Advertisement

Clinical Applications of Low Dose Rate and Medium Dose Rate Brachytherapy

  • Carlos A. Perez
  • Robert D. Zwicker
  • Zuofeng Li
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Keywords

Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 125I Seed Interstitial Brachytherapy Nuclear Regulatory Commission Intracavitary Brachytherapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrath FG, Henderson SD, Simpson JR et al (1986) Dosimetry of CT-guided volumetric Ir-192 brain implant. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 12:539–363Google Scholar
  2. Alden ME, Mohiuddin M (1994) The impact of radiation dose in combined external beam and intraluminal 192Ir brachytherapy for bile duct cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 28:945–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allt WEC, Hunt JW (1963) Experience with radioactive tantalum wire as a source for interstitial therapy. Radiology 80:581–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. American Association of Physicists in Medicine (1993) Remote Afterloading Technology, Report of the Radiation Therapy Task Group No 41 (G. Glasgow, Chairman). American Institute of Physics, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  5. American Association of Physicists in Medicine (1994) Comprehensive QA for Radiation Oncology: Report of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 40 (J Kutcher, Chairman). Med Phys 21:581–618Google Scholar
  6. American Association of Physicists in Medicine (1995) Dosimetry of interstitial brachytherapy sources: Recommendations of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No 43. (R. Nath, Chairman). Med Phys 22:209–234Google Scholar
  7. Ampuero F, Doss LL, Khan LM et al (1983) The Syed-Neblett interstitial template in locally advanced gynecological malignancies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 9:1897–1903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson LL, Hilaris BS, Wagner LK (1985) A nomograph for planar implant planning. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 1:9–15Google Scholar
  9. Aristizabal SA, Valencia A, Ocampo G et al (1985) Interstitial parametrial irradiation in cancer of the cervix stage IIBIIIB. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 1:41Google Scholar
  10. Armadur RJ, Piontek R, Hadley VE et al (1997) A simple, inexpensive applicator for irradiation of localized areas of the vagina with intracavitary brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 37:965–969Google Scholar
  11. Arthur DW, Koo D, Zwicker RD et al (2003) Partial breast brachytherapy after lumpectomy: low-dose-rate and highdose-rate experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56:681–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ashayeri E, Collier-Manning J, Nibhanupudy JR et al (1987) Localization technique and afterloading intracavitary irradiation in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 3:115–119Google Scholar
  13. Bagshaw MA, Kaplan ID, Cox RC (1993) Radiation therapy for localized disease. Cancer 71:939–952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Baillet F, Decroix Y, Mazeron JJ (1987) Oral tongue. In: Pierquin B, Wilson J-F, Chassagne D (eds) Modern brachytherapy. Masson, New York, pp 107–118Google Scholar
  15. Bastin K, Buchler D, Stitt J et al (1993) Resource utilization: High dose rate versus low dose rate brachytherapy for gynecologic cancer. Am J Clin Oncol 16:256–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Batley F, Constable WC (1967) The use of the “Manchester system” for treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix with modern after-loading radium applicators. J Can Assoc Radiol 18:396–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Battermann JJ, Boon TA (1988) Interstitial therapy in the management of T2 bladder tumors. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 4:1–6Google Scholar
  18. Battermann JJ, Boon TA (1989) Treatment of T2 bladder tumours with interstitial therapy: the role of lymph node dissection. In: Mould RF (ed) Brachytherapy 2. Nucletron International BV, Leersum, The Netherlands, pp 187–191Google Scholar
  19. Battermann JJ, Szabol B (1989) Preliminary results of radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix, using the Selectron afterloading machine. In: Mould RF (ed) Brachytherapy 2. Nucletron International BV, Leersum, The Netherlands, pp 229–234Google Scholar
  20. Battermann JJ, Tierie AH (1986) Results of implantation for T1 and T2 bladder tumours. Radiother Oncol 5:85–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Blasko JC, Radge H, Schumacher D (1987) Transperineal percutaneous Iodine-125 implantation for prostatic carcinoma using transrectal ultrasound and template guidance. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 3:131–139Google Scholar
  22. Blasko JC, Ragde H, Grimm PD (1991) Transperineal ultrasound-guided implantation of the prostate: morbidity and complications. Scand J Urol Nephrol 137[Suppl]:113–118Google Scholar
  23. Blasko JC, Grimm PD, Sylvester JE et al (2000) Palladium-103 brachytherapy for prostate carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46:839–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bourgier C, Coche-Dequeant B, Fournier C et al (2004) LDR brachytherapy is the reference treatment for T2N0 tongue carcinoma: the Centre Oscar Lambret experience in 279 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60[Suppl 1]:S493–S494Google Scholar
  25. Brenner DJ, Hall EJ (1991) Conditions for the equivalence of continuous to pulsed low dose rate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 20:181–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brenner DJ, Schiff PB, Huant Y et al (1997) Pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy: design of convenient (daytime-only) schedules. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 39:809–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brindle JS, Martinez A, Schray M et al (1989) Pelvic lymphadenectomy and transperineal interstitial implantation of 192Ir combined with external beam radiotherapy for bulky stage C prostatic carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 18:1063–1066Google Scholar
  28. Cano E, Johnson JT, Carrau R et al (2004) Brachytherapy in the treatment of stage IV carcinoma of the base of tongue. Brachytherapy 3:41–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Casal L, Ballester F, Lluch JL et al (2000) Monte Carlo calculations of dose rate distributions around the Amersham CDCS-M-type 137Cs source. Med Phys 27:132–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Charyulu KKN (1980) Transperineal interstitial implantation of prostate cancer: a new method. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 6:1261–1266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chassagne D, Janvier L, Pierquin B et al (1963) La plesiotherapie des cancers du cavum avec support-moule et iridium 192. Ann Radiol 6:719–726Google Scholar
  32. Chiu-Tsao ST (1995) 125I episcleral eye plaques for treatment of intra-ocular malignancies. In: Williamson JF, Thomadsen BR, Nath R (eds) Brachytherapy physics. Medical Physics Publishing Company, Madison, WI, pp 451–485Google Scholar
  33. Chiu-Tsao ST, Tsao HS, Vialotti C et al (1986) Monte Carlo dosimetry for 125I and 60Co in eye plaque therapy. Med Phys 13:678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Chiu-Tsao ST, Anderson LL, Stabile L (1988) TLD dosimetry for 125I eye plaque. Phys Med Biol 33:28Google Scholar
  35. Chobe R, Paryani S, Scott W et al (1996) Bronchoscopic brachytherapy for endobronchial obstruction: high dose rate or low dose rate. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 12:18–24Google Scholar
  36. Choo JJ, Scudiere J, Bitterman P et al (2004) Vaginal lymphatic duct location and implication on intracavitary brachytherapy radiation treatment (abstract). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60[Suppl 1]:S480Google Scholar
  37. Clarke DH, Edmundson GK, Martinez A et al (1989) The clinical advantages of I-125 seeds as a substitute for Ir-192 seeds in temporary plastic tube implants. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 18:859–863Google Scholar
  38. Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study Group (2004) Ten-year follow-up of fellow eyes of patients enrolled in Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study randomized trials: COMS report no 22. Ophthalmology 111:966–976Google Scholar
  39. Conill C, Sanchez-Reyes A, Molla M et al (2004) Brachytherapy with 192Ir as treatment of carcinoma of the tarsal structure of the eyelid. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59:1326–1329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Cooper FS (1978) Postoperative irradiation of pterygia: ten more years of experience. Radiology 128:753–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cormack RA, Kooy H, Tempany CM et al (2000) A clinical method for real-time dosimetric guidance of transperineal I-125 prostate implants using interventional magnetic resonance imaging. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46:407–214Google Scholar
  42. Corn BW, Galvin JM, Soffen EM et al (1993) Positional stability of sources during low-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 26:513–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Corn BW, Hanlon AL, Pajak TF et al (1994) Technically accurate intracavitary insertions improve pelvic control and survival among patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol 53:294–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Dale RG, Jones B (2000) Regarding Giap and Massullo. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:304–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Damato B, Lecuona K (2004) Conservation of eyes with choroidal melanoma by a multimodal approach to treatment: An audit of 1632 patients. Ophthalmology 111:977–983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. D’Amico AV, Coleman CN (1996) Role of interstitial radiotherapy in the management of clinically organ-confined prostate cancer: the jury is still out. J Clin Oncol 14:304–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. D’Amico AV, Cormack RA, Tempany CM et al (1998) The use of real time MR guided interstitial brachytherapy in select patients with localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 42:507–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. DeBiose DA, Horwitz EM, Martinez AA et al (1997) The use of Ultrasonography in the localization of the lumpectomy cavity for interstitial brachytherapy of the breast. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 28:755–759Google Scholar
  49. Delannes M, Thomas L, Martel P et al (2000) Low-dose-rate intraoperative brachytherapy combined with external beam irradiation in the conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 47:165–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Delclos L (1980) Afterloading method for interstitial gammaray therapy. In: Fletcher GH (ed) Textbook of radiotherapy, 3rd edn. Lea and Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  51. Delclos L (1982a) A second look at interstitial irradiation. In: Deeley TJ (ed) Topical reviews in radiotherapy and oncology 2. Wright, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. Delclos L (1982b) Interstitial irradiation of the penis. In: Johnson DE, Boileau MA (eds) Genitourinary tumors: fundamental principles and surgical techniques. Grune and Stratton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. Delclos L (1984) Interstitial irradiation techniques. In: Levitt SH, Tapley N duV (eds) Technological basis of radiation therapy: practical clinical applications. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 55–84Google Scholar
  54. Delclos L, Fletcher GH, Sampiere V et al (1978) Can the Fletcher gamma ray colpostat system be extrapolated to other systems? Cancer 41:970–979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Delclos L, Fletcher GH, Moore EB et al (1980) Minicolpostats, dome cylinders, other additions and improvements of the Fletcher-Suit after loadable system: indications and limitations of their use. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 6:1195–1206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Denham JW, Baldacchino AC, Gutte J et al (1988) Remote afterloading techniques for the treatment of nasopharyngeal and endometrial cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 14:191–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Deore SM, Sarin R, Dinshaw KA et al (1993) Influence of doserate and dose per fraction on clinical outcome of breast cancer treated by external beam irradiation plus iridium-192 implants: Analysis of 289 cases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 26:601–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. De Pree C, Popowski Y, Weber D et al (1999) Feasibility and tolerance of pulsed dose rate interstitial brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43:971–976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Deutsch M, Segall BW, Leen R et al (1973) Retreatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal malignancy using a radium mold. J Prosthet Dent 30:315–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. DeWerd LA, Huq MS, Das IJ et al (2004) Procedures for establishing and maintaining consistent air-kerma strength standards for low-energy, photon-emitting brachytherapy sources: recommendations of the Calibration Laboratory Accreditation Subcommittee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Med Phys 31:675–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Dobelbower RR, Merrick HW, Ahuja RK et al (1986) I-125 interstitial implant, precision high-dose external beam therapy, and 5-FU for unresectable adenocarcinoma of pancreas and extrahepatic biliary tree. Cancer 58:2185–2195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Eapen L, Kayser C, Deshaies Y et al (2004) Correlating the degree of needle trauma during prostate brachytherapy and the development of acute primary toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59:1392–1394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Emami B, Perez CA (1991) Interstitial thermoradiotherapy in the treatment of malignant tumors. In: Sauer R (ed) Interventional radiation therapy techniques: brachytherapy. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Erickson BA (1996) Interstitial implantation of vulvar malignancies: an historical perspective. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 12:101–112Google Scholar
  65. Erickson BA, Nag S (1998) Biliary tree malignancies. J Surg Oncol 67:203–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Erickson BA, Shadley JD (1996) In vitro test of the cytotoxic equivalence between pulsed dose rate and continuous low dose rate. Radiat Oncol Invest 3:218–224Google Scholar
  67. Erickson BA, Wilson JF (1993) Nasopharyngeal brachytherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 16:424–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Esche BA, Haie CM, Gerbaulet AP et al (1988) Interstitial and external radiotherapy in carcinoma of the soft palate and uvula. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 15:619–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Fields JN, Emami B (1987) Carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary system: results of primary and adjuvant radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 13:331–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Finger PT, Romero JM, Rosen RB et al (1998) 3-Dimensional ultrasonography of choroidal melanoma: localization of radioactive eye-plaques. Arch Ophthalmol 116:305–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Fletcher GH (1953) Cervical radium applicators with screening in the direction of bladder and rectum. Radiology 60:77–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Fletcher GH (1980) Oral cavity and oropharynx. In: Fletcher GH (ed) Textbook of radiotherapy, 3rd edn. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 286–329Google Scholar
  73. Fletcher GH, MacComb WS (1962) Radiation therapy in the management of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Thomas, Springfield, ILGoogle Scholar
  74. Flores AD (1988) Remote afterloading intracavitary irradiation for carcinoma of the nasopharynx. In: Mould RF (ed) Brachytherapy 2. Nucleton, Leersum, The Netherlands, pp 49–66Google Scholar
  75. Flores AD, Nelems B, Evans K et al (1989) Impact of new radiotherapy modalities on the surgical management of cancer of the esophagus and cardia. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 18:937–944Google Scholar
  76. Fontanesi J, Hetzler D, Ross J (1989) Effect of dose rate on local control and complications in the reirradiation of head and neck tumors with interstitial Iridium-192. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 18:365–369Google Scholar
  77. Fowler JF, van Limbergen EF (1997) Biological effect of pulsed dose rate brachytherapy with stepping sources if short halftime of repair are present in tissues. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 37:877–883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Fu KK, Phillips TL (1990) High-dose rate versus low-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy for carcinoma of the cervix. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 19:791–796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gaddis O Jr, Morrow CP, Klement V et al (1983) Treatment of cervical carcinoma employing a template for transperineal interstitial 192Ir brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 9:819–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Gaspar LF, Nag S, Herskovic A et al (1997) American Brachytherapy Sociey (ABS) consensus guidelines for brachytherapy of esophageal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 38:127–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Gaspar LF, Winter K, Kocha WI et al (2000) A phase I/II study of external beam radiation, brachytherapy, and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with localized carcinoma of the esophagus. Cancer 88:988–995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gerard JP, Rozan R, Mazeron JJ et al (1989) Iridium-192 brachytherapy in urinary bladder cancer: the French experience. In: Mould RF (ed) Brachytherapy 2. Nucletron International BV, Leerum, The Netherlands, pp 189–192Google Scholar
  83. Gerbaulet A, Haie-Meder C, Marsiglia H et al (1992) The role of brachytherapy in treatment of head and neck cancer: Institut Gustave Roussy experience with 1140 patients. In: Mould RF (ed) International Brachytherapy. Nucletron, Leerum, The Netherlands, pp 49–66Google Scholar
  84. Giap HB, Massulo V (1999) Derivation of isoeffect dose rate for low-dose-rate brachytherapy and external beam irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 45:1355–1358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Glasgow GP (1996) Radiation control, personnel training, and emergency procedures for remote afterloading units. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 12:67–79Google Scholar
  86. Goffinet DR, Martinez A, Fee WE Jr (1985) 125I Vicryl suture implants as a surgical adjuvant in cancer of the head and neck. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11:399–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Greenberg M (1987) Eye: Choroidal melanomas and pterygium. In: Pierquin B, Wilson J-F, Chassagne D (eds) Modern brachytherapy. Masson, New York, pp 301–314Google Scholar
  88. Greenblatt DR, Nori D, Tankenbaum A et al (1987) New brachytherapy techniques using iodine-125 seeds for tumor bed implants. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 3:73–80Google Scholar
  89. Grigsby PW, Baker S (1995) Socioeconomic aspects of remote afterloading. In: Williamson JF, Thomadsen BR, Nath R (eds) Brachytherapy physics. Medical Physics Publishing Company, Madison, WI, pp 699–708Google Scholar
  90. Grigsby PW, Perez CA, Kuten A et al (1991) Clinical stage I endometrial cancer: results of adjuvant irradiation and patterns of failure. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 21:379–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Grigsby PW, Williamson JF, Perez CA (1992) Source configuration and dose rates for the Selectron afterloading equipment for gynecologic applicators. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 24:423–430Google Scholar
  92. Gupta AK, Vicini FA, Frazier AJ et al (1999) Iridium-192 transperineal interstitial brachytherapy for locally advanced or recurrent gynecological malignancies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43:1055–1060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Gutin PH, Phillips TL, Hosobuchi Y et al (1981) Permanent and removable implants for the brachytherapy of brain tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 7:1371–1381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Haas JS, Dean RD, Mansfield CM (1985) Dosimetric comparison of the Fletcher family of gynecologic colpostats 1950–1980. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11:1318–1321Google Scholar
  95. Haghbin M, Kramer S, Patchefsky AS et al (1985) Carcinoma of the nasopharynx: A 25-year study. Am J Clin Oncol (CCT) 8:384–392Google Scholar
  96. Hall EJ, Brenner DJ (1992) The dose-rate effect in interstitial brachytherapy: a controversy resolved. Br J Radiol 65:242–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hall EJ, Brenner DJ (1996) Pulsed dose rate brachytherapy: can we take advantage of new technology? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 34:511–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hames F (1937) A new method in the use of radon gold seeds. Am J Surg 38:235Google Scholar
  99. Harbour JW, Murray TG, Byrne SF et al (1996) Intraoperative echographic localization of iodine 125 episcleral radioactive plaques for posterior uveal melanoma. Retina 16:129–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Harrison LB, Nori D, Hilaris BS et al (1980) Nasopharynx. In: Interstitial Collaborative Working Group (eds) Interstitial brachytherapy. Raven, New York, NY, pp 95–109Google Scholar
  101. Harter DJ, Delclos L, Johns MF (1975) Sealed sources in synthetic absorbable suture: a new method for permanent interstitial implantation. Radiology 116:721–723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Henschke UK (1956) Artificial radioisotopes in nylon ribbons for implantation in neoplasms. International conferences on the peaceful uses of atomic energy. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  103. Henschke UK, Hilaris BS, Mahan GD (1963) Afterloading in interstitial and intracavitary radiation therapy. Am J Roentgenol 90:386–395Google Scholar
  104. Heyman J, Reuterwall O, Benner S (1941) The Radiumhemmet experience with radiotherapy in cancer of the corpus of the uterus: classification, method of treatment and results. Acta Radiol 11:11Google Scholar
  105. Hilaris BS, Martini N (1988) The current state of intraoperative interstitial brachytherapy in lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 15:1347–1354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Hilaris BS, Gomez J, Nori D et al (1985) Combined surgery, intraoperative brachytherapy, and postoperative external radiation in stage III non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer 55:1226–1231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hilaris BS, Nori D, Anderson LL (1988a) Brachytherapy for soft tissue sarcomas. In: Hilaris BS, Nori D, Anderson LL (eds) Atlas of brachytherapy. McMillan, New York, pp 180–182Google Scholar
  108. Hilaris BS, Nori D, Anderson LL (1988b) Brachytherapy of ocular melanoma. In: Hilaris BS, Nori D, Anderson LL (eds) Atlas of brachytherapy. McMillan, New York, pp 304–310Google Scholar
  109. Hintz BL, Kagan AR, Chan P et al (1980) Radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 6:711–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Höckel M, Muller T (1994) A new perineal template assembly for high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy of gynecologic malignancies. Radiother Oncol 31:262–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Holm HH, Juul N, Pedersen JF et al (1983) Transperineal 125Iodine seed implantation in prostatic cancer guided by transrectal ultrasonography. J Urol 130:283–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Hughes-Davies L, Silver B, Kapp KS (1995) Parametrial interstitial brachytherapy for advanced or recurrent pelvic malignancy: the Harvard/Stanford experience. Gynecol Oncol 58:24–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. International Commission on Radiation Units (1985) ICRU report no 38: dose and volume specification for reporting intracavitary therapy in gynecology. ICRU, Bethesda, MD, ICRU, 1–16Google Scholar
  114. Ishii H, Furuse J, Nagase M et al (2004) Relief of jaundice by external beam radiotherapy and intraluminal brachytherapy in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: Results without stenting. Hepatogastroenterology 51:954–957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Iyer PS, Shanta A (1994) Update of radionuclides used in endocurietherapy. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 10:161–165Google Scholar
  116. Jackson SM (1966) The treatment of carcinoma of the penis. Br J Surg 53:33–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Jones C, Lukke H, O’Brien B (1994) High dose rate versus low dose rate brachytherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: an economic analysis. Br J Radiol 67:1113–1120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Jorgensen K, Elbrond O, Andersen AP (1973) Carcinoma of the lip: a series of 869 cases. Acta Radiol Ther Phys Biol 12:187–190Google Scholar
  119. Karaiskos P, Papagiannis P, Angelopoulas A et al (2001) Dosimetry of 192Ir wires for LDR interstitial brachytherapy following the AAPM TG-43 dosimetric formalism. Med Phys 28:156–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Kin NYK, Pigneux J, Auvray H et al (1988) Our experience of conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma combining external irradiation and interstitial implant: 32 cases treated between 1973 and 1982. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 14:253–259Google Scholar
  121. Kolotas C, Zamboglou N (2001) Role of interstitial brachytherapy in the treatment of malignant disease. Onkologie 24:222–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Kucera H, Mock C, Knocke TH et al (2001) Radiotherapy alone for invasive vaginal cancer: outcome with intracavitary high dose rate brachytherapy versus conventional low dose rate brachytherapy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 80:355–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Kuske RR, Perez CA, Jacobs AJ et al (1988) Mini-colpostats in the treatment of carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 14:899–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Kuske RR, Bolton JS, Wilenzick RM et al (1994) Brachytherapy as the sole method os breast irradiation in T1S, T1, T2, N0-1 breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 30[Suppl 1]:245Google Scholar
  125. Kuske RR, Bolton JS, Hanson W (1998) RTOG 95–18: a phase I/II trial to evaluate brachytherapy as the sole method of radiation therapy for stage I and II breast carcinoma. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, pp 1–34Google Scholar
  126. Kwan DK, Kagan AR, Olch AJ et al (1983) Single and double plan iridium-192 interstitial implants: implantation guidelines and dosimetry. Med Phys 10:456–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Langendijk JA, Poorter R, Leemans CR et al (2004) Radiotherapy of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59:1319–1325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Larson DA, Suplica JM, Chang SM et al (2004) Permanent iodine 125 brachytherapy in patients with progressive or recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Neuro Oncol 6:119–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Leborgne F, Fowler JF, Leborgne JH et al (1996) Fractionation in medium dose rate brachytherapy of cancer of the cervix. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 35:907–914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Leborgne F, Fowler JF, Leborgne JH et al (1999) Mediumdose-rate brachytherapy of cancer of the cervix: preliminary results of a prospectively designed schedule based on the linear-quadratic model. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43:1061–1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Leborgne F, Leborgne JH, Zubizarreta E et al (2002) Cesium-137 needle brachytherapy boost after external beam irradiation for locally advanced carcinoma of the tongue and floor of the mouth. Brachytherapy 1:126–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Lee N, Hoffman R, Phillips TL et al (2002) Managing nasopharyngeal carcinoma with intracavitary brachytherapy: one institution’s 45-year experience. Brachytherapy 1:74–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Leibel SA, Gutin PH, Sneed PK et al (1989) Interstitial irradiation for the treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumors. PPO Updates 3:1–11Google Scholar
  134. Levendag FC, Peters R, Meelwis CA et al (1997) A new applicator design for endocavitary brachytherapy of cancer in the nasopharynx. Radiother Oncol 45:95–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Levendag P, Nijdam W, Noever I et al (2004) Brachytherapy bersus surgery in carcinoma of the tonsillar fossa and/or palate: late adverse sequelae and performance status: can we be more selective and obtain better tissue sparing? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59:713–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Lichter AS, Dillon MB, Rosenshein NB et al (1978) The use of custom molds for intracavitary treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 4:873–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Lo TC, Girshovich L, Healey GA et al (1995) Low-dose rate versus high-dose rate intraluminal brachytherapy for malignant endobronchial tumors. Radiother Oncol 35:193–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Lozza L, Cerrota A, Gardani G et al (1997) Analysis of risk factors for mandibular bone radionecrosis after exclusive low dose-rate brachytherapy for oral cancer. Radiother Oncol 44:143–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Luxton G, Astrahan MA, Liggett PE et al (1988) Dosimetric calculations and measurements of gold plaque ophthalmic irradiators using 192Ir and 125I seeds. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 15:167–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Lybeert ML, Ribot JG, de Neve W et al (1994) Carcinoma of the urinary bladder: long-term results of interstitial radiotherapy. Bull Cancer Radiother 81:33–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Maat B, Venselaar JLM (1989) Improved afterloading technique for interstitial brachytherapy of bladder cancer. In: Mould RF (ed) Brachytherapy 2, Nucletron International BV, Leerum, The Netherlands, pp 183–186Google Scholar
  142. Mansfield CM, Komarnicky LT, Schwartz GF et al (1994) Perioperative implantation of iridium-192 as the boost technique for stage I and II breast cancer: Results of a 10-year study of 655 patients. Radiology 192:33–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Marchese MJ, Nori D, Anderson LL et al (1984) A versatile permanent planar implant technique utilizing Iodine-125 seeds imbedded in Gelfoam. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 10:747–751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Marcus RB Jr, Million RR, Mitchell TP (1980) A preloaded, custom-designed implantation device for stage T1–T2 carcinoma of the floor of mouth. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 6:111–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Markman J, Williamson JF, Dempsey JF et al (2001) On the validity of the superposition principle in dose calculations for intracavitary implants with shielded vaginal colpostats. Med Phys 28:147–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Martin HE, MacComb WS (1937) Protracted irradiation by radium. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther 37:224–233Google Scholar
  147. Martinez A, Benson RC, Edmundson GK et al (1985a) Pelvic lymphadenectomy combined with transperineal interstitial implantation of Iridium-192 and external beam radiation for locally advanced prostatic carcinoma: technical description. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11:841–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Martinez A, Edmundson GK, Cox RS et al (1985b) Combination of external beam irradiation and multiple-site perineal applicator (MUPIT) for treatment of locally advanced or recurrent prostatic, anorectal, and gynecologic malignancies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11:391–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Martinez-Monge R, Nag S, Martin EW (1998) 125Iodine brachytherapy for colorectal adenocarcinoma recurrent in the pelvis and paraortics. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 42:545–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Mayr NA, Sorosky JI, Zhen W et al (1998) The use of laminarias for osmotic dilation of the cervix in gynecological brachytherapy applications. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 42:1049–1053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Mazeron JJ, Lusichini A, Marinello G et al (1986) Interstitial radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region: the Creteil experience (1971–1981). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 12:895–900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Mazeron JJ, Crook J, Chopin D et al (1988) Conservative treatment of bladder carcinoma by partial cystectomy and interstitial iridium 192. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 15:1323–1330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Mazeron JJ, Simon J-M, Crook J et al (1991) Influence of dose rate on local control of breast carcinoma treated by external beam irradiation plus iridium 192 implant. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 21:1183–1187Google Scholar
  154. McNeese MD, Fletcher GH (1981) Retreatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Radiology 138:191–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Meerwaldt JH, Veeze-Kuijpers B, Visser AG et al (1989) Combined modality radiotherapy in the treatment of bile duct carcinoma. In: Mould RF (ed) Brachytherapy 2. Nucletron International BV, Leersum, The Netherlands, pp 577–583Google Scholar
  156. Mendenhall NP, Parsons JT, Cassisi NJ et al (1984) Carcinoma of the nasal vestibule. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 10:627–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Mendenhall NP, Parsons JT, Cassisi NJ et al (1987) Carcinoma of the nasal vestibule treated with radiation therapy. Laryngoscope 97:626–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Mendenhall WM, Parsons JT, Mendenhall JP et al (1991) Brachytherapy in head and neck cancer. Oncology 5:44–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Meredith WJ (1967) Radium dosage: the Manchester system. Livingstone, Edinburgh, ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  160. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Dorsey AT et al (2000) Seed fixity in the prostate/periprostatic region following brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 462:215–220Google Scholar
  161. Million RR, Cassisi NJ, Hamlin DJ (1984) Nasal vestibule, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses. In: Million RR, Cassisi NJ (eds) Management of head and neck cancer: a multidisciplinary approach. Lippincott, Philadelphia, p 432Google Scholar
  162. Million RR, Cassisi NJ, Clark JR (1989) Cancer of the head and neck. In: DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA (eds) Cancer: principles and practice of oncology, 3rd edn. Lippincott, Philadelphia, p 565Google Scholar
  163. Miura M, Takeda M, Sasaki T et al (1998) Factors affecting mandibular complications in low dose rate brachytherapy for oral tongue carcinoma with special reference to spacer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 41:763–770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Mohiuddin M, Canton RJ, Bierman W et al (1988) Combined modality treatment of localized unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 14:79–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Monteiro-Grillo I, Gaspar L, Monteiro-Grillo M et al (2000) Postoperative irradiation of primary or recurrent pterygium: results and sequelae. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:865–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Moonen L (1989) Brachytherapy in the management of bladder cancer. In: Mould RF (ed) Brachytherapy 2. Nucletron International BV, Leersum, Netherlands, pp 184–188Google Scholar
  167. Moran BJ, Stutz MA, Gurel MH (2004) Prostate brachytherapy can be performed in selected patients after transurethral resection of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59:392–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Morphis OL (1960) Teflon tube method of radium implantation. Am J Roentgenol 83:455–461Google Scholar
  169. Moss WT, Brand WN, Battifora H (eds) (1979) Radiation oncology: rationale, technique, results, 5th edn. Mosby, St Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  170. Nag S (2000) Brachytherapy for prostate cancer: summary of American Brachytherapy Society Recommendations. Semin Urol Oncol 18:133–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Nag S, Ribovich M, Cai JZ et al (1996) Palladium-103 vs Iodine-125 brachytherapy in the Dunning-PAP rat prostate tumor. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 12:119–124Google Scholar
  172. Nag S, Baird M, Blasko J et al (1997a) American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) survey of current clinical practice for permanent brachytherapy of prostate cancer. J Brachy Int 13:243–251Google Scholar
  173. Nag S, Martinez-Monge R, Copeland LJ et al (1997b) Perineal template interstitial brachytherapy salvage for recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma metastatic to the vagina. Gynecol Oncol 66:16–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Nag S, Martinez-Monge R, Ellis R et al (1998a) The use of fluoroscopy to guide needle placement in interstitial gynecological brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 40:415–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Nag S, Martinez-Monge R, Selman AE et al (1998b) Interstitial brachytherapy in the management of primary carcinoma of the cervix and vagina. Gynecol Oncol 70:27–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Nag S, Beyer D, Friedland J et al (1999) American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommendations for transperineal permanent brachytherapy of prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 44:789–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Nag S, Bice W, DeWyngaert K et al (2000) American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for permanent prostate brachytherapy post-implant dosimetric analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46:221–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Nag S, Ciezki JP, Cormack R et al (2001a) Intraoperative planning and evaluation of Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy: report of the American Brachytherapy Society. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51:1422–1430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Nag S, Kuske RR, Vicini FA et al (2001b) Brachytherapy in the treatment of breast cancer: Recommendations from the American Brachytherapy Society. Oncology 15:195–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Nag S, Shasha D, Janjan N et al (2001c) The American Brachytherapy Society: The American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for brachytherapy of soft tissue sarcomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 49:1033–1043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Nag S, Chao C, Erickson B, Fowler J et al (2002) The American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for low dose rate brachytherapy for carcinoma of the cervix. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52:33–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Narayana Y, Orton CG (1999) Pulsed brachytherapy: a formalism to account for the variation in dose rate of the stepping source. Med Phys 26:161–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Nath R, Meigooni AS (1989) Some treatment planning considerations for Palladium-103 and Iodine-125 permanent interstitial implants (abstract). Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 5:244Google Scholar
  184. Nath R, Meigooni AS, Meli JA (1990) Dosimetry on the transverse axes of 125I and 192Ir interstitial brachytherapy sources. Med Phys 18:1032–1040Google Scholar
  185. Nath R, Meigooni AS, Melillo A (1992) Some treatment planning considerations for Pd-103 and I-125 permanent interstitial implants. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 22:1131–1138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Nickers P, Coppers L, Beauduin M et al (2000) Feasibility study combining low dose rate 192Ir brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy aiming at delivering 80–85 Gy to prostatic adenocarcinoma. Radiother Oncol 55:41–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Nori D, Moni J (1997) Current issues in techniques of prostate brachytherapy. Semin Surg Oncol 13:444–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Olch AJ, Kagan AR, Wollin M et al (1987) A simple volume iridium implant dosimetry system. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 3:183–191Google Scholar
  189. Orton CG, Seyedsadr M, Somnay A (1991) Comparison of high and low dose rate remote afterloading for cervix cancer and the importance of fractionation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 21:1425–1434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Packer S, Rotman M, Salanitro P (1984) Iodine-125 irradiation of choroidal melanoma: clinical experience. Ophthalmology 91:1700–1708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Papillon J, Montbarbon JR, Gerard JP et al (1989) Interstitial curietherapy in the conservative treatment of anal and rectal cancers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 18:1161–1169Google Scholar
  192. Parsons JT, Mendenhall WM, Bova FJ et al (1992) Head and neck cancer. In: Levitt SL, Khan FM, Potish RA (eds) Levitt and Tapley’s technological basis of radiation therapy: practical clinical applications, 2nd edn. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, pp 203–231Google Scholar
  193. Parsons JT, Stringer SP, Mancuso AA et al (1994) Nasal vestibule, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. In: Million RR, Cassisi NJ (eds) Management of head and neck cancer: a multidisciplinary approach, 2nd edn. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 551–598Google Scholar
  194. Patterson R (1948) The treatment of malignant disease by radium and X-rays being a practice of radiotherapy. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, pp 254–255Google Scholar
  195. Patterson R (1963) The treatment of malignant disease by radiotherapy, 2nd edn. Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  196. Peiffert D, Castelain B, Thomas L et al (2001) Pulsed dose rate brachytherapy in head and neck cancers. Feasibility study of a French cooperative group. Radiother Oncol 58:71–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Peretz T, Nori D, Hilaris B et al (1989) Treatment of primary unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas with I-125 implantation. Int J Radiat Biol Phys 18:931–935Google Scholar
  198. Perez CA, Camel HM, Galakatos AE et al (1988) Definitive irradiation in carcinoma of the vagina: long-term evaluation of results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 15:1283–1290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Perez CA, Slessinger E, Grigsby PW (1990) Design of an afterloading vaginal applicator (MIRALVA). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 18:1503–1508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Perez CA, Grigsby PW, Williamson JF (1998) Clinical applications of brachytherapy I: low dose rate. In: Perez CA, Brady LW (eds) Principles and practice of radiation oncology, 3rd edn. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 487–559Google Scholar
  201. Perez CA, Michalski J, Martinez AA (1999) Prostate. In Levitt SH, Kahn FM, Potish RA, Perez CA (eds) Levitt and Tapley’s technological basis of radiation therapy: clinical applications, 3rd edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 435–465Google Scholar
  202. Perez CA, Zwicker R, Williamson J (2004) Clinical applications of brachytherapy I. LDR and PDR. In Perez CA, Brady LW, Halperin EC, Schmidt-Ullrich RK (eds) Principles and practice of radiation oncology, 4th edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 538–603Google Scholar
  203. Petereit DG, Sarkaria JN, Potter DM, Schink JC (1999) High-dose rate versus low-dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer: analysis of tumor recurrence-the University of Wisconsin experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 45:1267–1274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Pierquin B (1964) Precis de curietherapie, endocurietherapie et plesiocurietherapie. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  205. Pierquin B, Cachin Y, Chassagne D et al (1968) Etude de 49 cas de carcinomes epidermides du cavum traites a l’institut Gustav-Roussy de 1960 a 1965. Presse Med 76:1565–1566Google Scholar
  206. Pierquin B, Chassagne D, Baillet F et al (1971) The place of implantation in tongue and floor of mouth cancer. JAMA 215:961–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Pierquin B, Wilson J-F, Chassagne D (1987a) Radiation protection and the organizational plan of a brachytherapy department. In: Pierquin B, Wilson J-F, Chassgne D (eds) Modern brachytherapy. Masson, New York, NY, pp 43–59Google Scholar
  208. Pierquin B, Wilson J-F, Chassagne D (eds) (1987b) Modern brachytherapy. Masson, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  209. Pierquin B, Pernot M, Baillet F (1987c) Tonsillar region. In: Pierquin B, Wilson J-F, Chassagne D (eds) Modern brachytherapy. Masson, New York, NY, pp 141–145Google Scholar
  210. Pigneux J, Richaud PM, Largade C (1979) The place of interstitial therapy using 192Ir in the management of carcinoma of the lip. Cancer 43:1073–1077PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Pisters PWT, Harrison LB, Leung DHY et al (1995) Long-term results of a prospective randomized trial of adjuvant brachytherapy in soft tissue sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 14:859–868Google Scholar
  212. Porrazzo MS, Hilaris BS, Moorthy CR et al (1992) Permanent interstitial implantation using palladium-103: the New York Medical College preliminary experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 23:1033–1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Porter AT, Blasko JC, Grimm PD et al (1995) Brachytherapy for prostate cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 45:165–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Pos FJ, Horenblas S, Lebesque J et al (2004) Low-dose rate brachytherapy is superior to high-dose rate brachytherapy for bladder cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59:696–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Potter R, Knocke TH, Kovacs G et al (1995) Brachytherapy in the combined modality treatment of pediatric malignancies: principles and preliminary experience with treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (recurrence) and Ewing’s sarcoma. Klin Padiatr 207:164–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Potters L (2000) Permanent prostate brachytherapy: lessons learned, lessons to learn. Oncology 14:981–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Potters L, Morgenstern C, Mullen EE et al (2004) Twelve year outcomes following permanent brachytherapy in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60[Suppl 1]:S183Google Scholar
  218. Prados MD, Gutin PH, Phillips TL et al (1992) Interstitial brachytherapy for newly diagnosed patients with malignant gliomas: the UCSF experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 24:593–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Prempree T (1983) Parametrial implant in stage IIIB cancer of the cervix. III. A five-year study. Cancer 52:748–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Prestidge BR, Prete JJ, Buchholz TA (1998) A survey of current clinical practice of permanent prostate brachytherapy in the United States. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 40:461–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Price A, Kerr GR, Arnott SJ (1988) Radioactive needle implants in the treatment of anorectal cancer. Clin Radiol 39:186–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Pryzant RM, Wendt CD, Delclos L et al (1992) Re-treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 53 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 22:941–947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Puthawala AA, Syed AM, Tansey LA et al (1985) Temporary iridium-192 implant in the management of carcinoma of the prostate. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 1:25Google Scholar
  224. Puusaari I, Heikkonen J, Kivela T (2004) Effect of radiation dose on ocular complications after iodine brachytherapy for large oveal melanoma: Empirical data and simularion of collimating plaques. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:3425–2434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Qin D, Hu Y, Yan J et al (1988) Analysis of 1379 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by radiation. Cancer 61:1118–1124Google Scholar
  226. Raben A, Mychalczak B (1997) Brachytherapy for non-small cell lung cancer and selected neoplasms of the chest. Chest 112:276S–286SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Reed Dr, Mueller A, Wallner K et al (2004) RAPID Strand™ vs. loose (Iodine-125 seeds): a prospective randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60[Suppl 1]:S461Google Scholar
  228. Rivard MJ, Coursey BM, DeWerd LA et al (2004) Update of AAPM Task Group no 43 report: a revised AAPM protocol for brachytherapy dose calculations. Med Phys 31:633–674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Rosenblatt E, Rachmiel A, Blumenfeld I et al (1996a) Intracavitary mould brachytherapy in malignant tumors of the maxilla. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 12:25–34Google Scholar
  230. Rosenblatt E, Cederbaum M, Yereslav N et al (1996b) Reduction of the rectal dose in gynecological brachytherapy: modification of the Fletcher-Suit applicator. Med Dosim 21:139–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Roy JN, Wallner KE, Chiu-Tsao S et al (1991) CT-based optimized planning for transperineal prostate implant with customized template. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 21:483–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Roy JN, Wallner KE, Harrington PJ et al (1993) A CT-based evaluation method for permanent implants: application to prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 26:163–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Rutledge FN, Delclos L (1980) Adenocarcinoma of the uterus. In: Fletcher GH (ed) Textbook of radiotherapy, 3rd edn. Lea and Fibeger, Philadelphia, PA, pp 798–808Google Scholar
  234. Ryan TP, Taylor JH, Coughlin CT (1992) Interstitial microwave hyperthermia and brachytherapy for malignancies of the vulva and vagina. I. Design and testing of a modified intracavitary obturator. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 23:189–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Saw CB, Suntharalingam S (1988) Reference dose rates for single-and double-plane 192Ir implants. Med Phys 15:391–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Saw CB, Suntharalingham N, Ayyangar K et al (1989) Dosimetric considerations of stereotactic brain implants. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 18:887–891Google Scholar
  237. Scalliet P, Gerbaulet A, Dubray B (1993) HDR versus LDR in gynecological brachytherapy revisited. Radiother Oncol 28:118–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Schmitt-Ullrich R, Zwicker RD, Kelly WA, Kelly K (1991) Interstitial 192Ir implants of the oral cavity: planning and construction of volume implants. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 20:1079–1085Google Scholar
  239. Schray MF, Gunderson LL, Sim FH et al (1990) Soft tissue sarcoma: integration of brachytherapy, resection, and external irradiation. Cancer 66:451–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Scott WP (1975) Interstitial therapy using non-absorbable (Ir192 nylon ribbon) and absorbable (I125 “vicryl”) suturing techniques. Am J Roentgenol 124:560–564Google Scholar
  241. Sham JST, Wei WI, Choy D et al (1989) Treatment of persistent and recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma by brachytherapy. Br J Radiol 62:355–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Shankar PG, Wolf D, Cytacki EP (1991) Brachytherapy as boost for advanced tumors involving the oropharynx. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 7:53–56Google Scholar
  243. Sherrah-Davies E (1985) Morbidity following low-dose rate Selectron therapy for cervical cancer. Clin Radiol 36:131–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Shipley WU, Nardi GL, Cohen AM et al (1980) Iodine-125 implant and external beam irradiation in patients with localized pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer 45:709–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Slessinger ED, Perez CA, Grigsby PW et al (1992) Dosimetry and dose specification for a new gynecological brachytherapy applicator. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 22:1118–1124Google Scholar
  246. Sminia P, Schneider CJ, van Tienhoven G et al (2001) Office hours pulsed brachytherapy boost in breast cancer. Radiother Oncol 59:273–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Sneed PK, McDermott MW, Gutin PH (1997) Interstitial brachytherapy procedures for brain tumors. Semin Surg Oncol 13:157–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Stallard HB (1961) Malignant melanoma of the choroid treated with radioactive applicators. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 29:180Google Scholar
  249. Straus KL, Littman P, Wein AJ et al (1988) Treatment of bladder cancer with interstitial iridium-192 implantation and external beam irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 14:265–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Suit HD, Lloyd RS, Andrews JR et al (1960) Technique for intracavitary irradiation of the nasopharynx. Am J Roentgenol 84:629–631Google Scholar
  251. Suit HD, Moore EB, Fletcher GH et al (1963) Modifications of Fletcher ovoid system for afterloading using standard sized radium tubes (milligram and microgram). Radiology 81:126–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Swift, PS, Purser P, Roberts LW et al (1997) Pulsed low dose rate brachytherapy for pelvic malignancies. J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 37:811–818Google Scholar
  253. Syed AM, Puthawala AA, Neblett DL (1983a) Interstitial iodine-125 implant in the management of unresectable pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer 52:808–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Syed AMN, Puthawala AA, Tansey LA et al (1983b) Temporary iridium-192 implantation in the management of carcinoma of the prostate. In: Hilaris BS, Batata MA (eds) Brachytherapy oncology-1983. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, pp 83–91Google Scholar
  255. Syed AMN, Puthawala AA, Severance SR et al (1987) Intraluminal irradiation in the treatment of esophageal cancer. Endocurie Hypertherm Oncol 3:105–113Google Scholar
  256. Tabandeh Chaundhry NA, Murray TG et al (2000) Intraoperative echographic localization of iodine-125 episcleral plaque for brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol 129:199–204Google Scholar
  257. Thomadsen B, Ayyangar K, Anderson L et al (1997) Brachytherapy treatment planning In: Nag S (ed) Principles and practice of brachytherapy. Futura, Armonk, NY, pp 127–199Google Scholar
  258. Tod MC, Meredith WJ (1938) A dosage system for use in the treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix. Br J Radiol 11:809Google Scholar
  259. Tombolini V, Bonanni A, Valeriani M et al (1998) Brachytherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. The experience of the Institute of Radiology of the University of Rome “La Sapienza”. Tumori 84:478–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Van den Brenk HAS (1968) Results of prophylactic postoperative irradiation in 1300 cases of pterygium. Am J Roentgenol 103:723–733Google Scholar
  261. Van der Werf-Messing B, Menon RS, Ho WCJ (1983) Cancer of the urinary bladder category T2, T3, (NxM0) treated by interstitial radium implant: Second report. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 9:481–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Van der Werf-Messing B, van Putten WLJ (1989) Carcinoma of the urinary bladder category T2,3NxM0 treated by 40 Gy external irradiation followed by cesium 137 implant at reduced dose (50%). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 16:369–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Vicini FA, Chen PY, Fraile M et al (1997) Low dose rate brachytherapy as the sole radiation modality in the management of patients with early stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving therapy: preliminary results of a pilot trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 38:301–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Viola A, Major T, Julow J (2004) The importance of postoperative CT image fusion verification of stereotactic interstitial irradiation for brain tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60:322–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Visser AG, van den Aardweg GJMJ, Levendag PC (1996) Pulsed dose rate and fractionated high dose rate brachytherapy: choice of brachytherapy schedules to replace low dose rate treatments. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 34:497–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Wallner K (2002) Prostate brachytherapy under local anesthesia; lessons from the first 600 patients. Brachytherapy 1:145–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Wallner K, Chiu-Tsao S-T, Roy J et al (1991) An improved method for computerized tomography-planned transperineal 125Iodine prostate implants. J Urol 146:90–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Wallner K, Roy J, Harrison L (1995) Dosimetry guidelines to minimize urethral and rectal morbidity following transperineal I-125 prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 32:465–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Walstrom R (1954) The dosage distribution in the pelvis in radium treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. Acta Radiol 42:237Google Scholar
  270. Wang CC (1980) Treatment of malignant tumors of the nasopharynx. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 13:477–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Wang CC (1987) Re-irradiation of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma: treatment techniques and results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 13:953–956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Wang CC, Schultz MD (1966) Management of locally recurrent carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Radiology 86:900–903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Waterman FM, Mansfield CM, Komarnicky L et al (1997a) A dosimetry system for Ir-192 interstitial breast implants performed at the time of lumpectomy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 37:229–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Waterman FM, Yue N, Reisinger S et al (1997b) Effect of edema on the post-implant dosimetry of an I-125 prostate implant: a case study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 38:335–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Weaver K (1986) The dosimetry of 125I seed eye plaques. Med Phys 13:78–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Weaver K, Smith V, Huang D et al (1989) Dose parameters of 125I and 192Ir seed sources. Med Phys 16:636–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Wijnmaalen AJ, Helle PA, Koper PCM et al (1989) Combined external beam and interstitial radiation for bladder cancer. In: Mould RF (ed) Brachytherapy 2. Nucletron International BV, Leerum, The Netherlands, pp 192–195Google Scholar
  278. Wijnmaalen AJ, Helle PA, Koper PC et al (1997) Muscle invasive bladder cancer treated by transurethral resection, followed by external beam radiation and interstitial iridium-192. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 39:1043–1052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Williamson JF (1988) Monte Carlo evaluation of specific dose constants in water for 125I seeds. Med Phys 15:686–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Williamson JF (1991) Practical quality assurance in low-dose rate brachytherapy. Proceedings of American College of Medical Physics-Sponsored Symposium on Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy Physics. Medical Physics Publishing Company, Madison, WI, pp 139–182Google Scholar
  281. Williamson JF, Grigsby PW, Meigooni AS et al (1995) Clinical physics of pulsed dose-rate remotely-afterloaded brachytherapy. In: Williamson JF, Thomadsen BT, Nath R (eds) Brachytherapy physics. Medical Physics Publishing Company, Madison, WI 1995, pp 577–616Google Scholar
  282. Yamashita S, Kondo M, Inuyama Y et al (1986) Improved survival of patients with nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 12:307–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Yan JH, Hu YH, Gu XZ (1983) Radiation therapy of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Report on 219 patients. Acta Radiol Oncol 22:23–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Yue N, Chen Z, Peschel R et al (1999) Optimum timing for image-based dose evaluation of 125I and 103Pd prostate seed implants. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 45:1063–1072PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Zaider M, Zelefsky MJ, Lee EK et al (2000) Treatment planning for prostate implants using magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 47:1085–1096PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Zelefsky JM, Yamada Y, Cohen et al (2000) Postimplantation dosimetric analysis of permanent transperineal prostate implantation: improved dose distributions with an intraoperative computer-optimized conformal planning technique. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:602–608Google Scholar
  287. Zhang P, Beddar AS, Sibata CH (2004) AAPM TG-43 formalism for brachytherapy dose calculation of 137Cs tube source. Med Phys 31:755–759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Zolli CI (1979) Experience with the avulsion technique in pterygium surgery. Ann Ophthalmol 11:1569–1576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Zwicker RD, Schmidt-Ullrich R (1994) Dose uniformity in a planar interstitial implant system. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 31:149–155Google Scholar
  290. Zwicker RD, Schmidt-Ullrich R, Schiller B (1985) Planning of Ir-192 seed implants for boost irradiation to the breast. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11:2163–2180PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos A. Perez
    • 1
  • Robert D. Zwicker
    • 2
  • Zuofeng Li
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Radiation OncologyWashington University Medical CenterSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyUniversity of Kentucky Medical CenterLexingtonUSA
  3. 3.Division of Radiation PhysicsWashington University Medical CenterSaint LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations