Initial-State Dependence and Memory

  • N.T. Maitra
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 706)


In ground-state DFT, the fact that the xc potential is a functional of the density is a direct consequence of the one-to-one mapping between ground-state densities and potentials. In TDDFT, the one-to-one mapping is between densities and potentials for a given initial-state. This means that the potentials, most generally, are functionals of the initial state of the system, as well as of the density; and, not just of the instantaneous density, but of its entire history. These dependences are explicitly displayed in (1.33) of Chap. 1. Of particular interest is the xc potential, as that is the quantity that must be approximated. This is the difference between the KS potential and the sum of the external and Hartree potentials. The Hartree potential has no memory, as the classical Coulomb interaction depends on the instantaneous density only, but since both the interacting and non-interacting mappings can depend on the initial state, the xc potential must be a functional of both the initial states and density.


Adiabatic Approximation History Dependence Memory Dependence Linear Response Regime Instantaneous Density 
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© Springer 2006

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  • N.T. Maitra

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