Continuity and Change in International Verification Regimes

  • Erwin Häckel
Conference paper


International Atomic Energy Agency Security Council Nuclear Weapon Mass Destruction Additional Protocol 
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  1. 3.
    For a critical account in this vein see Hans Blix, Disarming Iraq, New York 2004.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    See “IAEA Investigating Egypt and Taiwan”, in: Arms Control Today, vol. 35, no. 1, January/February 2005, p. 38.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    For a graphic representation of the Khan network see Arms Control Today, vol. 25, no. 2, March 2005, p. 13.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    Thomas Shea (1999): “Verification of Weapon-Origin Fissile Material in the Russian Federation and the United States”, in: IAEA Bulletin, vol. 41, no. 4, December, pp.36–39.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    For a comprehensive analysis of the Additional Protocol and its background see Erwin Häckel/ Gotthard Stein (eds.) (2000): Tightening the Reins: Towards a Strengthened International Nuclear Safeguards System, Berlin and Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    See Harald Müller/ Annette Schaper (2004): US Nuclear Policy after the Cold War, PRIF Report no. 69, Frankfurt/M.; Piet de Klerk, (2003): “Under Fire: Is the World’s Treaty Against the Spread of Nuclear Weapons Strong Enough?”, in: IAEA Bulletin, vol. 45, no. 2, December, pp. 31–33; William Walker, (2004): Weapons of Mass Destruction and International Order, Adelphi Paper 370, London.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the DCI on Iraq’s WMD, 30 September 2004 (Duelfer Report), wmd 2004/.Google Scholar
  8. 10.
    Harald Müller (2005): Vertrag im Zerfall? Die gescheiterte Überprüfungskonferenz des Nichtverbreitungsvertrags und ihre Folgen, HSFK-Report 4/2005, Frankfurt/M., p. 15.Google Scholar
  9. 11.
    “Fischer warnt Teheran vor Fehlkalkulationen-Internationale Gemeinschaft wird Schließung des Nuklearkreislaufs nicht akzeptieren”, in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, September 7, 2004.Google Scholar
  10. 12.
    For an elaboration of this theme see Erwin Häckel, (2000): “Implementing Safeguards in Weak and Failed States”, in: Häckel/ Stein (above, note 7), pp. 141–149.Google Scholar
  11. 13.
    United Nations Security Council, S/RES/1540 (2004): resolutions04.html; the quotation is from operative paragraph 3.Google Scholar
  12. 14.
    See, for instance, Graham Allison et al. (1996): Avoiding Nuclear Anarchy: Containing the Threat of Loose Russian Nuclear Weapons and Fissile Material, CSIA Studies in International Security No. 12, Cambridge (Mass.).Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    Graham Allison, (2004): Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe, New York.Google Scholar
  14. 16.
    See Annette Schaper (2004): Looking for a Demarcation between Nuclear Transparency and Nuclear Secrecy, PRIF Report no. 68, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    Der Spiegel (2004): no. 38, September 13, p. 114.Google Scholar
  16. 18.
    The intelligence failure in Iraq has sprouted a great number of critical analyses. See in particular Gregory Treverton (2003): “Intelligence: The Achilles Heel of the Bush Doctrine”, in: Arms Control Today, vol. 33, no. 6, July/August, pp. 9–11; Lawrence Freedman (2004): “War in Iraq: Selling the Threat”, in: Survival, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 7–50; Rolf Ekeus,: “Reassessment: The IISS Strategic Dossier on Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction”, ibid., pp. 73–88; Kenneth M. Pollack (2004): “Spies, Lies and Weapons: What Went Wrong”, in: The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 293, no. 1, pp. 115–141; Dennis M. Gormley (2004): “The Limits of Intelligence: Iraq’s Lessons”, in: Survival, vol. 46, no 3, pp. 7–28.Google Scholar
  17. 19.
    For a balanced view on this problem see Joseph S. Nye (2005): “Iraq Lessons Can Avoid Disaster in Iran”, in: The Financial Times, March 31.Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    Mohamed ElBaradei (2004): “Saving Ourselves From Self-Destruction”, in: The New York Times, February 12.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin · Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erwin Häckel
    • 1
  1. 1.Deutsche Gesellschaft für Auswärtige PolitikBerlinGermany

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