Part of the Springer-Lehrbuch book series (SLB)


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abrams PA (2000) The evolution of predator-prey interactions: theory and evidence. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 31:79–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acharya L, McNeil J (1998) Predation risk and mating behavior: the response of moths to bat-like ultrasound. Behav Ecol 9:552–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson RA, Karasov WH (1981) Contrasts in energy intake and expenditure in sit-and-wait and widely foraging lizards. Oecologia 49:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arenz CL, Leger DW (2000) Antipredator vigilance of juvenile and adult thirteen-lined ground squirrels and the role of nutritional need. Anim Behav 59:535–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bednekoff PA, Lima SL (1998) Randomness, chaos and confusion in the study of antipredator vigilance. Trends Ecol Evol 13:284–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beldade P, Brakefield PM (2002) The genetics and evo-devo of butterfly wing patterns. Nature 3:442–452Google Scholar
  7. Bjørnstad ON, Grenfell BT (2001) Noisy clockwork: time series analysis of population fluctuations in animals. Science 293:638–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blumstein DT, Mari M, Daniel JC, Ardron JG, Griffin AS, Evans CS (2002) Olfactory predator recognition: wallabies may have to learn to be wary. Anim Conserv 5:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boesch C (1994) Cooperative hunting in wild chimpanzees. Anim Behav 48:653–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bond AB, Kamil AC (2002) Visual predators select for crypticity and polymorphism in virtual prey. Nature 415:609–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bshary R, Noë R (1997) Red colobus and Diana monkeys provide mutual protection against predators. Anim Behav 54:1461–1474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buskirk J van (2000) The costs of an inducible defense in anuran larvae. Ecology 81:2813–2821Google Scholar
  13. Caley MJ, Schluter D (2003) Predators favour mimicry in a tropical reef fish. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:667–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Caro TM, Graham CM, Stoner CJ, Vargas JK (2004) Adaptive significance of antipredator behaviour in artiodactyls. Anim Behav 67:205–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chivers DP, Mirza RS, Johnston JG (2002) Learned recognition of heterospecific alarm cues enhances survival during encounters with predators. Behaviour 139:929–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooper WE Jr (2003) Shifted balance of risk and cost after autotomy affects use of cover, escape, activity, and foraging in the keeled earless lizard (Holbrookia propinqua). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 54:179–187Google Scholar
  17. Coté IM, Poulin R (1995) Parasitism and group-size in social animals-a metaanalysis. Behav Ecol 6:159–165Google Scholar
  18. Creel SR, Macdonald DW (1995) Sociality, group size, and reproductive suppression among carnivores. Adv Stud Behav 24:203–257Google Scholar
  19. Curio E (1978) Adaptive significance of avian mobbing. 1. Teleonomic hypotheses and predictions. Z Tierpsychol 48:175–183Google Scholar
  20. Downes S, Shine R (1998) Sedentary snakes and gullible geckos: predator-prey coevolution in nocturnal rock-dwelling reptiles. Anim Behav 55:1373–1385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Elgar MA (1989) Predator vigilance and group size in mammals and birds: a critical review of the empirical evidence. Biol Rev 64:13–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Fichtel C (2004) Reciprocal recognition of sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi) and redfronted lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus) alarm calls. Anim Cogn 7:45–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fichtel C, Kappeler PM (2002) Anti-predator behavior of group-living Malagasy primates: mixed evidence for a referential alarm call system. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 51:262–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fischer J, Metz M, Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM (2001) Baboon responses to graded bark variants. Anim Behav 61:925–931Google Scholar
  25. Fisher RA (1930) The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  26. Foster WA, Treherne JE (1981) Evdence for the dilution effect in the selfish herd from fish predation on a marine insect. Nature 293:466–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Frisch K von (1941) Über einen Schreckstoff der Fischhaut und seine biologische Bedeutung. Z vergl Physiol 29:46–145Google Scholar
  28. Geffeney S, Brodie ED Jr, Ruben PC, Brodie ED 3rd (2002) Mechanisms of adaptation in a predator-prey arms race: TTX-resistant sodium channels. Science 297:1336–1339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gil-da-Costa R, Palleroni A, Hauser MD, Touchton J, Kelley JP (2003) Rapid acquisition of an alarm response by a neotropical primate to a newly introduced avian predator. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:605–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hamilton WD (1971) Geometry for the selfish herd. J theoret Biol 31:295–311Google Scholar
  31. Hartman EJ, Abrahams MV (2000) Sensory compensation and the detection of predators: the interaction between chemical and visual information. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:571–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hedenström A, Rosén M (2001) Predator versus prey: on aerial hunting and escape strategies in birds. Behav Ecol 12:150–156Google Scholar
  33. Heiling AM, Herberstein ME (2004) Predator-prey coevolution: Australian native bees avoid their spider predators. Biol Lett 271:S196–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Heymann EW, Buchanan-Smith HM (2000) The behavioural ecology of mixed-species troops of callitrichine primates. Biol Rev 75:169–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hieber CS, Stimson RS, Boyle J, Uetz GW (2002) The spider and fly revisited: ploy-counterploy behavior in a unique predator-prey system. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 53:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Höner OP, Wachter B, East ML, Runyoro VA, Hofer H (2005) The effect of prey abundance and foraging tactics on the population dynamics of a social, territorial carnivore, the spotted hyena. Oikos 108:544–554Google Scholar
  37. Holdaway RN (1989) New Zealand’s pre-human avifauna and its vulnerability. New Zealand J Ecol 12:11–25Google Scholar
  38. Hughes WO, Eilenberg J, Boomsma JJ (2002) Trade-offs in group living: transmission and disease resistance in leaf-cutting ants. Proc R Soc Lond B 269:1811–1819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hugie DM (2003) The waiting game: a ‘battle of waits’ between predator and prey. Behav Ecol 14:807–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hurd CR (1996) Interspecific attraction to the mobbing calls of black-capped chickadees (Parus atricapillus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 38:287–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ims RA, Andreassen HP (2000) Spatial synchronization of vole population dynamics by predatory birds. Nature 408:194–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Joron M, Mallet JLB (1998) Diversity in mimicry: paradox or paradigm? Trends Ecol Evol 13:461–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kapan D (2001) Three-butterfly system provides a field test of müllerian mimicry. Nature 409:338–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kopp M, Tollrian R (2003) Reciprocal phenotypic plasticity in a predator-prey system: inducible offences against inducible defences? Ecol Lett 6:742–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Krama T, Krams I (2005) Cost of mobbing call to breeding pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca. Behav Ecol 16:37–40Google Scholar
  46. Krane S, Itagaki Y, Nakanishi K, Weldon PJ (2003) ‘Venom’ of the slow loris: sequence similarity of prosimian skin gland protein and Feld 1 cat allergen. Naturwissenschaften 90:60–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lindström L, Alatalo RV, Lyytinen A, Mappes J (2001) Predator experience on cryptic prey affects the survival of conspicuous aposematic prey. Proc R Soc Lond B 268:357–361Google Scholar
  48. Lingle S (2001) Anti-predator strategies and grouping patterns in white-tailed deer and mule deer. Ethology 107:295–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Losos JB, Schoener TW, Spiller DA (2004) Predator-induced behaviour shifts and natural selection in field-experimental lizard populations. Nature 432:505–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Manser MB (1999) Response of foraging group members to sentinel calls in suricates, Suricata suricatta. Proc R Soc Lond B 266:1013–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Manser MB (2001) The acoustic structure of suricates’ alarm calls varies with predator type and the level of response urgency. Proc R Soc Lond B 268:2315–2324Google Scholar
  52. Mateo JM (1996) The development of alarm-call response behaviour in free-living Belding’s ground squirrels. Anim Behav 52:489–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Merilaita S (2003) Visual background complexity facilitates the evolution of camouflage. Evolution 57:1248–1254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Metcalfe NB (1989) Flocking preferences in relation to vigilance benefits and aggression costs in mixed-species shorebird flocks. Oikos 56:91–98Google Scholar
  55. Miller L, Gutzke W (1999) The role of the vomeronasal organ of crotalines (Reptilia: Serpentines: Viperidae) in predator detection. Anim Behav 58:53–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Minta SC, Minta KA, Lott DF (1992) Hunting associations between badgers (Taxidea taxus) and coyotes (Canis latrans). J Mammal 73:814–820Google Scholar
  57. Mizutani A, Chal JS, Srinivasan MV (2003) Motion camouflage in dragonflies. Nature 423:604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mols CMM, van Oers K, Witjes LMA, Lessells CM, Drent PJ, Visser ME (2004) Central assumptions of predator-prey models fail in a semi-natural experimental system. Biol Lett 271:S85–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Moritz RFA, Bürgin H (1987) Group response to alarm pheromones in social wasps and the honeybee. Ethology 76:15–26Google Scholar
  60. Naguib M, Mundry R, Ostreiher R, Hultsch H, Schrader L, Todt D (1999) Cooperatively breeding Arabian babblers call differently when mobbing in different predator-induced situations. Behav Ecol 10:636–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Packer C, Scheel D, Pusey AE (1990) Why lions form groups: food is not enough. Am Nat 136:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Palleroni A, Miller CT, Hauser M, Marler P (2005) Prey plumage adaptation against falcon attack. Nature 434:973–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Parrish JK (1993) Comparison of the hunting behavior of 4 piscine predators attacking schooling prey. Ethology 95:233–246Google Scholar
  64. Pohlmann K, Grasso FW, Breithaupt T (2001) Tracking wakes: the nocturnal predatory strategy of piscivorous catfish. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:7371–7374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Pulliam HR, Pyke GH, Caraco T (1982) The scanning behavior of juncos: a gametheoretical approach. J theoret Biol 95:89–103Google Scholar
  66. Riipi M, Alatalo RV, Lindström L, Mappes J (2001) Multiple benefits of gregariousness cover detectability costs in aposematic aggregations. Nature 413:512–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Roberts G (1996) Why individual vigilance declines as group size increases. Anim Behav 51:1077–1086Google Scholar
  68. Ruxton GD, Lima SL (1997) Predator-induced breeding suppression and its consequences for predator-prey population dynamics. Proc R Soc Lond B 264:409–415Google Scholar
  69. Scannell J, Roberts G, Lazarus J (2001) Prey scan at random to evade observant predators. Proc R Soc Lond B 268:541–547Google Scholar
  70. Schaik CP van, Hörstermann M (1994) Predation risk and the number of adult males in a primate group: a comparative test. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 35:261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schoener TW, Spiller DA, Losos JB (2001) Predators increase the risk of catastrophic extinction of prey populations. Nature 412:183–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL, Marler P (1980) Monkey responses to three different alarm calls: evidence of predator classification and semantic communication. Science 210:801–803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Shashar N, Hanlon R, Petz A (1998) Polarization vision helps detect transparent prey. Nature 393:222–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sherman PW (1977) Nepotism and the evolution of alarm calls. Science 197:1246–1253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Sherratt TN (2002) The coevolution of warning signals. Proc R Soc Lond B 269:741–746Google Scholar
  76. Speed MP, Ruxton GD (2002) Evolution of suicidal signals. Nature 416:375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Speed MP, Ruxton GD (2004) Aposematism: what should our starting point be? Proc R Soc Lond B 272:431–438Google Scholar
  78. Speed MP, Alderson NJ, Hardman C, Ruxton GD (2000) Testing Müllerian mimicry: an experiment with wild birds. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:725–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Speed MP, Kelly DJ, Davidson AM, Ruxton GD (2005) Countershading enhances crypsis with some bird species but not others. Behav Ecol 16:327–334Google Scholar
  80. Stenseth NC, Falck W, Bjørnstad ON, Krebs CJ (1997) Population regulation in snowshoe hare and Canadian lynx: asymmetric food web configurations between hare and lynx. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:5147–5152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Stoner CJ, Caro TM, Graham CM (2003) Ecological and behavioral correlates of coloration in artiodactyls: systematic analyses of conventional hypotheses. Behav Ecol 14:823–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sword GA (1999) Density-dependent warning coloration. Nature 397:217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sword GA (2002) A role for phenotypic plasticity in the evolution of aposematism. Proc R Soc Lond B 269:1639–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Théry M, Casas J (2002) Predator and prey views of spider camouflage. Nature 415:133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Treves A, Drescher A, Ingrisano N (2001) Vigilance and aggregation in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 50:90–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Treves A, Drescher A, Snowdon CT (2003) Maternal watchfulness in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Ethology 109:135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Veen T, Richardson DS, Blaakmeer K, Komdeur J (2000) Experimental evidence for innate predator recognition in the Seychelles warbler. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:2253–2258Google Scholar
  88. Wolters S, Zuberbühler K (2003) Mixed-species associations of Diana and Campbell’s monkeys: the costs and benefits of a forest phenomenon. Behaviour 140:371–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yachi S, Higashi M (1998) The evolution of warning signals. Nature 394:882–884Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Personalised recommendations