Angiography in Kidney Cancer
From occupying a central role in the evaluation of kidney cancer, renal arteriography has been relegated to a problem-solving secondary role in the modern era. This is partly due to the changing presentation of renal tumors; most are now identified at an early stage, and renal arteriography is insensitive when compared with the cross-sectional modalities for evaluation of small renal masses. Arteriography is now seldom used for diagnosis. For staging it may help in the occasional case with indeterminate findings regarding venous involvement on CT and MR imaging. It may have some utility for pre-operative surgical planning, but mostly it is now used for planning of therapeutic or palliative tumor embolization.
KeywordsRenal Cell Carcinoma Renal Artery Inferior Vena Cava Renal Cancer Renal Mass
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