal Vesicle Planning Target Volume Gleason Score 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akazawa PF, Roach M III, Pickett B et al (1996) Three dimensional comparison of blocked arcs vs four and six field conformal treatment of the prostate. Radiother Oncol 1:83–88Google Scholar
  2. Algan O, Hanks GE, Shaer AH (1995) Localization of the prostatic apex for radiation treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 33:925–930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen ZA, Merrick GS, Butler WM et al (2005) Detailed urethral dosimetry in the evaluation of prostate brachytherapy-elated urinary morbidity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2:981–987Google Scholar
  4. American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus Panel (1997) Consensus statement: guidelines or PSA following radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol hys 37:1035–1041Google Scholar
  5. Andriole GL, Ponas SH, Catalona WJ (1992) The implication f focal well differentiated prostate cancer (CaP) in men with elevated serum PSA and palpably normal prostates. J Urol 147:442AGoogle Scholar
  6. Anscher MS, Clough R, Dodge R (2000) Radiotherapy for a rising prostate-specific antigen after radical prostatectomy: he first 10 years. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:369–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Antolak JA, Rosen II, Childress CH et al (1998) Prostate target volume variations during a course of radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 42:661–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ash D, Flynn A, Battermann J et al (2000) ESTRO/EAU/EORTC recommendations on permanent seed implantation for localized prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 57:315–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Badiozamani KR, Wallner K, Cavanagh W et al (1999) Comparability f CT-based and TRUS-based prostate volumes. Int Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43:375–378Google Scholar
  10. Bagshaw MA, Ray GR, Cox RS (1985) Radiotherapy of prostatic carcinoma: long-or short-term efficacy (Stanford University experience). Urology 25:17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bagshaw MA, Cox RS, Ray GR (1988) Status of radiation treatment of prostate cancer at Stanford University. NCI Monogr 7:47–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bastacky SI, Walsh PC, Epstein JI (1993) Relationship between perineural tumor invasion on needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy capsular penetration in clinical stage B adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Am J Surg Pathol 17:336–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bayley AJ, Catton CN, Haycocks T et al (2004) A randomized trial of supine vs prone positioning in patients undergoing escalated dose conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 70:37–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bellon J, Wallner K, Ellis W et al (1999) Use of pelvic CT scanning to evaluate pubic arch interference of transperineal prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43:579–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Biggs PJ, Russell MD (1988) Effect of a femoral head prosthesis on megavoltage beam radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 14:581–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Blasko JC, Grimm PD, Sylvester JE et al (2000) Palladium-103 brachytherapy for prostate carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46:839–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Blasko JC, Mate T, Sylvester JE et al (2002) Brachytherapy for carcinoma of the prostate: techniques, patient selection, and clinical outcomes. Semin Radiat Oncol 12:81–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Blennerhassett JB, Vickery AL Jr (1966) Carcinoma of the prostate gland. An anatomical study of tumor location. Cancer 19:980–984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bluestein DL, Bostwick DG, Bergstralh EJ et al (1994) Eliminating the need for bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy in select patients with prostate cancer. J Urol 151:1315–1320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Boersma LJ, van den Brink M, Bruce AM et al (1998) Estimation of the incidence of late bladder and rectum complications after high-dose (70-78 Gy) conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer, using dose-volume histograms. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 41:83–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bolla M, van Poppel H, Collette L et al (2005) Postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy: a randomized controlled trial (EORTC trial 22911). Lancet 366:572–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bonin SR, Hanlon AL, Lee WR et al (1997) Evidence of increased failure in the treatment of prostate carcinoma patients who have perineural invasion treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. Cancer 79:75–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Borghede G, Hedelin H, Holmang S et al (1997) Combined treatment with temporary short-term high dose rate iridium-192 brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy for irradiation of localized prostatic carcinoma. Radiother Oncol 44:237–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brabbins D, Martinez A, Yan D et al (2005) A dose-escalation trial with the adaptive radiotherapy process as a delivery system in localized prostate cancer: analysis of chronic toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61:400–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brenner DJ, Hall EJ (1999) Fractionation and protraction for radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43:1095–1101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brenner DJ, Martinez AA, Edmundson GK et al (2002) Direct evidence that prostate tumors show high sensitivity to fractionation (low alpha/beta ratio), similar to late-responding normal tissue. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52:6–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Breslow N, Chan CW, Dhom G et al (1977) Latent carcinoma of prostate at autopsy in seven areas. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyons, France. Int J Cancer 20:680–688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bucci J, Morris WJ, Keyes M et al (2002) Predictive factors of urinary retention following prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53:91–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Butler WM, Merrick GS, Dorsey AT et al (2000a) Isotope choice and the effect of edema on prostate brachytherapy dosimetry. Med Phys 27:1067–1075PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Butler WM, Merrick GS, Lief JH et al (2000b) Comparison of seed loading approaches in prostate brachytherapy. Med Phys 27:381–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cadeddu JA, Partin AW, DeWeese TL et al (1998) Long-term results of radiation therapy for prostate cancer recurrence following radical prostatectomy. J Urol 159:173–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Carrier S, Hricak H, Lee SS et al (1995) Radiation-induced decrease in nitric oxide synthase-containing nerves in the rat penis. Radiology 195:95–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Carter HB, Epstein JI, Partin AW (1999) Influence of age and prostate-specific antigen on the chance of curable prostate cancer among men with nonpalpable disease. Urology 53:126–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Catalona WJ, Bigg SW (1990) Nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy: evaluation of results after 250 patients. J Urol 143:538–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Catalona WJ, Smith DS (1994) 5-year tumor recurrence rates after anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy for prostate cancer. J Urol 152:1837–1842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cha CM, Potters L, Ashley R et al (1999) Isotope selection for patients undergoing prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 45:391–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Charyulu KK (1980) Transperineal interstitial implantation of prostate cancer: a new method. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 6:1261–1266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cheung R, Tucker SL, Dong L et al (2003) Dose-response for biochemical control among high-risk prostate cancer patients after external beam radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56:1234–1240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Chiang PH, Fang FM, Jong WC et al (2004) High-dose rate iridium-192 brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer with or without androgen ablation. Int J Urol 11:152–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Choi S, Wallner KE, Merrick GS et al (2004) Treatment margins predict biochemical outcomes after prostate brachytherapy. Cancer J 10:175–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Clark T, Parekh DJ, Cookson MS et al (2003) Randomized prospective evaluation of extended versus limited lymph node dissection in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. J Urol 169:145–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cox JA, Zagoria RJ, Raben M (1994) Prostate cancer: comparison of retrograde urethrography and computed tomography in radiotherapy planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 29:1119–1123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Crook J, Raymond Y, Salhani D et al (1995) Prostate motion during standard radiotherapy as assessed by fiducial markers. Radiother Oncol 37:35–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Crook J, Lukka H, Klotz L et al (2001) Systematic overview of the evidence for brachytherapy in clinically localized prostate cancer. CMAJ 164:975–981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Crook J, McLean M, Yeung I et al (2004) MRI-CT fusion to assess postbrachytherapy prostate volume and the effects of prolonged edema on dosimetry following transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 3:55–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Curran MJ, Healey GA, Bihrle W III et al (2000) Treatment of high-grade low-stage prostate cancer by high-dose-rate brachytherapy. J Endourol 14:351–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. D’Amico AV, Whittington R, Malkowicz SB et al (1995) A multivariate analysis of clinical and pathological factors that predict for prostate specific antigen failure after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. J Urol 154:131–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. D’Amico AV, Whittington R, Malkowicz SB et al (1998) Biochemical outcome after radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy, or interstitial radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. J Am Med Assoc 280:969–974Google Scholar
  49. D’Amico AV, Manola J, Loffredo M et al (2004) 6-month androgen suppression plus radiation therapy vs radiation therapy alone for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 292:821–827Google Scholar
  50. Danella JF, deKernion JB, Smith RB et al (1993) The contemporary incidence of lymph node metastases in prostate cancer: implications for laparoscopic lymph node dissection. J Urol 149:1488–1491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dattoli M, Wallner K, True L et al (2003) Long-term outcomes after treatment with external beam radiation therapy and palladium 103 for patients with higher risk prostate carcinoma: influence of prostatic acid phosphatase. Cancer 97:979–983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Davis BJ, Pisansky TM, Wilson TM et al (1999) The radial distance of extraprostatic extension of prostate carcinoma: implications for prostate brachytherapy. Cancer 85:2630–2637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Dawson JE, Wu T, Roy T et al (1994) Dose effects of seeds placement deviations from pre-planned positions in ultrasound guided prostate implants. Radiother Oncol 32:268–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Dawson LA, Litzenberg DW, Brock KK et al (2000) A comparison of ventilatory prostate movement in four treatment positions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:319–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. De Crevoisier R, Tucker SL, Dong L et al (2005) Increased risk of biochemical and local failure in patients with distended rectum on the planning CT for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62:965–973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Deger S, Boehmer D, Turk I et al (2002) High dose rate brachytherapy of localized prostate cancer. Eur Urol 41:420–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Del Regato JA, Trailins AH, Pittman DD (1993) Twenty years follow-up of patients with inoperable cancer of the prostate (stage C) treated by radiotherapy: report of a national cooperative study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 26:197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Desai J, Stock RG, Stone NN et al (1998) Acute urinary morbidity following I-125 interstitial implantation of the prostate gland. Radiat Oncol Invest 6:135–141Google Scholar
  59. DiBiase SJ, Wallner K, Tralins K et al (2000) Brachytherapy radiation doses to the neurovascular bundles. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46:1301–1307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Edmundson GK (1994) Volume optimization: an American viewpoint. In: Mould RF et al (eds) Brachytherapy from radium to optimization. Nucletron International, Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp 314–318Google Scholar
  61. Epstein JI, Walsh PC, Carmichael M et al (1994) Pathologic and clinical findings to predict tumor extent of nonpalpable (stage T1c) prostate cancer. J Am Med Assoc 271:368–374Google Scholar
  62. Fiorino C, Reni M, Cattaneo GM et al (1997) Comparing 3-, 4-and 6-fields techniques for conformal irradiation of prostate and seminal vesicles using dose-volume histograms. Radiother Oncol 44:251–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Fiorino C, Sanguineti G, Cozzarini C et al (2003) Rectal dose-volume constraints in high-dose radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 57:953–962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Fisch BM, Pickett B, Weinberg V et al (2001) Dose of radiation received by the bulb of the penis correlates with risk of impotence after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Urology 57:955–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Fowler JF (2005) The radiobiology of prostate cancer including new aspects of fractionated radiotherapy. Acta Oncol 44:265–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fowler J, Chappell R, Ritter M (2001) Is alpha/beta for prostate tumors really low? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 50:1021–1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Fowler JE Jr, Whitmore WF Jr (1981) The incidence and extent of pelvic lymph node metastases in apparently localized prostatic cancer. Cancer 47:2941–2945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fowler JF, Ritter MA, Chappell RJ et al (2003) What hypofractionated protocols should be tested for prostate cancer? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56:1093–1104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Galalae RM, Loch T, Riemer B et al (2004) Health-related quality of life measurement in long-term survivors and outcome following radical radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Strahlenther Onkol 180:582–589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Gelblum DY, Potters L (2000) Rectal complications associated with transperineal interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:119–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gelblum DY, Potters L, Ashley R et al (1999) Urinary morbidity following ultrasound-guided transperineal prostate seed implantation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 45:59–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Gervasi LA, Mata J, Easley JD et al (1989) Prognostic significance of lymph nodal metastases in prostate cancer. J Urol 142:332–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Gottschalk AR, Roach M III (2004) The use of hormonal therapy with radiotherapy for prostate cancer: analysis of prospective randomised trials. Br J Cancer 90:950–954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Grann A, Wallner K (1998) Prostate brachytherapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 40:135–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Gray G, Wallner K, Roof J et al (2000) Cystourethroscopic findings before and after prostate brachytherapy. Tech Urol 6:109–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Grills IS, Martinez AA, Hollander M et al (2004) High dose rate brachytherapy as prostate cancer monotherapy reduces toxicity compared to low dose rate palladium seeds. J Urol 171:1098–1104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Gustafson G, Demanes D, Rodriguez R (2003) High dose rate (HDR) monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer: toxicity results utilizing the common toxicity criteria. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 57:S230–S231Google Scholar
  78. Hakenberg OW, Wirth MP, Hermann T et al (2003) Recommendations for the treatment of localized prostate cancer by permanent interstitial brachytherapy. Urol Int 70:15–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Han BH, Demel KC, Wallner K et al (2001a) Patient reported complications after prostate brachytherapy. J Urol 166:953–957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Han M, Piantadosi S, Zahurak ML et al (2001b) Serum acid phosphatase level and biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy for men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Urology 57:707–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Han BH, Wallner K, Merrick G et al (2003) The effect of interobserver differences in post-implant prostate CT image interpretation on dosimetric parameters. Med Phys 30:1096–1102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hanks GE, Lee WR, Hanlon AL et al (1996) Conformal technique dose escalation for prostate cancer: biochemical evidence of improved cancer control with higher doses in patients with pretreatment prostate-specific antigen ≧10 ng/ml. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 35:861–868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Heidenreich A, Varga Z, Knobloch R von (2002) Extended pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy: high incidence of lymph node metastasis. J Urol 167:1681–1686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Herold DM, Hanlon AL, Movsas B et al (1998) Age-related prostate cancer metastases. Urology 51:985–990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hinerman-Mulroy A, Merrick GS, Butler WM et al (2004) Androgen deprivation-induced changes in prostate anatomy predict urinary morbidity after permanent interstitial brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59:1367–1382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hiratsuka J, Jo Y, Yoshida K et al (2004) Clinical results of combined treatment conformal high-dose-rate iridium-92 brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy using staging lymphadenectomy for localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59:684–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Howard A, Wallner K, Han B (2001) Clinical course and dosimetry of rectal fistulas after prostate brachytherapy. J Brachyther Int 17:37–42Google Scholar
  88. Hsu IC, Lessard E, Weinberg V et al (2004) Comparison of inverse planning simulated annealing and geometrical optimization for prostate high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 3:147–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Huang EH, Pollack A, Levy L et al (2002) Late rectal toxicity: dose-volume effects of conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 54:1314–1321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hughes S, Wallner K, Merrick G et al (2001) Preexisting histologic evidence of prostatitis is unrelated to postimplant urinary morbidity. Int J Cancer 96:79–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hurwitz MD, Schnieder L, Manola J et al (2002) Lack of radiation dose response for patients with low-risk clinically localized prostate cancer: a retrospective analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53:1106–1110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Jackson A, Skwarchuk MW, Zelefsky MJ et al (2001) Late rectal bleeding after conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer. II. Volume effects and dose-volume histograms. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 49:685–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Jewett HJ (1980) Radical perineal prostatectomy for palpable, clinically localized, non-obstructive cancer: experience at the Johns Hopkins Hospital 1909–1963. J Urol 124:492–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Jo Y, Junichi H, Tomohiro F et al (2005) Radical prostatectomy versus high-dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer: effects on health-related quality of life. Br J Urol Int 96:43–47Google Scholar
  95. Kattan MW, Zelefsky MJ, Kupelian PA et al (2000) Pretreatment nomogram for predicting the outcome of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 18:3352–3359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kestin L, Goldstein N, Vicini F et al (2002) Treatment of prostate cancer with radiotherapy: Should the entire seminal vesicles be included in the clinical target volume? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 54:686–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Khuntia D, Reddy CA, Mahadevan A et al (2004) Recurrence-free survival rates after external-beam radiotherapy for patients with clinical T1–T3 prostate carcinoma in the prostate-specific antigen era: What should we expect? Cancer 100:1283–1292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kitamura K, Shirato H, Seppenwoolde Y et al (2002) Three-dimensional intrafractional movement of prostate measured during real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy in supine and prone treatment positions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53:1117–1123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kneebone A, Gebski V, Hogendoorn N et al (2003) A randomized trial evaluating rigid immobilization for pelvic irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56:1105–1111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kolkman-Deurloo IK, Visser AG, Niel CG et al (1994) Optimization of interstitial volume implants. Radiother Oncol 31:229–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Koper PC, Heemsbergen WD, Hoogeman MS et al (2004) Impact of volume and location of irradiated rectum wall on rectal blood loss after radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 58:1072–1082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kovacs G, Galalae R (2003) Fractionated perineal high-doserate temporary brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation in the treatment of localized prostate cancer: is lymph node sampling necessary? Cancer Radiother 7:100–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Kovacs G, Galalae R, Loch T et al (1999) Prostate preservation by combined external beam and HDR brachytherapy in nodal negative prostate cancer. Strahlenther Onkol 175:87–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Kuban DA, Thames HD, Levy LB et al (2003) Long-term multi-institutional analysis of stage T1–T2 prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy in the PSA era. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 57:915–928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Kupelian PA, Reddy CA, Carlson TP et al (2002) Dose/volume relationship of late rectal bleeding after external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: Absolute or relative rectal volume? Cancer J 8:62–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Landis D, Wallner K, Locke J et al (2002) Late urinary function after prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 1:21–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Langen KM, Jones DT (2001) Organ motion and its management. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 50:265–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Lattanzi J, McNeeley S, Pinover W et al (1999) A comparison of daily CT localization to a daily ultrasound-based system in prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43:719–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Lattanzi J, McNeeley S, Hanlon A et al (2000) Ultrasoundbased stereotactic guidance of precision conformal external beam radiation therapy in clinically localized prostate cancer. Urology 55:73–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Lawton CA, Winter K, Byhardt R et al (1997) Androgen suppression plus radiation versus radiation alone for patients with D1 (pN+) adenocarcinoma of the prostate (results based on a national prospective randomized trial, RTOG 85–31). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 38:931–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Leibel SA, Heimann R, Kutcher GJ et al (1994) Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in locally advanced carcinoma of the prostate: preliminary results of a phase I dose-escalation study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 28:55–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Leibovich BC, Blute ML, Bostwick DG et al (2000a) Proximity of prostate cancer to the urethra: implications for minimally invasive ablative therapies. Urology 56:726–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Leibovich BC, Engen DE, Patterson DE et al (2000b) Benefit of adjuvant radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer with a positive surgical margin. J Urol 163:1178–1182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Lessard E, Pouliot J (2001) Inverse planning anatomy-based dose optimization for HDR-brachytherapy of the prostate using fast simulated annealing algorithm and dedicated objective function. Med Phys 28:773–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Levegrun S, Jackson A, Zelefsky MJ et al (2002) Risk group dependence of dose-response for biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 63:11–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Litzenberg D, Dawson LA, Sandler H et al (2002) Daily prostate targeting using implanted radiopaque markers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52:699–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Liu YM, Ling S, Langen KM et al (2004) Prostate movement during simulation resulting from retrograde urethrogram compared with “natural” prostate movement. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60:470–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Magrini SM, Cellai E, Rossi F et al (1999) Comparison of the conventional “box technique” with two different “conformal” beam arrangements for prostate cancer treatment. Cancer Radiother 3:215–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Malone S, Crook JM, Kendal WS et al (2000) Respiratoryinduced prostate motion: quantification and characterization. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:105–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Mangar SA, Huddart RA, Parker CC et al (2005) Technological advances in radiotherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer 41:908–921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Marsh LH, Ten Haken RK, Sandler HM (1992) A customized non-axial external beam technique for treatment of prostate carcinomas. Med Dosim 17:123–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Martin T, Baltas D, Kurek R et al (2004a) 3-D conformal HDR brachytherapy as monotherapy for localized prostate cancer. A pilot study. Strahlenther Onkol 180:225–232Google Scholar
  123. Martin T, Roddiger S, Kurek R et al (2004b) 3D conformal HDR brachytherapy and external beam irradiation combined with temporary androgen deprivation in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 71:35–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Martinez A, Benson RC, Edmundson GK et al (1985) Pelvic lymphadenectomy combined with transperineal interstitial implantation of iridium-192 and external beam radiotherapy for locally advanced prostatic carcinoma: technical description. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11:841–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Martinez A, Pataki I, Edmundson G et al (2001) Phase II prospective study of the use of conformal high-dose-rate brachytherapy as monotherapy for the treatment of favorable stage prostate cancer: a feasibility report. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 49:61–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Martinez A, Gustafson G, Gonzalez J et al (2002) Dose escalation using conformal high-dose-rate brachytherapy improves outcome in unfavorable prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53:316–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Martinez A, Gonzalez J, Spencer W et al (2003) Conformal high dose rate brachytherapy improves biochemical control and cause specific survival in patients with prostate cancer and poor prognostic factors. J Urol 169:974–979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Martinez A, Demanes DJ, Galalae R et al (2005) Lack of benefit from a short course of androgen deprivation for unfavorable prostate cancer patients treated with an accelerated hypofractionated regime. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62:1322–1331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Mate TP, Gottesman JE, Hatton J et al (1998) High dose-rate afterloading 192Iridium prostate brachytherapy: feasibility report. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 41:525–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. McCarthy JF, Catalona WJ, Hudson MA (1994) Effect of radiation therapy on detectable serum prostate specific antigen levels following radical prostatectomy: early versus delayed treatment. J Urol 151:1575–1578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. McGowan DG (1981) The value of extended field radiation therapy in carcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 7:1333–1339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. McLaughlin PW, Wygoda A, Sahijdak W et al (1999) The effect of patient position and treatment technique in conformal treatment of prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 45:407–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. McLaughlin PW, Troyer S, Berri S et al (2005) Functional anatomy of the prostate: implications for treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 63:479–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. McNeal JE (1969) Origin and development of carcinoma in the prostate. Cancer 23:24–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Merrick GS, Butler WM (2000) Modified uniform seed loading for prostate brachytherapy: rationale, design, and evaluation. Tech Urol 6:78–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Dorsey AT et al (1999a) The dependence of prostate postimplant dosimetric quality on CT volume determination. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 44:1111–1117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Dorsey AT et al (1999b) Potential role of various dosimetric quality indicators in prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 44:717–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Lief JH et al (1999c) Efficacy of sildenafil citrate in prostate brachytherapy patients with erectile dysfunction. Urology 53:1112–1116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Dorsey AT et al (2000a) The effect of constipation on rectal dosimetry following prostate brachytherapy. Med Dosim 25:237–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Dorsey AT et al (2000b) Seed fixity in the prostate/periprostatic region following brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46:215–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Dorsey AT et al (2000c) A comparison of radiation dose to the neurovascular bundles in men with and without prostate brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:1069–1074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Lief JH et al (2000d) Temporal resolution of urinary morbidity following prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 47:121–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Dorsey AT et al (2001a) Effect of prostate size and isotope selection on dosimetric quality following permanent seed implantation. Tech Urol 7:233–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Galbreath RW et al (2001b) Perineural invasion is not predictive of biochemical outcome following prostate brachytherapy. Cancer J 7:404–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Galbreath RW et al (2001c) Relationship between the transition zone index of the prostate gland and urinary morbidity after brachytherapy. Urology 57:524–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Merrick GS, Wallner K, Butler WM et al (2001d) A comparison of radiation dose to the bulb of the penis in men with and without prostate brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 50:597–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Merrick GS, Wallner K, Butler WM et al (2001e) Short-term sexual function after prostate brachytherapy. Int J Cancer 96:313–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Galbreath RW et al (2002a) Erectile function after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52:893–902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Tollenaar BG et al (2002b) The dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy-induced urethral strictures. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52:461–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner K et al (2002c) Permanent prostate brachytherapy-induced morbidity in patients with grade II and III obesity. Urology 60:104–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2002d) Prostate-specific antigen spikes after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 54:450–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2002e) Prophylactic versus therapeutic alpha-blockers after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Urology 60:650–655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Galbreath RW et al (2003a) Does hormonal manipulation in conjunction with permanent interstitial brachytherapy, with or without supplemental external beam irradiation, improve the biochemical outcome for men with intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer? Br J Urol Int 91:23–29Google Scholar
  154. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2003b) Extracapsular radiation dose distribution after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 26:e178–e189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2003c) Rectal function following brachytherapy with or without supplemental external beam radiation: results of two prospective randomized trials. Brachytherapy 2:147–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2003d) Long-term urinary quality of life after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56:454–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2003e) Dysuria after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 55:979–985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2003f) Late rectal function after prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 57:42–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2003g) Prostatespecific antigen (PSA) velocity and benign prostate hypertrophy predict for PSA spikes following prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 2:181–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Merrick GS, Wallner KE, Butler WM (2003h) Minimizing prostate brachytherapy-related morbidity. Urology 62:786–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Merrick GS, Wallner KE, Butler WM (2003i) Permanent interstitial brachytherapy for the management of carcinoma of the prostate gland. J Urol 169:1643–1652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2004a) Effect of transurethral resection on urinary quality of life after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 58:81–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2004b) Permanent interstitial brachytherapy in younger patients with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer. Urology 64:754–759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2004c) Temporal effect of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy on PSA kinetics following permanent prostate brachytherapy with or without supplemental external beam radiation. Brachytherapy 3:141–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2004d) Effect of cigarette smoking on biochemical outcome after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 58:1056–1062PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2004e) Prognostic significance of percent positive biopsies in clinically organ-confined prostate cancer treated with permanent prostate brachytherapy with or without supplemental external-beam radiation. Cancer J 10:54–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Merrick GS, Wallner KE, Butler WM (2004f) Patient selection for prostate brachytherapy: more myth than fact. Oncology (Williston Park) 18:445–452, 455–-457Google Scholar
  168. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2005a) Influence of body mass index on biochemical outcome after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Urology 65:95–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2005b) Erectile function after prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62:437–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Wallner KE et al (2005c) Variability of prostate brachytherapy preimplant dosimetry. A multi institution analysis. Brachytherapy 4:241–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Michalski JM, Purdy JA, Winter K et al (2000) Preliminary report of toxicity following 3D radiation therapy for prostate cancer on 3DOG/RTOG 9406. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46:391–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Michalski JM, Winter K, Purdy JA et al (2004) Toxicity after three-dimensional radiotherapy for prostate cancer with RTOG 9406 dose level IV. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 58:735–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Michalski JM, Winter K, Purdy JA et al (2005) Toxicity after three-dimensional radiotherapy for prostate cancer on RTOG 9406 dose Level V. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62:706–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Middleton RG (1988) Value of and indications for pelvic lymph node dissection in the staging of prostate cancer. NCI Monogr 7:41–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Moreland RB (1998) Is there a role of hypoxemia in penile fibrosis: a viewpoint presented to the Society for the Study of Impotence. Int J Impot Res 10:113–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Morton GC (2005) The emerging role of high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 17:219–227Google Scholar
  177. Mueller A, Wallner K, Merrick G et al (2004) Perirectal seeds as a risk factor for prostate brachytherapy-related rectal bleeding. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59:1047–1052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Mulhall JP (2001) Minimizing radiation-induced erectile dysfunction. J Brachyther Int 17:221–227Google Scholar
  179. Myers RP, Goellner JR, Cahill DR (1987) Prostate shape, external striated urethral sphincter and radical prostatectomy: the apical dissection. J Urol 138:543–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Nag S, Beyer D, Friedland J et al (1999) American brachytherapy society (ABS) recommendations for transperineal permanent brachytherapy of prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 44:789–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Narayan P, Fournier G, Gajendran V et al (1994) Utility of preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen concentration and biopsy Gleason score in predicting risk of pelvic lymph node metastases in prostate cancer. Urology 44:519–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Nilsson S, Norlen BJ, Widmark A (2004) A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in prostate cancer. Acta Oncol 43:316–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Noguchi M, Stamey TA, Neal JE et al (2000) An analysis of 148 consecutive transition zone cancers: clinical and histological characteristics. J Urol 163:1751–1755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Nudell DM, Grossfeld GD, Weinberg VK et al (1999) Radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy: treatment outcomes and failure patterns. Urology 54:1049–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Nutting CM, Khoo VS, Walker V et al (2000) A randomized study of the use of a customized immobilization system in the treatment of prostate cancer with conformal radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol 54:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Oelrich TM (1980) The urethral sphincter muscle in the male. Am J Anat 158:229–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Oesterling JE, Suman VJ, Zincke H (1994) PSA-detected 9clinical state T1c or B1 prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am 20:293–302Google Scholar
  188. Ohori M, Wheeler TM, Kattan MW et al (1995) Prognostic significance of positive surgical margins in radical prostatectomy specimens. J Urol 154:1818–1824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Parker CC, Damyanovich A, Haycocks T et al (2003) Magnetic resonance imaging in the radiation treatment planning of localized prostate cancer using intra-prostatic fiducial markers for computed tomography co-registration. Radiother Oncol 66:217–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Partin AW, Yoo J, Carter HB et al (1993) The use of prostate specific antigen, clinical stage and Gleason score to predict pathological stage in men with localized prostate cancer. J Urol 150:110–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Partin AW, Kattan MW, Subong EN et al (1997) Combination of prostate-specific antigen, clinical stage, and Gleason score to predict pathological stage of localized prostate cancer. A multi-institutional update. J Am Med Assoc 277:1445–1451Google Scholar
  192. Partin AW, Mangold LA, Lamm DM et al (2001) Contemporary update of prostate cancer staging nomograms (Partin Tables) for the new millennium. Urology 58:843–848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Patel RR, Orton N, Tome WA et al (2003) Rectal dose sparing with a balloon catheter and ultrasound localization in conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 67:285–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Pedley ID (2002) Transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy for carcinoma of the prostate. Surg Oncol 11:25–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Pellizzon AC, Nadalin W, Salvajoli JV et al (2003) Results of high dose rate afterloading brachytherapy boost to conventional external beam radiation therapy for initial and locally advanced prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 66:167–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Pellizzon AC, Salvajoli JV, Maia MA et al (2004) Late urinary morbidity with high dose prostate brachytherapy as a boost to conventional external beam radiation therapy for local and locally advanced prostate cancer. J Urol 171:1105–1108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Perez CA (1983) Presidential address of the 24th annual meeting of the American Society of Therapeutic Radiologists: carcinoma of the prostate, a vexing biological and clinical enigma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 9:1427–1438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Perez CA (1998) Prostate. In: Brady LW (eds) Principles and practice of radiation oncology. Lippincott Raven, Philadelphia, pp 1583–1694Google Scholar
  199. Perez CA, Pilepich MV, Garcia D et al (1988) Definitive radiation therapy in carcinoma of the prostate localized to the pelvis: experience at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology. NCI Monogr 7:85–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Perez CA, Lee HK, Georgiou A et al (1993) Technical and tumor-related factors affecting outcome of definitive irradiation for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 26:581–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Perez CA, Michalski J, Ballard S et al (1997) Cost benefit of emerging technology in localized carcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 39:875–883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Perrotti M, Kaufman RP, Jr., Jennings TA et al (1996) Endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging in clinically localized prostate cancer: Is it accurate? J Urol 156:106–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Pisansky TM, Blute ML, Suman VJ et al (1996a) Correlation of pretherapy prostate cancer characteristics with seminal vesicle invasion in radical prostatectomy specimens. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 36:585–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Pisansky TM, Zincke H, Suman VJ et al (1996b) Correlation of pretherapy prostate cancer characteristics with histologic findings from pelvic lymphadenectomy specimens. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 34:33–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Pistenma DA, Bagshaw MA, Freiha FS (1979) Extended-field radiation therapy for prostatic adenocardinoma: status report of a limited prospective trial. In: Samuels ML (ed) Cancer of the genitourinary tract. Raven, New York, pp 229–247Google Scholar
  206. Pollack A, Smith LG, von Eschenbach AC (2000) External beam radiotherapy dose response characteristics of 1127 men with prostate cancer treated in the PSA era. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:507–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Pollack A, Zagars GK, Starkschall G et al (2002) Prostate cancer radiation dose response: results of the MD Anderson phase III randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53:1097–1105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Pollack A, Hanlon AL, Horwitz EM et al (2004) Prostate cancer radiotherapy dose response: an update of the fox chase experience. J Urol 171:1132–1136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Potters L, Torre T, Ashley R et al (2000) Examining the role of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation in patients undergoing prostate brachytherapy. J Clin Oncol 18:1187–1192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Potters L, Torre T, Fearn PA et al (2001) Potency after permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 50:1235–1242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Poulos CK, Daggy JK, Cheng L (2004) Prostate needle biopsies: multiple variables are predictive of final tumor volume in radical prostatectomy specimens. Cancer 101:527–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Prete JJ, Prestidge BR, Bice WS et al (1998) A survey of physics and dosimetry practice of permanent prostate brachytherapy in the United States. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 40:1001–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Rasch C, Barillot I, Remeijer P et al (1999) Definition of the prostate in CT and MRI: a multi-observer study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43:57–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Reed D, Wallner K, Merrick G et al (2003) Clinical correlates to PSA spikes and positive repeat biopsies after prostate brachytherapy. Urology 62:683–688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Roach M III (1993) Re: The use of prostate specific antigen, clinical stage and Gleason score to predict pathological stage in men with localized prostate cancer. J Urol 150:1923–1924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Roach M III, Akazawa PF, Pickett B et al (1994) Bilateral arcs using “averaged beam’s eye views”: a simplified technique for delivering 3-D based conformal radiotherapy. Med Dosim 19:159–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Roach M III, Faillace-Akazawa P, Malfatti C (1997) Prostate volumes and organ movement defined by serial computerized tomographic scans during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Radiat Oncol Invest 5:187–194Google Scholar
  218. Roach M III, DeSilvio M, Lawton C et al (2003) Phase III trial comparing whole-pelvic versus prostate-only radiotherapy and neoadjuvant versus adjuvant combined androgen suppression: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9413. J Clin Oncol 21:1904–1911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Roach M, Winter K, Michalski JM et al (2004) Penile bulb dose and impotence after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer on RTOG 9406: findings from a prospective, multi-institutional, phase I/II dose-escalation study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60:1351–1356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Roberson PL, Narayana V, McShan DL et al (1997) Source placement error for permanent implant of the prostate. Med Phys 24:251–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Rosenthal SA, Roach M III, Goldsmith BJ et al (1993) Immobilization improves the reproducibility of patient positioning during six-field conformal radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 27:921–926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Rukstalis DB, Lawton CA, Brendler CB (1996) Management options for patients with lymph node metastases from prostate cancer. In: Shipley WU (ed) Comprehensive textbook of genitourinary oncology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 838–853Google Scholar
  223. Ryu JK, Winter K, Michalski JM (2001) Preliminary report of toxicity following 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) for prostate cancer on 3DOG/RTOG 9406, level III (79.2 Gy). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51:136–137Google Scholar
  224. Sadeghi A, Kuisk H, Tran L et al (1996) Urethrography and ischial intertuberosity line in radiation therapy planning for prostate carcinoma. Radiother Oncol 38:215–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Sandler H, Michalski J (2005) Treatment of early stage prostate cancer: 3D conformal radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. In: Vogelzang NJ, Scardino PT, Shipley WU, Debruyne FMJ, Linehan WM (eds) Comprehensive textbook of genitourinary oncology, 3rd edn. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelpphia, pp 203–217Google Scholar
  226. Sathya JR, Davis IR, Julian JA et al (2005) Randomized trial comparing iridium implant plus external-beam radiation therapy with external-beam radiation therapy alone in node-negative locally advanced cancer of the prostate. J Clin Oncol 23:1192–1199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Selek U, Lee A, Levy L et al (2003) Utility of the percentage of positive prostate biopsies in predicting PSA outcome after radiotherapy for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 57:963–967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Sherertz T, Wallner K, Wang H et al (2001) Long-term urinary function after transperineal brachytherapy for patients with large prostate glands. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51:1241–1245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Smith CV, Bauer JJ, Connelly RR et al (2000) Prostate cancer in men age 50 years or younger: a review of the Department of Defense Center for Prostate Disease Research multicenter prostate cancer database. J Urol 164:1964–1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Snyder KM, Stock RG, Hong SM et al (2001) Defining the risk of developing grade 2 proctitis following 125I prostate brachytherapy using a rectal dose-volume histogram analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 50:335–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Soffen EM, Hanks GE, Hwang CC et al (1991) Conformal static field therapy for low volume low grade prostate cancer with rigid immobilization. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 20:141–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Sohayda C, Kupelian PA, Levin HS et al (2000) Extent of extracapsular extension in localized prostate cancer. Urology 55:382–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Spevack L, Killion LT, West JC Jr et al (1996) Predicting the patient at low risk for lymph node metastasis with localized prostate cancer: an analysis of four statistical models. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 34:543–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Steenbakkers RJ, Deurloo KE, Nowak PJ et al (2003) Reduction of dose delivered to the rectum and bulb of the penis using MRI delineation for radiotherapy of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 57:1269–1279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Stephenson AJ, Shariat SF, Zelefsky MJ et al (2004) Salvage radiotherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. J Am Med Assoc 291:1325–1332Google Scholar
  236. Stock RG, Stone NN, Ianuzzi C et al (1995) Seminal vesicle biopsy and laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection: implications for patient selection in the radiotherapeutic management of prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 33:815–821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Stock RG, Stone NN, Tabert A et al (1998) A dose-response study for I-125 prostate implants. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 41:101–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Stock RG, Kao J, Stone NN (2001) Penile erectile function after permanent radioactive seed implantation for treatment of prostate cancer. J Urol 165:436–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Stone NN, Stock RG (2000) Prostate brachytherapy in patients with prostate volumes ≥50 cm(3): dosimetic analysis of implant quality. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46:1199–1204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Stone NN, Stock RG (2002) Complications following permanent prostate brachytherapy. Eur Urol 41:427–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Stone NN, Stock RG, Unger P (1995) Indications for seminal vesicle biopsy and laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection in men with localized carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 154:1392–1396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Stone NN, Ratnow ER, Stock RG (2000) Prior transurethral resection does not increase morbidity following real-time ultrasound-guided prostate seed implantation. Tech Urol 6:123–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Storey MR, Pollack A, Zagars G et al (2000) Complications from radiotherapy dose escalation in prostate cancer: preliminary results of a randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:635–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Syed AM, Puthawala A, Transey LA (1983) Temporary iridium-192 implantation in the management of carcinoma of the prostate. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  245. Syed AM, Puthawala A, Sharma A et al (2001) High-dose-rate brachytherapy in the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer Control 8:511–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Symon Z, Griffith KA, McLaughlin PW et al (2003) Dose escalation for localized prostate cancer: substantial benefit observed with 3D conformal therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 57:384–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Talcott JA, Clark JA, Stark PC et al (2001) Long-term treatment related complications of brachytherapy for early prostate cancer: a survey of patients previously treated. J Urol 166:494–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Taylor WJ, Richardson RG, Hafermann MD (1979) Radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. Cancer 43:1123–1127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Teh BS, McGary JE, Dong L et al (2002) The use of rectal balloon during the delivery of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer: More than just a prostate gland immobilization device? Cancer J 8:476–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Teh BS, Bastasch MD, Mai WY et al (2003) Predictors of extracapsular extension and its radial distance in prostate cancer: implications for prostate IMRT, brachytherapy, and surgery. Cancer J 9:454–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Ten Haken RK, Perez-Tamayo C, Tesser RJ et al (1989) Boost treatment of the prostate using shaped, fixed fields. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 16:193–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Terk MD, Stock RG, Stone NN (1998) Identification of patients at increased risk for prolonged urinary retention following radioactive seed implantation of the prostate. J Urol 160:1379–1382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Thomas MD, Cormack R, Tempany CM et al (2000) Identifying the predictors of acute urinary retention following magnetic-resonance-guided prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 47:905–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Tinger A, Michalski JM, Cheng A et al (1998) A critical evaluation of the planning target volume for 3-D conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 42:213–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Valicenti RK, Gomella LG, Ismail M et al (1998) Effect of higher radiation dose on biochemical control after radical prostatectomy for PT3N0 prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 42:501–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Valicenti RK, Gomella LG, Ismail M et al (1999) The efficacy of early adjuvant radiation therapy for pT3N0 prostate cancer: a matched-pair analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 45:53–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Van Herk M, Bruce A, Kroes AP et al (1995) Quantification of organ motion during conformal radiotherapy of the prostate by three dimensional image registration. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 33:1311–1320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Vicini FA, Martinez A, Hanks G et al (2002) An interinstitutional and interspecialty comparison of treatment outcome data for patients with prostate carcinoma based on predefined prognostic categories and minimum follow-up. Cancer 95:2126–2135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Vigneault E, Pouliot J, Laverdiere J et al (1997) Electronic portal imaging device detection of radioopaque markers for the evaluation of prostate position during megavoltage irradiation: a clinical study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 37:205–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Villeirs GM, Verstraete KL, de Neve WJ et al (2005) Magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the prostate and periprostatic area: a guide for radiotherapists. Radiother Oncol 76:99–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Villers AA, McNeal JE, Freiha FS et al (1991) Development of prostatic carcinoma. Morphometric and pathologic features of early stages. Acta Oncol 30:145–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Wachter S, Gerstner N, Dorner D et al (2002) The influence of a rectal balloon tube as internal immobilization device on variations of volumes and dose-volume histograms during treatment course of conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52:91–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Wahlgren T, Brandberg Y, Haggarth L et al (2004) Healthrelated quality of life in men after treatment of localized prostate cancer with external beam radiotherapy combined with (192)ir brachytherapy: a prospective study of 93 cases using the EORTC questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60:51–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Wallner K, Roy J, Harrison L (1995) Dosimetry guidelines to minimize urethral and rectal morbidity following transperineal I-125 prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 32:465–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Wallner K, Lee H, Wasserman S et al (1997) Low risk of urinary incontinence following prostate brachytherapy in patients with a prior transurethral prostate resection. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 37:565–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Wallner K, Smathers S, Sutlief S et al (2000) Prostate brachytherapy in patients with median lobe hyperplasia. Int J Cancer 90:152–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Wallner K, Merrick G, True L et al (2002a) I-125 versus Pd-103 for low-risk prostate cancer: morbidity outcomes from a prospective randomized multicenter trial. Cancer J 8:67–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Wallner K, Merrick GS, Benson ML et al (2002b) Penile bulb imaging. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53:928–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Wallner K, Merrick G, True L et al (2003) 125I versus 103Pd for low-risk prostate cancer: preliminary PSA outcomes from a prospective randomized multicenter trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 57:1297–1303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Waterman FM, Dicker AP (1999) Effect of post-implant edema on the rectal dose in prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 45:571–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Waterman FM, Yue N, Corn BW et al (1998) Edema associated with I-125 or Pd-103 prostate brachytherapy and its impact on post-implant dosimetry: an analysis based on serial CT acquisition. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 41:1069–1077PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Wawroschek F, Wagner T, Hamm M et al (2003) The influence of serial sections, immunohistochemistry, and extension of pelvic lymph node dissection on the lymph node status in clinically localized prostate cancer. Eur Urol 43:132–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Weber DC, Nouet P, Rouzaud M et al (2000) Patient positioning in prostate radiotherapy: Is prone better than supine? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 47:365–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Wiegel T, Bottke D, Willich N (2005) Phase III results of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) versus “wait and see” (WS) in patients with pT3 prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy (RP). ASCO, Orlando, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  275. Wilder RB, Fone PD, Rademacher DE et al (1997) Localization of the prostatic apex for radiotherapy treatment planning using urethroscopy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 38:737–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Wilson LD, Ennis R, Percarpio B et al (1994) Location of the prostatic apex and its relationship to the ischial tuberosities. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 29:1133–1138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Wise AM, Stamey TA, McNeal JE et al (2002) Morphologic and clinical significance of multifocal prostate cancers in radical prostatectomy specimens. Urology 60:264–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Yan D, Lockman D, Brabbins D et al (2000) An off-line strategy for constructing a patient-specific planning target volume in adaptive treatment process for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:289–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Yoshioka Y, Nose T, Yoshida K et al (2000) High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy as a monotherapy for localized prostate cancer: treatment description and preliminary results of a phase I/II clinical trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:675–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Yoshioka Y, Nishimura T, Kamata M et al (2005) Evaluation of anatomy-based dwell position and inverse optimization in high-dose-rate brachytherapy of prostate cancer: a dosimetric comparison to a conventional cylindrical dwell position, geometric optimization, and dose-point optimization. Radiother Oncol 75:311–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Zelefsky MJ, Aschkenasy E, Kelsen S et al (1997a) Tolerance and early outcome results of postprostatectomy three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 39:327–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Zelefsky MJ, Happersett L, Leibel SA et al (1997b) The effect of treatment positioning on normal tissue dose in patients with prostate cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 37:13–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Zelefsky MJ, Crean D, Mageras GS et al (1999) Quantification and predictors of prostate position variability in 50 patients evaluated with multiple CT scans during conformal radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol 50:225–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Zelefsky MJ, Fuks Z, Hunt M et al (2001) High dose radiation delivered by intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy improves the outcome of localized prostate cancer. J Urol 166:876–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Zelefsky MJ, Fuks Z, Hunt M et al (2002) High-dose intensity modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer: early toxicity and biochemical outcome in 772 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53:1111–1116PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeff M. Michalski
    • 1
  • Gregory S. Merrick
    • 2
  • Sten Nilsson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Radiation OncologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit UniversityWheelingUSA
  3. 3.Institution for Oncology PathologyKarolinska University HospitalStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations