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Continuity and Change in International Verification Regimes

  • Erwin Häckel
Conference paper

Keywords

International Atomic Energy Agency Security Council Nuclear Weapon Mass Destruction Additional Protocol 
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References

  1. 3.
    For a critical account in this vein see Hans Blix, Disarming Iraq, New York 2004.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    See “IAEA Investigating Egypt and Taiwan”, in: Arms Control Today, vol. 35, no. 1, January/February 2005, p. 38.Google Scholar
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    For a graphic representation of the Khan network see Arms Control Today, vol. 25, no. 2, March 2005, p. 13.Google Scholar
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    Thomas Shea (1999): “Verification of Weapon-Origin Fissile Material in the Russian Federation and the United States”, in: IAEA Bulletin, vol. 41, no. 4, December, pp.36–39.Google Scholar
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    For a comprehensive analysis of the Additional Protocol and its background see Erwin Häckel/ Gotthard Stein (eds.) (2000): Tightening the Reins: Towards a Strengthened International Nuclear Safeguards System, Berlin and Heidelberg.Google Scholar
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    See Harald Müller/ Annette Schaper (2004): US Nuclear Policy after the Cold War, PRIF Report no. 69, Frankfurt/M.; Piet de Klerk, (2003): “Under Fire: Is the World’s Treaty Against the Spread of Nuclear Weapons Strong Enough?”, in: IAEA Bulletin, vol. 45, no. 2, December, pp. 31–33; William Walker, (2004): Weapons of Mass Destruction and International Order, Adelphi Paper 370, London.Google Scholar
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    Harald Müller (2005): Vertrag im Zerfall? Die gescheiterte Überprüfungskonferenz des Nichtverbreitungsvertrags und ihre Folgen, HSFK-Report 4/2005, Frankfurt/M., p. 15.Google Scholar
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    For an elaboration of this theme see Erwin Häckel, (2000): “Implementing Safeguards in Weak and Failed States”, in: Häckel/ Stein (above, note 7), pp. 141–149.Google Scholar
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    United Nations Security Council, S/RES/1540 (2004): http://www.un.org./Docs/sc/unsc resolutions04.html; the quotation is from operative paragraph 3.Google Scholar
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    Graham Allison, (2004): Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe, New York.Google Scholar
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    See Annette Schaper (2004): Looking for a Demarcation between Nuclear Transparency and Nuclear Secrecy, PRIF Report no. 68, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
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    Der Spiegel (2004): no. 38, September 13, p. 114.Google Scholar
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    The intelligence failure in Iraq has sprouted a great number of critical analyses. See in particular Gregory Treverton (2003): “Intelligence: The Achilles Heel of the Bush Doctrine”, in: Arms Control Today, vol. 33, no. 6, July/August, pp. 9–11; Lawrence Freedman (2004): “War in Iraq: Selling the Threat”, in: Survival, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 7–50; Rolf Ekeus,: “Reassessment: The IISS Strategic Dossier on Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction”, ibid., pp. 73–88; Kenneth M. Pollack (2004): “Spies, Lies and Weapons: What Went Wrong”, in: The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 293, no. 1, pp. 115–141; Dennis M. Gormley (2004): “The Limits of Intelligence: Iraq’s Lessons”, in: Survival, vol. 46, no 3, pp. 7–28.Google Scholar
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    For a balanced view on this problem see Joseph S. Nye (2005): “Iraq Lessons Can Avoid Disaster in Iran”, in: The Financial Times, March 31.Google Scholar
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    Mohamed ElBaradei (2004): “Saving Ourselves From Self-Destruction”, in: The New York Times, February 12.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin · Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erwin Häckel
    • 1
  1. 1.Deutsche Gesellschaft für Auswärtige PolitikBerlinGermany

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