Paternal Dual Barrier by Ifg2-H19 and Dlk1-Gtl2 to Parthenogenesis in Mice

  • T. Kono
  • M. Kawahara
  • Q. Wu
  • H. Hiura
  • Y. Obata
Part of the Ernst Schering Research Foundation Workshop book series (SCHERING FOUND, volume 60)


The functional difference between the maternal and paternal genome, which is characterized by epigenetic modifications during gametogenesis, that is genomic imprinting, prevents mammalian embryos from parthenogenesis. Genomic imprinting leads to nonequivalent expression of imprinted genes from the maternal and paternal alleles. However, our research showed that alteration of maternal imprinting by oocyte reconstruction using nongrowing oocytes together with deletion of the H19 gene, provides appropriate expression of maternally imprinted genes. Here we discuss that further alteration of paternally imprinted gene expressions at chromosomes 7 and 12 allows the ng/fg parthenogenetic embryos to develop to term, suggesting that the paternal contribution is obligatory for the descendant.


Imprint Gene Oocyte Growth Differentially Methylated Region Paternal Contribution Severe Growth Retardation 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Kono
    • 1
  • M. Kawahara
    • 1
  • Q. Wu
    • 1
  • H. Hiura
    • 1
  • Y. Obata
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BioScienceTokyo, University of AgricultureTokyoJapan

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