Environmental Sample Analysis

  • Martin B. Kalinowski
  • Johann Feichter
  • Mika Nikkinen
  • Clemens Schlosser

6 Conclusions

Environmental sample analysis is not a new verification method. It has been applied ever since the first nuclear weapons were produced and tested and related national technical means played a major role in verifying compliance with the Partial Test Bean Treaty of 1963. However, scientific progresses in measurement technologies and source location methods as well as major verification applications for nuclear arms control (UNSCOM/UNMOVIC since 1990 and CTBT since 1996) in recent years have brought significant progress. New opportunities are being explored with regard to wide-area environmental sampling according to the NPT Additional Protocol (model agreement of 1997). Further proposals include the to-be-negotiated Fissile Materials Cut-off Treaty (Shannon Mandate of 1995) as well as bilateral or regional agreements on cooperative environmental monitoring as confidence building measures.


Nuclear Weapon Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Cloud Droplet Nuclear Explosion International Monitoring System 
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Copyright information

© Springer Berlin · Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin B. Kalinowski
    • 1
  • Johann Feichter
    • 2
  • Mika Nikkinen
    • 3
  • Clemens Schlosser
    • 4
  1. 1.CTBTO PrepCom Provisional Technical SecretariatViennaAustria
  2. 2.Max Planck Institute for MeteorologyHamburgGermany
  3. 3.International Atomic Energy AgencyViennaAustria
  4. 4.Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS)FreiburgGermany

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