Cytokines and Irritant Dermatitis

  • Isaak Effendy
  • Howard I. Maibach


Contact Dermatitis Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulate Factor Allergic Contact Dermatitis Contact Sensitivity Contact Hypersensitivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Agarwal S, Viola JP, Rao A. Chromatin-based regulatory mechanisms governing cytokine gene transcription. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 103:990–999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aggarwal BB, Puri KJ. Common und uncommon features of cytokines and cytokine receptors: an overview. In: Aggarwal BB, Puri KJ (eds) Human cytokines. Their role in disease and therapy. Blackwell, Oxford 1995; pp 1–24Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akhurst RJ, Fee F, Balmain A. Localized production of TGF-beta mRNA in tumour promoter-stimulated mouse epidermis. Nature 1988; 331:363–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Allen JE, Maizels RM. Th 1-Th2: reliable paradigm or dangerous dogma? Immunol Today 1997; 18:387–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ambrus JL Jr, Pippin J, Joseph Xu C, Blumenthal D, Tamayo A, Claypool K, McCourt D, Srikiatchatochorn A, Ford R. Identification of a cDNA for a human high molecular-weight B-cell growth factor (HMW-BCGF). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993; 90:6330–6334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ansel JC, Luger TA, Green I. The effect of in vitro and in vivo UV irradiation on the production of ETAF activity by human and murine keratinocytes. Jf Invest Dermatol 1983; 81:519–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ansel JC, Perry P, Brown J, Damm D, Phan T, Hart C, Luger T, Hefeneider S. Cytokine modulation of keratinocyte cytokines. J Invest Dermatol 1990; 94:101S–107SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ansel JC, Tiesman JP, Olerud IE, Krueger IG, Krane JF, Tara DC, Shipley GD, Gilbertson D, Usui ML, Hart CE. Human keratinocytes are a major source of cutaneous platelet-derived growth factor. J Clin Invest 1993; 92:671–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aragane Y, Riemann H, Bhardwaj B, Schwarz A, Sawada Y, Yamada H, Luger TA, Kubin M, Trinchieri G, Schwarz T. IL-12 is expressed and released by human keratinocytes and epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. J Immunol 1994; 153:5366–5372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Armitage RJ, Macduff BM, Eisenman I, Paxton R, Grabstein KH. IL-15 has stimulatory activity for the induction of B cell proliferation and differentiation. J Immunol 1995; 154:483–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Asada H, Linton J, Katz SI. Cytokine gene expression during the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity: regulation by endogenous IL-4. J Invest Dermatol 1997; 108:406–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aubin F, Kripke ML, Ullrich SE. Activation of keratinocytes with psoralen plus UVA radiation induces the release of soluble factors that suppress delayed and contact hypersensitivity. J Invest Dermatol 1991; 97:995–1000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barker JN, Jones ML, Swenson CL, Sarma V, Mitra RS, Ward PA, Johnson KJ, Fantone JC, Dixit VM, Nickoloff BJ. Monocyte chemotaxis and activating factor production by keratinocytes in response to IFN-gamma. J Immunol 1991; 146:1192–1197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barker JN, Mitra RS, Griffiths CE, Dixit VM, Nickoloff BJ. Keratinocytes as initiators of inflammation. Lancet 1991; 337:211–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bason MM, Gordon V, Maibaich HI. Skin irritation: In vitro assays. Int J Dermatol 1991; 30:623–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bason M, Lammintausta K, Maibach HI. Irritant dermatitis (irritation). In: Marzulli FN, Maibach HI (eds) Dermatotoxicology, 4th edn. Hemisphere, New York, 1991; pp 223–254Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bellinghausen I, Brand U, Enk AH, Knop J, Saloga J. Signals involved in the early TH1/TH2 polarization of an immune response depending on the type of antigen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 103:298–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Berg DJ, Leach MW, Kühn R, Rajewsky K, Muller W, Davidson NJ, Rennick D. Interleukin 10 but not interleukin 4 is a natural suppressant of cutaneous inflammatory responses. J Exp Med 1995; 182:99–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Boehm KD, Yun JK, Strohl KP et al. Human epidermal cytokine transcript level changes in situ following urushiol application (abstract). J) Invest) Dermatol) 1992; 98:571Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brand CU, Hunziker T, Braathen LR. Studies on human skin lymph containing Langerhans cells from sodium lauryl sulphate contact dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 1992; 99:109S–110SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brand CU, Hunziker T, Schaffner T, Limat A, Gerber HA, Braathen LR. Activated immunocomponent cells in human skin lymph derived from irritant contact dermatitis: an immunomorphological study. Br J Dermatol 1995; 132:39–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brand CU, Hunziker T, Yawalkar N, Braathen LR. IL-1β protein in human skin lymph does not discriminate allergic rom irritant contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 1996; 35:152–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brown KD, Zurawski SM, Mosmann TR, Zurawski G. A family of small inducible proteins secreted by leukocytes are members of a new superfamily that includes leukocyte and fibroblast-derived inflammatory agents, growth factors, and indicators of various activation processes. J Immunol 1989; 142:679–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bruze M, Emmett EA. Exposures to irritants. In: Jackson EM, Goldner R (eds) Irritant contact dermatitis. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1991; pp 81–99Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Coffey RJ Jr, Derynck R, Wilcox JN, Bringman TS, Goustin AS. Production and auto-induction of transforming growth factor-alpha in human keratinocytes. Nature 1987; 328:817–820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dearman RJ, Kimber I. Cytokine production and the local lymph node assay. In: Rougier A, Goldberg AM, Maibach HI (eds) In vitro skin toxicology: irritation phototoxicity sensitization. Liebert, New York, 1994; pp 367–372Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    DeLeo VA, Harbor LC, Kong BM, DeSalva SJ. Surfactantinduced alteration of arachidonic acid metabolism of mammalian cells in culture. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1987; 184:477–482Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Denda M, Emami S, Wood LC et al. Epidermal injury vs. barrier disruption as initiators of epidermal proliferation and inflammation (abstract). J Invest Dermatol 1995; 104:562Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dinarello CA. IL-18: a Th1-inducing, proinflammatory cytokine and new member of the IL-1 family. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990; 103:11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Enk AH, Katz SI. Early molecular events in the induction phase of contact sensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992; 89:1398–1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Enk AH, Katz SI. Identification and induction of keratinocyte-derived IL-10. J Immunol 1992; 149:92–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Enk AH, Angeloni VL, Udey MC, Katz SI. An essential role for Langerhans cell-derived IL-1 beta in the initiation of primary immune responses in skin. J Immunol 1983; 150:3698–3704Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Enk AH, Saloga J, Becker D, Mohamadzadeh M, Knop J. Induction of hapten-specific tolerance by interleukin 10 in vivo. J Exp Med 1994; 179:1397–1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ferguson TA, Dube P, Griffith TS. Regulation of contact hypersensitivity by interleukin 10. J Exp Med 1994; 179:1597–1604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fong TA, Mosmann TR. The role of IFN-gamma in delayed-type hypersensitivity mediated by Th1 clones. J Immunol 1989; 143:2887–2893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ford R, Tamayo A, Martin B, Niu K, Claypool K, Cabanillas F, Ambrus J Jr. Identification of B-cell growth factors (interleukin-14; high molecular weight-B-cell growth factors) in effusion fluids from patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Blood 1995; 86:283–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fregert S. Occupational dermatitis in a 10-year material. Contact Dermatitis 1975; 1:96–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gautam SC, Chikkala NF, Hamilton TA. Anti-inflammatory action of IL-4: Negative regulation of contact sensitivity to trinitrochlorobenzene. J Immunol 1992; 148:1411–1415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gawkrodger DJ, McVittie E, Carr MM, Ross JA, Hunter JA. Phenotypic characterization of the early cellular responses in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Clin Exp Immunol 1986; 66:590–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Grabbe S, Schwarz T. Immunoregulatory mechanisms involved in elicitation of allergic contact hypersensitivity. Immunol Today 1998; 19:37–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Grabbe S, Steinbrink K, Steinert M, Luger TA, Schwarz T. Removal of the majority of epidermal Langerhans cells by topical or systemic steroid application enhances the effector phase of murine contact hypersensitivity. J Immunol 1995; 155:4207–4217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Grabstein KH, Eisenman J, Shanebeck K, Rauch C, Srinivasan S, Fung V, Beers C, Richardson J, Schoenborn MA, Ahdieh M et al. Cloning of a T cell growth factor that interacts with the beta chain of the interleukin-2 receptor. Science 1994; 264:965–968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Grewe M, Gyufko K, Krutmann J. Interleukin-10 production by cultured human keratinocytes: regulation by ultraviolet B and ultraviolet A1 radiation. J Invest Dermatol 1995; 104:3–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Griffiths CE, Barker JN, Kunkel S, Nickoloff BJ. Modulation of leucocyte adhesion molecules, a T-cell chemotaxin (IL-8) and a regulatory cytokine (TNF-alpha) in allergic contact dermatitis (rhus dermatitis). Br J Dermatol 1991; 124:519–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Griswold DE, Connor JR, Dalton et al. Activation of the IL-l gene in UV-irradiated mouse skin: association with inflammatory sequelae and pharmacologic intervention. J Invest Dermatol 1991; 97:1019–1023PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Haas J, Lipkow T, Mohamadzadeh M, Kolde G, Knop J. Induction of inflammatory cytokines in murine keratinocytes upon in vivo stimulation with contact sensitizers and tolerizing analogue. Exp Dermatol 1992; 1:76–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Halaban R, Langdon R, Birchall N, Cuono C, Baird A, Scott G, Moellmann G, McGuire J. Basic fibroblast growth factor from human keratinocytes is a natural mitogen for melanocytes. J Cell Biol 1988; 107:1611–1619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Heufler C, Topar G, Grasseger A, Stanzl U, Koch F, Romani N, Namen AE, Schuler G. Interleukin 7 is produced by murine and human keratinocytes. J Exp Med 1993; 178:1109–1104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hoefakker S, Caubo M, Van’t Erve EH M, Roggeveen MI, Boersma WJ, van Joost T, Notten WR, Classen E. In vivo cytokine profiles in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 1995; 32:258–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hunziker T, Brand CU, Kapp A, Waelti ER, Braathen LR. Increased levels of inflammatory cytokines in human skin lymph derived from sodium lauryl sulphate-induced contact dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 127:254–257Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kalish RS, Askenase PW. Molecular mechanisms of CD8+ T cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity: implications for allergies, asthma, and autoimmunity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 103:192–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kaplan G, Luster AD, Hancock G, Cohn ZA. The expression of a gamma interferon-induced protein (IP-10) in delayed immune responses in human skin. J Exp Med 1987; 166:1098–1108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kimber I, Cumberbatch M. Stimulation of Langerhans cell migration by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). J Invest Dermatol 1992; 99:498–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kirnbauer R, Köck A, Nouner P, Forster E, Krutmann J, Urbanski A, Schauer E, Ansel JC, Schwarz T, Luger TA. Regulation of epidermal cell interleukin-6 production by UV light and corticosteroids. J Invest Dermatol 1991; 96:484–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kitajima T, Takashima A. Langerhans cell responses to ultraviolet B radiation. J Dermatol Sci 1999; 19:153–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kock A, Urbanski A, Luger TA. mRNA expression and release of tumor necrosis factor by human epiderma 1 cells (abstract). J Invest Dermatol 1989; 92:462Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kock A, Schwarz T, Kirnbauer R, Urbanski A, Perry P, Ansel JC, Luger TA. Human keratinocytes are a source for tumor necrosis factor alpha. Evidence for synthesis and release upon stimulation with endotoxin or ultraviolet light. J Exp Med 1990; 172:1609–1614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Koga T, Fujimura T, Imayama S, Katsuoka K, Toshitani S, Hori Y. The expression of Th1 and Th2 type cytokines in a lesion of allergic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 1996; 35:105–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kondo S, Kono T, Sauder DN, McKenzie RC. IL-8 gene expression and production in human keratinocytes and their modulation by UVB. J Invest Dermatol 1993; 101:690–694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kondo S, McKenzie RC, Sauder DN. Interleukin-10 inhibits the elicitation phase of allergic contact hypersensitivity. J Invest Dermatol 1994; 103:811–814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kondo S, Pastore S, Shivji GM, McKenzie RC, Sauder DN. Characterization of epidermal, cytokine profiles in sensitization and elicitation phases of allergic contact dermatitis as well as irritant contact dermatitis in mouse skin. Lymphokine Cytokine Res 1994; 13:367–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kondo S, Pastore S, Fujisawa H, Shivji GM, McKenzie RC, Dinarello CA, Sauder DN. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist suppresses contact hypersensitivity. J Invest Dermatol 1995; 105:334–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kupper TS. Role of epidermal cytokines. In: Oppenheim JJ, Shevach EM (eds) Immunophysiology: the role of cells and cytokines in immunity and inflammation. Oxford University Press, New York, 1990; pp 285–305Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kupper TS, McGuire J. Hydrocortisone reduces both constitutive and UV elicited release of epidermal thymocyte activating factor (ETAF) by cultured keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol 1986; 7:570–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kupper TS, Ballard DW, Chua AO, McGuire JS, Flood PM, Horowitz MC, Langdon R, Lightfoot L, Gubler U. Human keratinocytes contain mRNA indistinguishable from monocyte interleukin 1 alpha and beta mRNA: keratinocyte epidermal cell-derived thymocyte-activating factor is identical to interleukin 1. J Exp Med 1986; 164:2095–2100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kupper TS, Lee F, Coleman D, Chodakewitz I, Flood P, Horowitz M. Keratinocyte derived T-cell growth factor (KTGF) is identical to granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). J Invest Dermatol 1988; 91:185–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kupper TS, Min K, Sehgal P, Mizutani H, Birchall N, Ray A, May L. Production of IL-6 by keratinocytes: implications for epidermal inflammation and immunity. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1989; 557:454–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Larsen CG, Anderson AO, Oppenheim JJ, Matsushima K. Production of interleukin 8 by human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in response to interleukin-1 or tumour necrosis factor. Immunology 1989; 68:31–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lindberg M, Farm G, Scheynius A. Differential effects of sodium lauryl sulphate and non-anoic acid on the expression of CD1a and ICAM-1 in human epidermis. Acta Dermatol Venereol (Stockh) 1991; 71:384–388Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lisby S, Muller KM, Jongkeneel CV, Saurat JH, Hauser C. Nickel and skin irritants up-regulate tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA in keratinocytes by different but potentially synergistic mechanisms. Int Immunol 1995; 7:343–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Luger TA. Epidermal cytokines. Acta Derm Venereol Stockh 1989; 151:61–76Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Luger TA, Kock A, Kirnbauer R, Schwarz T, Ansel JC. Keratinocyte-derived interleukin 3. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1988; 548:253–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Marks JG Jr, Zaino RJ, Bressler MF, Williams JV. Changes in lymphocyte and Langerhans cell populations in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Int J Dermatol 1987; 26:354–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mathias CG. The cost of occupational skin disease (editorial). Arch Dermatol 1985; 121:332–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Matsue H, Cruz PD Jr, Bergstrasser PR, Takashima A. Langerhans cells are the major source of mRNA for IL-l beta and MIP-1 alpha among unstimulated mouse epidermal cells. J Invest Dermatol 1992; 99:537–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    McKenzie RC, Sauder DN. The role of keratinocyte cytokines in inflammation and immunity. J Invest Dermatol 1990; 95:105S–107SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mikulowska A. Reactive changes in human epidermis following simple occlusion with water. Contact Dermatitis 1992; 26:224–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mohamadzadeh M, Müller M, Hültsch T, Enk A, Saloga J, Knop J. Enhanced expression of IL-8 in normal human keratinocytes and human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT in vitro after stimulation with contact sensitizers, tolerogens and irritants. Exp Dermatol 1994; 3:298–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mohamadzadeh M, Takashima A, Dougherty Knop J, Bergstresser PR, Cruz PD, Jr. Ultraviolet B radiation upregulates the expression of IL-15 in human skin. J Immunol 1995; 155:4492–4496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mosmann TR, Coffman RL. Th1 and Th2 cells: different patterns of lymphokine secretion lead to different functional properties. Annu Rev Immunol 1989; 7:145–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mosmann TR, Cherwinski H, Bond Giedlin MA, Coffman RL. Two types of murine helper T cell clone. I: Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins. J Immunol 1986; 136:2348–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Muller G, Knop J, Enk AH. Is cytokine expression responsible for differences between allergens and irritants? Am J Contact Dermatitis 1996; 3:177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nickoloff BJ, Naidu Y. Perturbation of epidermal barrier function correlates with initiation of cytokine cascade in human skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 1994; 30:535–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Norris DA, Lyons MB, Middleton MH, Yohn JI, Kashihara-Sawami M. Ultraviolet radiation can either suppress or induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of cultured human keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol 1990; 95:132–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Olson CT. Evaluation of the dermal irritancy of chemicals. In: Hobson DW (ed) Dermal and ocular toxicology: fundamentals and methods. CRC, Boca Raton, 1991, pp 135–149Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Oppenheim JJ, Ruscotti FW, Faftynek C, Cytokines. In: Stites DP, Terr AI (eds) Basic and clinical immunology. Prentice-Hall Norwalk NJ, 1991, pp 78–100Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Oxholm A, Oxholm P, Avnstorp C, Bendtzen K. Keratinocyte-expression of interleukin-6 but not of tumour necrosis factor-alpha is increased in the allergic and the irritant patch test reaction. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 1991; 71:93–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Patrick E, Burkhalter A, Maibach HI. Recent investigations of mechanisms of chemically induced skin irritation in laboratory mice. J Invest Dermatol 1987; 88:24S–31SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Piguet PF, Grau GE, Hauser C, Vassalli P. Tumor necrosis factor is a critical mediator in hapten induced irritant and contact hypersensitivity reactions. J Exp Med 1991; 173:673–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Piguet PF. Keratinocyte-derived tumor necrosis factor and the physiopathology of the skin. Semin Immunopathol 1992; 13:345–354Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pinkus H. Examination of epidermis by the strip method. II. Biometric data on regeneration of the human epidermis. J Invest. Dermatol 1952; 19:431–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rambukkana A, Pistor FH M, Kapsenberg ML et al. Role of cytokines in allergen-induced effect on human Langerhans cells (abstract). Exp Dermatol 1994; 3:140Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Reilly DM, Green MR. Eicosanoid and cytokine levels in acute skin irritation in response to tape stripping and capsaicin. Acta Dermatol Venereol (Stockh) 1999; 79:187–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Riemann H, Schwarz A, Grabbe S, Aragane Y, Luger TA, Wysocka M, Kubin M, Trinchieri G, Schwarz T. Neutralization of IL-12 in vivo prevents induction of contact hypersensitivity and induces hapten-specific tolerance. J Immunol 1996; 156:1799–1803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rivas JM, Ullrich SE. Essential role of keratinocyte-derived IL-10 in the UV-induced suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity but not contact hypersensitivity (abstract). J Invest Dermatol 1993; 100:522Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rowe A, Bunker CB. Interleukin-4 and the interleukin-4 receptor in allergic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 1998; 38:36–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Salerno A, Dieli F, Sireci G, Bellavia A, Asherson GL. Interleukin-4 is a critical cytokine in contact sensitivity. Immunology 1995; 84:404–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A, Mackay CR. Chemokines and chemokine receptors in T-cell priming and Th1/Th2-mediated responses: Immunol Today 1998; 19:568–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sauder DN, Wong D, McKenzie R et al. The pluripotent keratinocyte: molecular, characterization of epidermal cytokines (abstract). J Invest Dermatol 1988; 90:605Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Schmitt DA, Owen-Schaub L, Ullrich SE. Effect of IL-12 on immune suppression and suppressor cell induction by ultraviolet radiation. J Immunol 1995. 154:5114–5120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Schwarz A, Grabbe S, Riemann H, Aragane Y, Simon M, Manon S, Andrade S, Luger TA, Zlotnik A, Schwarz T. In vivo effects of interleukin-10 on contact hypersensitivity and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. J Invest Dermatol 1994; 103:211–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schwarz T, Luger TA. Effect of UV irradiation on epidermal cell cytokine production. J Photochem. Photobiol 1989. B4:1–13Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Schwarz T, Luger TA. Pharmacology of cytokines in the skin. In: Mukhtar H (ed) Pharmacology of the skin. CRC Press Boca Raton FL, 1992; pp 283–313Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Schwarz T, Urbanski A, Luger TA. Ultraviolet light and epidermal cell derived cytokines. In: Luger TA, Schwarz T (eds) Epidermal growth factors and cytokines. Marcel Dekker New York, 1994; pp 303–324Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Shivji GM, Gupta AK, Sauder DN. Role of cytokines in irritant contact dermatitis. In: Rougier A, Goldberg AM, Maibach HI (eds) In vitro skin toxicology: irritation phototoxicity and sensitization. Liebert, New York, 1994; pp 13–22Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Stoll S, Müller G, Kurimoto M, Saloga J, Tanimoto T, Yamauchi H, Okamura H, Knop J, Enk AH. Production of IL-18 (IFN-gamma-inducing factor) messenger RNA and functional protein by murine keratinocytes. J Immunol 1997; 159:298–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Takashima A, Bergstresser PR. Impact of UVB radiation on the epidermal cytokine network. Photochem Photobiol 1996; 63:397–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tekamp-Olson P, Gallegos C, Bauer D, McClain J, Sherry B, Fabre M, van Deventer S, Cerami A. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs for murine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and its human homologues. J Exp Med 1990; 172:911–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tsai JC, Feingold KR, Crumrine D, Wood LC, Grunfeld C, Elias PM. Permeability barrier disruption after the localization and expression of TNF alpha-protein in the epidermis. Arch Dermatol Res 1994; 286:242–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Vejlsgaard GL, Ralfkiaer E, Avnstorp C, Czajkowski M, Marlin SD, Rothlein R. Kinetics and characterization of intercellular adhesion molecules I (ICAM-1) expression on keratinocytes in various inflammatory skin lesions and malignant cutaneous lymphomas. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989; 20:782–790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Webb EF, Tzimas MN, Newsholme SJ, Griswold DE. Intralesional cytokines in chronic oxazolone-induced contact sensitivity suggest roles for tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-4. J Invest Dermatol 1998; 111:86–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Werfel T, Hentschel M, Renz H, Kapp A. Analysis of the phenotype and cytokine pattern of blood-and skin-derived nickel-specific T cells in allergic contact dermatitis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1997; 113:384–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Whittle E, Carter J, Wolfreys A et al. HaCaT-derived cytokine response to noxious agents (abstract). J Invest Dermatol 1995; 104:562Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Willis CM, Young E, Brandon DR, Wilkinson JD. Immunopathological and ultrastructural findings in human allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 1986; 115:305–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Willis CM, Stephens CJ, Wilkinson JD. Epidermal damage induced by irritants in man: a light and electron microscopic study. J Invest Dermatol 1989; 93:695–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Willis CM, Stephens CJ, Wilkinson JD. Selective expression of immune associated surface antigens by keratinocytes in irritant contact dermatitis. J lnvest Dermatol 1991; 96:505–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Willis CM, Stephens CJ, Wilkinson JD. Differential effects of structurally unrelated chemical irritants on the density of proliferating keratinocytes in 48 h patch test reactions. J Invest Dermatol 1992; 99:449–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Wilmer JL, Burleson FG, Kayama F, Kanno J, Luster MI. Cytokine induction in human epidermal keratinocytes exposed to contact irritants and its relation to chemical-induced inflammation in mouse skin. J Invest Dermatol 1994; 102:915–922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wood LC, Jackson SM, Elias PM, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Cutaneous border perturbation stimulates cytokine production in the epidermis of mice. J Clin Invest 1992; 90:482–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Wood LC, Elias PM, Sequeira-Mallin SM, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Occlusion lowers cytokine mRNA levels in essential fatty acid-deficient and normal mouse epidermis, but not after acute barrier disruption. J Invest Dermatol 1994; 103:834–838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wood LC, Feingold KR, Sequeira-Mallin SM, Elias PM, Grunfeld C. Barrier function coordinately regulates epidermal IL-1 and IL-1 receptor antagonist mRNA levels. Exp Dermatol 1994; 3:56–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Xu BH, Aoyama K, Yu S, Kitani A, Okamura H, Kurimoto M, Matsuyama T, Matsushita T. Expression of interleukin-18 in murine contact hypersensitivity. J Interferon Cytokine Res 1999; 18:653–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Yao Z, Painter SL, Fanslow WC, Ulrich D, Macduff BM, Spriggs MK, Armitage RJ Human IL-17: a novel cytokine derived from T cells. J Immunol 1995; 155:5483–5486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Yoshikawa T, Streilein JW. Genetic basis of the effects of ultraviolet light B on cutaneous immunity: evidence that polymorphism at the Tnfa and Lps loci governs susceptibility. Immunogenetics 1990; 32:398–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Zheng H, Fletcher D, Kozak W, Jiang M, Hofmann KJ, Conn CA, Soszynski D, Grabiec C, Trumbauer ME, Shaw A et al. Resistance to fever induction and impaired acutephase response in interleukin-I-β-deficient mice. Immunity 1995; 3:9–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Zurawski G, de Vries JE. Interleukin 13, an interleukin 4-like cytokine that acts on monocytes and B cells, but not on T cells. Immunol Today 1994; 15:19–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isaak Effendy
    • 1
  • Howard I. Maibach
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology, Municipal Clinics of BielefeldAcademic Teaching HospitalBielefeldGermany
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations