Advertisement

Sozialsysteme

Chapter
  • 1.2k Downloads
Part of the Springer-Lehrbuch book series (SLB)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Alatalo RV, Lundberg A, Glynn C (1986) Female pied flycatcher choose territory quality and not male chracteristics. Nature 323:152–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alatalo RV, Lundberg A, Raetii O (1990) Male polyterritoriality and imperfect female choice in the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca. Behav Ecol 1:171–177Google Scholar
  3. Alberts SC, Altmann J (1995) Balancing costs and opportunities: dispersal in male baboons. Am Nat 145:279–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander RD, Hoogland JL, Howard RD, Noonan KM, Sherman PW (1979) Sexual dimorphism and breeding systems in pinnipeds, ungulates, primates, and humans. In: Chagnon NA, Irons W (eds) Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior. Duxbury, North Scituate/MA, pp 402–435Google Scholar
  5. Altmann J, Alberts SC, Haines SA, Dubach J, Muruthi P, Coote T, Geffen E, Cheesman DJ, Mututua RS, Saiyalel SN, Wayne RK, Lacy RC, Bruford MW (1996) Behavior predicts genetic structure in a wild primate group. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:5797–5801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson C, Franks NR (2001) Teams in animal societies. Behav Ecol 12:534–540Google Scholar
  7. Andersson M (2005) Evolution of classical polyandry: three steps to female emancipation. Ethology 111:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arnold W (1990) The evolution of marmot sociality. II. Costs and benefits of joint hibernation. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 27:239–246Google Scholar
  9. Arnold SJ (1994) Is there a unifying concept of sexual selection that applies to both plants and animals? Am Nat 144:1–12Google Scholar
  10. Asa CS (1999) Male reproductive success in free-ranging feral horses. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 47:89–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aureli F, Cozzolino R, Cordischi C, Scucchi S (1992) Kin-oriented redirection among Japanese macaques: an expression of a revenge system? Anim Behav 44:283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aureli F, Cords M, van Schaik CP (2002) Conflict resolution following aggression in gregarious animals: a predictive framework. Anim Behav 64:325–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Axelrod R, Hamilton WD (1981) The evolution of cooperation. Science 211:1390–1396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Baalen M van, Jansen VAA (2003) Common language or tower of Babel? On the evolutionary dynamics of signals and their meanings. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Backwell PRY, Jennions MD (2004) Coalition among male fiddler crab. Nature 430:417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Backwell PRY, Christy JH, Telford SR, Jennions MD, Passmore NI (2000) Dishonest signalling in a fiddler crab. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:719–724Google Scholar
  17. Baer B, Schmid-Hempel P (1999) Experimental variation in polyandry affects parasite loads and fitness in a bumble-bee. Nature 397:151–154Google Scholar
  18. Baglione V, Canestrari D, Marcos JM, Ekman J (2003) Kin selection in cooperative alliances of carrion crows. Science 300:1947–1949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Barber I, Ruxton GD (2000) The importance of stable schooling: do familiar sticklebacks stick together? Proc R Soc Lond B 267:151–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Beauchamp G (2004) Reduced flocking by birds on islands with relaxed predation. Proc R Soc Lond B 271:1039–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bensch S, Hasselquist D (1992) Evidence for active choice in a polygynous warbler. Anim Behav 44:301–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bergstrom TC (2002) Evolution of social behavior: individual and group selection. J Econom Perspect 16:67–88Google Scholar
  23. Bertram BCR (1978) Living in groups: predators and prey. In: Krebs JR, Davies NB (eds) Behavioural Ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 64–97Google Scholar
  24. Boesch C (1994) Cooperative hunting in wild chimpanzees. Anim Behav 48:653–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Boesch C (2002) Cooperative hunting roles among Tai chimpanzees. Hum Nat 13:27–46Google Scholar
  26. Boots M, Knell RJ (2002) The evolution of risky behaviour in the presence of a sexually transmitted disease. Proc R Soc Lond B 269:585–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bradbury JW, Vehrencamp SL (1998) Principles of Animal Communication. Sinauer, Sunderland/MAGoogle Scholar
  28. Bried J, Pontier D, Jouventin P (2003) Mate fidelity in monogamous birds: a reexamination of the Procellariiformes. Anim Behav 65:235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bro-Jørgensen J (2002) Overt female mate competition and preference for central males in a lekking antelope. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:9290–9293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bro-Jørgensen J (2003) No peace for estrous topi cows on leks. Behav Ecol 14:521–525Google Scholar
  31. Brosnan SF, de Waal FBM (2003) Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature 425:297–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bshary R, Schäffer D (2002) Choosy reef fish select cleaner fish that provide high-quality service. Anim Behav 63:557–564Google Scholar
  33. Buchanan K, Evans M, Goldsmith A, Bryant D, Rowe L (2001) Testosterone influences basal metabolic rate in male house sparrows: a new cost of dominance signalling? Proc R Soc Lond B 268:1337–1344Google Scholar
  34. Bull CM (2000) Monogamy in lizards. Behav Proc 51:7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Byrne RW (2000) How monkeys find their way: leadership, coordination, and cognitive maps of African baboons. In: Boinski S, Garber P (eds) On the Move. Univ of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 491–518Google Scholar
  36. Cahan SH, Blumstein D, Siundström L, Liebig J, Griffin A (2002) Social trajectories and the evolution of social behavior. Oikos 96:206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Camazine S, Visscher PK, Finley J, Vetter RS (1999) Hose-hunting by honey bee swarms: collective decisions and individual behaviors. Insect Soc 46:348–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Caraco T (1981) Risk-sensitivity and foraging groups. Ecology 62:527–531Google Scholar
  39. Caraco T (1982) Aspects of risk-aversion in foraging white-crowned sparrows. Anim Behav 30:719–727Google Scholar
  40. Caraco T, Martindale S, Pulliam HR (1980) Avian flocking in the presence of a predator. Nature 285:400–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Carr GM, Macdonald DW (1986) The sociality of solitary foragers: a model based on resource dispersion. Anim Behav 34:1540–1549Google Scholar
  42. Chapais B, Savard L, Gauthier C (2001) Kin selection and the distribution of altruism in relation to degree of kinship in japanes macaques (Macaca fuscata). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 49:493–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chapman CA, Wrangham RW, Chapman LJ (1995) Ecological constraints on group size: an analysis of spider monkey and chimpanzee subgroups. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 36:59–70Google Scholar
  44. Chapman DD, Prodöhl PA, Gelsleichter J, Manire CA, Shivji MS (2004) Predominance of genetic monogamy by females in a hammerhead shark, Sphyrna tiburo: implications for shark conservation. Mol Ecol 13:1965–1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Chapple DG, Keogh JS (2005) Complex mating system and dispersal patterns in a social lizard; Egernia whitii. Mol Ecol 14:1215–1227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Charrier I, Mathevon N, Jouventin P, Aubin T (2001) Acoustic communication in a black-headed gull colony: how do chicks identify their parents. Ethology 107:961–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM, Smuts BB (1986) Social relationships and social cognition in non-human primates. Science 234:1361–1366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Chesser RK (1991) Gene diversity and female philopatry. Genetics 127:437–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Clutton-Brock TH (1989) Mammalian mating systems. Proc R Soc Lond B 236:339–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Clutton-Brock TH (2002) Breeding together: kin selection and mutual ism in cooperative vertebrates. Science 296:69–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Clutton-Brock TH, Parker GA (1995a) Sexual coercion in animal societies. Anim Behav 49:1345–1365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Clutton-Brock TH, Parker GA (1995b) Punishment in animal societies. Nature 373:209–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Clutton-Brock TH, Price OF, MacColl ADC (1992) Mate retention, harassment, and the evolution of ungulate leks. Behav Ecol 3:234–242Google Scholar
  54. Conradt L, Roper TJ (2003) Group decision-making in animals. Nature 421:155–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Cords M (1992) Post-conflict reunions and reconciliation in long-tailed macaques. Anim Behav 44:57–61Google Scholar
  56. Costa JT, Fitzgerald TD (1996) Developments in social terminology: semantic battles in a conceptual war. Trends Ecol Evol 11:285–289Google Scholar
  57. Coté IM, Poulin R (1995) Parasitism and group-size in social animals-a meta-analysis. Behav Ecol 6:159–165Google Scholar
  58. Cote SD, Schaefer JA, Messier F (1997) Time budgets and synchrony in activity in muskoxen: influence of sex, age and season. Can J Zool 75:1628–1635Google Scholar
  59. Couzin ID, Krause J, Franks NR, Levin SA (2005) Effective leadership and decision-making in animal groups on the move. Nature 433:513–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Crespi BJ, Ragsdale JE (2000) A skew model for the evolution of sociality via manipulation: why it is better to be feared than loved. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:821–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Cuadrado M, Martiân J, Loâpez P (2001) Camouflage and escape decisions in the common chameleon Chameleon chameleon. Biol J Linn Soc 72:547–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Cummings ME, Rosenthal GW, Ryan MJ (2003) A private ultraviolet channel in visual communication. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:897–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dammhahn M, Kappeler PM (2005) Social system of Microcebus berthae, the world’s smallest primate. Int J Primatol 26:407–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Danchin E, Boulinier T, Massot M (1998) Conspecific reproductive success and breeding habitat selection: implications for the study of coloniality. Ecology 79:2415–2428Google Scholar
  65. Das M, Penke Z, van Hooff JARAM (1998) Postconflict affiliation and stress-related behavior of long-tailed macaque aggressors. Int J Primatol 19:53–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Davies NB (1985) Cooperation and conflict among dunnocks, Prunella modularis, in a variable mating system. Anim Behav 33:628–648Google Scholar
  67. Davies NB, Halliday TR (1978) Deep croaks and fighting assessment in toads (Bufo bufo). Nature 274:683–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Davies NB, Hartley IR (1996) Food patchiness, territory overlap and social systems: an experiment with dunnocks Prunella modularis. J Anim Ecol 65:837–846Google Scholar
  69. Davies NB, Houston AI (1986) Reproductive success of dunnocks Prunella modularis in a variable mating system. II. Conflict of interest among breeding adults. J Anim Ecol 55:139–154Google Scholar
  70. Dawkins MS, Guilford T (1991) The corruption of honest signalling. Anim Behav 41:865–873Google Scholar
  71. Dawkins R, Krebs JR (1978) Animal signals: information or manipulation? In: Krebs JR, Davies NB (eds) Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 282–313Google Scholar
  72. DeSalle R, Amato G (2004) The expansion of conservation genetics. Nat Genet 5:702–712Google Scholar
  73. DeWoody JA, Fletcher DE, Wilkins SD, Nelson WS, Avise JC (2000) Genetic monogamy and biparental care in an externally fertilizing fish, the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Proc R Soc Lond B 267:2431–2437Google Scholar
  74. Dingemanse NJ, Both C, van Nordwijk AJ, Rutten AL, Drent PJ (2003) Natal dispersal and personalities in great tits (Parus major). Proc R Soc Lond B 270:741–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Dobson FS (1982) Competition for mates and predominant juvenile male dispersal in mammals. Anim Behav 30:1183–1192Google Scholar
  76. Drummond H, Reodríguez C, Vallarino A, Valderrábano C, Rogel G, Tobón E (2003) Desperado siblings: uncontrollably aggressive junior chicks. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 53:287–296Google Scholar
  77. Dubois F, Giraldeau L, Grant JWA (2003) Resource defense in a group-foraging context. Behav Ecol 14:2–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Dugatkin L (2002) Animal cooperation among unrelated individuals. Naturwissenschaften 89:533–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Dunn PO, Whittingham LA, Pitcher TE (2001) Mating systems, sperm competition, and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in birds. Evolution 55:161–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Eberle M, Kappeler PM (2004) Sex in the dark: determinants and consequences of mixed male mating tactics in Microcebus murinus, a small solitary nocturnal primate. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 57:77–90Google Scholar
  81. Eggert A-K, Sakaluk SK (1995) Female-coerced monogamy in burying beetles. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 37:147–153Google Scholar
  82. Elgar MA (1989) Predator vigilance and group size in mammals and birds: a critical review of the empirical evidence. Biol Rev 64:13–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Emlen ST, Oring LW (1977) Ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of mating systems. Science 197:215–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Emlen ST, Wrege PH, Webster MS (1998) Cuckoldry as a cost of polyandry in the sex-role-reversed wattled jacana, Jacana jacana. Proc R Soc London B 265:2359–2364Google Scholar
  85. Endler JA, Basolo AL (1998) Sensory ecology, receiver biases and sexual selection. Trends Ecol Evol 13:415–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Favre L, Balloux F, Goudet J, Perrin N (1997) Female-biased dispersal in the monogamous mammal Crocidura russula: evidence from field data and microsatellite patterns. Proc R Soc Lond B 264:127–132Google Scholar
  87. Ferreras P, Delibes M, Palomares F, Fedriani JM, Calzada J, Revilla E (2004) Proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal in the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus. Behav Ecol 15:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Fichtel C, Hammerschmidt K, Jürgens U (2001) On the vocal expression of emotion. A multi-parametric analysis of different states of aversion in the squirrel monkey. Behaviour 138:97–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Fischer J, Kitchen DM, Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL (2004) Baboon loud calls advertise male quality: acoustic features and their relation to rank, age, and exhaustion. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 56:140–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Folstad I, Karter AJ (1992) Parasites, bright males, and the immunocompetence handicap. Am Nat 139:603–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Fredsted T, Pertoldi C, Olesen J, Eberle M, Kappeler PM (2004) Microgeographic heterogeneity in spatial distribution and mtDNA variability of gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus, Primates: Cheirogaleidae). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 56:393–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Fuentes A (2000) Hylobatid communities: changing views on pair bonding and social organization in hominoids. Ybk Phys Anthropol 43:33–60Google Scholar
  93. Gazda SK, Connor RC, Edgar RK, Cox F (2005) A division of labour with role specialization in group-hunting bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off Cedar key, Florida. Proc R Soc Lond B 272:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Geffen E, Gompper ME, Gittleman JL, Luh HK, Macdonald DW, Wayne RK (1996) Size, life-history traits, and social organization in the Canidae: a reevaluation. Am Nat 147:140–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Giraldeau L-A, Beauchamp G (1999) Food exploitation: searching for the optimal joining policy. Trends Ecol Evol 14:102–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Goldberg T, Wrangham RW (1997) Genetic correlates of social behaviour in wild chimpanzees: evidence from mitochondrial DNA. Anim Behav 54:559–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Goldizen AW (1987) Facultative polyandry and the role of infant-carrying in wild saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 20:99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Goldizen AW, Buchan JC, Putland DE, Krebs EA (2000) Patterns of mate-charing in a population of Tasmanian native hens Gallinula mortierii. Ibis 142:40–47Google Scholar
  99. Gomendio M, Harcourt MA, Roldan ERS (1998) Sperm competition in mammals. In: Birkhead T, Moller A (eds) Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection. Academic Press, London, pp 667–751Google Scholar
  100. Greene MJ, Gordon DM (2003) Cuticular hydrocarbons inform task decisions. Nature 423:32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Greenwood PJ (1980) Mating systems, philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals. Anim Behav 28:1140–1162Google Scholar
  102. Greenwood PJ, Harvey PH (1982) The natal and breeding dispersal of birds. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 13:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Gubernick DJ (1994) Biparental care and male-female relations in mammals. In: Parmigiani S, vom Saal F (eds) Infanticide and Parental Care. Harwood, Chur/CH, pp 427–463Google Scholar
  104. Gubernick DJ, Teferi T (2000) Adaptive significance of male parental care in a monogamous mammal. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:147–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hamilton WD (1964) The genetical evolution of social behaviour. J theoret Biol 7:1–52Google Scholar
  106. Hammerschmidt K, Newman JD, Champoux M, Suomi SJ (2000) Changes in rhesus macaque coo vocalizations during early development. Ethology 106:873–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hammerstein P (2003) Understanding cooperation: an interdisciplinary challenge. In: Hammerstein P (ed) Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. MIT Press, Cambridge/MA, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  108. Hammerstein P, Parker GA (1982) The asymmetric war of attrition. J theoret Biol 96:647–682Google Scholar
  109. Hannonen M, Sundström L (2003) Worker nepotism among polygynous ants. Nature 421:910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hart BL, Hart LA (1992) Reciprocal allogrooming in impala, Aepyceros melampus. Anim Behav 44:1073–1083Google Scholar
  111. Hass CC, Valenzuela D (2002) Anti-predator benefits of group living in white-nosed coatis (Nasua narica). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 51:570–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hasselquist D, Sherman PW (2001) Social mating systems and extrapair fertilizations in passerine birds. Behav Ecol 12:457–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hauser MD (1992) Costs of deception: cheaters are punished in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:12137–12139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Hauser MD (1996) The Evolution of Communication. MIT Press, Cambridge/MAGoogle Scholar
  115. Hebblewhite M, Pletscher DH (2002) Effects of elk group size on predation by wolves. Can J Zool 80:800–809Google Scholar
  116. Hebets EA, Papaj DR (2005) Complex signal function: developing a framework of testable hypotheses. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 57:197–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Heckel G, von Helversen O (2003) Genetic mating system and the significance of harem associations in the bat Saccopteryx bilineata. Mol Ecol 12:219–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Heinsohn R, Packer C (1995) Complex cooperative strategies in group-territorial African lions. Science 269:1260–1262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Hemelrijk CK (1994) Support for being groomed in long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis. Anim Behav 48:479–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Hemelrijk CK (2002) Understanding social behaviour with the help of complexity science. Ethology 108:655–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Henzi SP, Barrett L (2002) Infants as a commodity in a baboon market. Anim Behav 63:915–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Henzi SP, Barrett L, Gaynor D, Greeff J, Weingrill T, Hill RA (2003) Effect of resource competition on the long term allocation of grooming by female baboons: evaluating Seyfarth’s model. Anim Behav 66:931–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Hinde RA (1976) Interactions, relationships and social structure. Man 11:1–17Google Scholar
  124. Höglund J, Alatalo RV (1995) Leks. Princeton Univ Press, Princeton/NJGoogle Scholar
  125. Hoelzel AR, Le Boeuf BJ, Reiter J, Campagna C (1999) Alpha-male paternity in elephant seals. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 46:298–306Google Scholar
  126. Ims RA (1988) Spatial clumping of sexually receptive females induces space sharing among male voles. Nature 335:541–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Isbell LA, van Vuren D (1996) Differential costs of locational and social dispersal and their consequences for female group-living primates. Behaviour 133:1–36Google Scholar
  128. Janik VM, Slater PJB (2000) The different roles of social learning in vocal communication. Anim Behav 60:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Janson CH, Goldsmith ML (1995) Predicting group size in primates: foraging costs and predation risks. Behav Ecol 6:326–336Google Scholar
  130. Johnson LS, Kermott LH, Lein MR (1993) The cost of polygyny in the house wren Troglodytes aedon. J Anim Ecol 62:669–682Google Scholar
  131. Johnson DDP, Kays R, Blackwell PG, Macdonald DW (2002) Does the resource dispersion hypothesis explain group living? Trends Ecol Evol 17:563–570Google Scholar
  132. Johnstone RA (1996) Multiple displays in animal communication: ‘backup signals’ and ‘multiple messages’. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 351:329–338Google Scholar
  133. Johnstone RA (1998) Conspirational whispers and conspicuous displays: games of signal detection. Evolution 52:1554–1563Google Scholar
  134. Kappeler PM (1997) Intrasexual selection in Mirza coquereli: evidence for scramble competition polygyny in a solitary primate. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 41:115–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kappeler PM (1998) To whom it may concern: transmission and function of chemical signals in Lemur catta. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 42:411–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kappeler PM (2000a) Primate males: history and theory. In: Kappeler PM (ed) Primate Males. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 3–7Google Scholar
  137. Kappeler PM (2000b) Causes and consequences of unusual sex ratios among lemurs. In: Kappeler PM (ed) Primate Males. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 55–63Google Scholar
  138. Kappeler PM, van Schaik CP (2002) The evolution of primate social systems. Int J Primatol 23:707–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Kerth G, Reckardt K (2003) Information transfer about roosts in female Bechstein’s bats: an experimental field study. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:511–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Kleiman DG (1977) Monogamy in mammals. Q Rev Biol 52:39–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Klingel H (1975) Social organization and reproduction in equids. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 23:7–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Koenig A (2002) Competition for resources and its behavioral consequences among female primates. Int J Primatol 23:759–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Kokko H (1997) The lekking game: can female choice explain aggregated male displays? J theoret Biol 187:57–64Google Scholar
  144. Kokko H, Morrell LJ (2005) Mate guarding, male attractiveness, and paternity under social monogamy. Behav Ecol 16:724–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Komers PE, Brotherton PNM (1997) Female space use is the best predictor of monogamy in mammals. Proc R Soc Lond B 264:1261–1270Google Scholar
  146. Krakauer AH (2005) Kin selection and cooperative courtship in wild turkeys. Nature 434:69–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Krützen M, Sherwin WB, Connor RC, Barré LM, van de Casteele T, Mann J, Brooks R (2003) Contrasting relatedness patterns in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) with different alliance strategies. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:497–502Google Scholar
  148. Kummer H (1968) Social Organization of Hamadryas Baboons. Univ of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  149. Lachmann M, Sella G, Jablonka E (2000) On the advantages of information sharing. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:1287–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Langmore NE, Davies NB (1997) Female dunnocks use vocalizations to compete for males. Anim Behav 53:881–890Google Scholar
  151. Leonard ML, Horn AG, Eden SF (1988) Parent-offspring aggression in moorhens. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 23:265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Lifjeld JT, Slagsvold T, Ellegren H (1998) Experimentally reduced paternity affects paternal effort and reproduce success in pied flycatchers. Anim Behav 55:319–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Lim MM, Hammock EAD, Young LJ (2004a) The role of vasopressin in the genetic and neural regulation of monogamy. J Neuroendocrinol 16:325–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Lim MM, Wang Z, Olazabal D-E, Ren X, Terwilliger EF, Young LJ (2004b) Enhanced partner preference in a promiscuous species by manipulating the expression of a single gene. Nature 429:754–757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Lindenfors P, Tullberg BS, Biuw M (2002) Phylogenetic analyses of sexual selection and sexual size dimorphism in pinnipeds. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 52:188–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Lingle S (2001) Anti-Predator strategies and grouping patterns in white-tailed deer and mule deer. Ethology 107:295–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Lioni A, Deneubourg J-L (2004) Collective decision through self-assembling. Naturwissenschaften 91:237–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Lockhart AB, Thrall PH, Antonovics J (1996) Sexually transmitted diseases in animals: ecological and evolutionary implications. Biol Rev 71:415–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. MacDonald DW (1983) The ecology of carnivore social behaviour. Nature 301:379–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Mallon EB, Pratt SC, Franks NR (2001) Individual and collective decision-making during nest-site selection by the ant Leptothorax albipennis. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 50:352–359Google Scholar
  161. Manser MB (2001) The acoustic structure of suricates’ alarm calls varies with predator type and the level of response urgency. Proc R Soc Lond B 268:2315–2324Google Scholar
  162. Marsh DM, Rand AS, Ryan MJ (2000) Effects of inter-pond distance on the breeding ecology of tungara frogs. Oecologia 122:505–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Mateo JM (2002) Kin-recognition abilities and nepotism as a function of sociality. Proc R Soc Lond B 269:721–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Mathews L (2002) Tests of the mate-guarding hypothesis for social monogamy: does population density, sex ratio, or female synchrony affect behavior of male snapping shrimp. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 51:426–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Maynard Smith J, Harper D (2003) Animal Signals. Oxford Univ Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  166. Michiels NK, Streng A (1998) Sperm exchange in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 42:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Mitani JC, Gros-Louis J, Richards AF (1996) Sexual dimorphism, the operational sex ratio, and the intensity of male competition in polygynous primates. Am Nat 147:966–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Mitchell CL, Boinski S, van Schaik CP (1991) Competitive regimes and female bonding in two species of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi and S. sciureus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 28:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Mock DW, Fujioka M (1990) Monogamy and long-term pair bonding in vertebrates. Trends Ecol Evol 5:39–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Møller AP (2000) Male parental care, female reproductive success, and extrapair paternity. Behav Ecol 11:161–168Google Scholar
  171. Monnin T, Ratnieks FLW, Jones GR, Beard R (2002) Pretender punishment induced by chemical signalling in a queenless ant. Nature 419:61–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Montrose VT, Harris WE, Moore PJ (2004) Sexual conflict and cooperation under naturally occurring male enforced monogamy. J Evol Biol 17:443–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Moritz RFA, Simon UE, Crewe RM (2000) Pheromonal contest between honeybee workers (Apis mellifera capensis). Naturwissenschaften 87:395–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Mulder RA, Langmore NE (1993) Dominant males punish helpers for temporary defection in superb fairy-wrens. Anim Behav 45:830–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Mulder RA, Dunn PO, Cockburn A, Lazenby-Cohen KA, Howell MJ (1994) Helpers liberate female fairy-wrens from constraints on extra-pair mate choice. Proc R Soc Lond B 255:223–229Google Scholar
  176. Naguib M, Wiley RH (2001) Estimating the distance to a source of sound: mechanisms and adaptations for long-range communication. Anim Behav 62:825–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Noë R, Hammerstein P (1994) Biological markets: supply and demand determine the effect of partner choice in cooperation, mutualism and mating. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 35:1–11Google Scholar
  178. Noë R, van Schaik CP, van Hooff JARAM (1991) The market effect: an explanation for pay-off asymmetries among collaborating animals. Ethology 87:97–118Google Scholar
  179. Noë R, van Hooff JARAM, Hammerstein P (2001) Economics in Nature. Cambridge Univ Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  180. Noordwijk MA van, van Schaik CP (1999) The effects of dominance rank and group size on female lifetime reproductive success in wild long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis. Primates 40:105–130Google Scholar
  181. Nunn CL (1999) The number of males in primate social groups: a comparative test of the socioecological model. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 46:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Nunn CL (2003) Behavioural defences against sexually transmitted diseases in primates. Anim Behav 66:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Nunn CL, Deaner RO (2004) Patterns of participation and free riding in territorial conflicts among ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 57:50–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Nunn CL, Gittleman JL, Antonovics J (2000) Promiscuity and the primate immune system. Science 290:1168–1170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Orians GH (1969) On the evolution of mating systems in birds and mammals. Am Nat 103:589–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Oring LW, Reed JM, Alberico JAR (1994) Mate acquisition tactics in polyandous spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularis): the role of age and experience. Behav Ecol 5:9–16Google Scholar
  187. Osada K, Yamazaki K, Curran M, Bard J, Smith BPC, Beauchamp GK (2003) The scent of age. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:929–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Ostner J, Kappeler PM (2004) Male life history and the unusual adult sex ratios of redfronted lemur, Eulemur fulvus rufus, groups. Anim Behav 67:249–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Owens IPF, Hartley IR (1998) Sexual dimorphism in birds: why are there so many different forms of dimorphism? Proc R Soc Lond B 265:397–407Google Scholar
  190. Packer C, Ruttan L (1988) The evolution of cooperative hunting. Am Nat 132:159–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Page RA, Ryan MJ (2005) Flexibility in assessment of prey cues: frog-eating bats and frog calls. Proc R Soc Lond B 272:841–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Palombit RA (1999) Infanticide and the evolution of pair bonds in nonhuman primates. Evol Anthropol 7:117–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Parker GA (1974) Courtship persistence and female-guarding as male investment strategies. Behaviour 48:157–184Google Scholar
  194. Parrish JK, Edelstein-Keshet L (1999) Complexity, pattern, and evolutionary trade-offs in animal aggregation. Science 284:99–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Pereira ME, Kappeler PM (1997) Divergent systems of agonistic relationship in lemurid primates. Behaviour 134:225–274Google Scholar
  196. Perrin N, Lehmann L (2001) Is sociality driven by the costs of dispersal or the benefits of philopatry? A role for kin-discrimination mechanisms. Am Nat 158:471–483CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Perrin N, Mazalov V (1999) Dispersal and inbreeding avoidance. Am Nat 154:282–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Petrie M, Kempenaers B (1998) Extra-pair paternity in birds: explaining variation between species and populations. Trends Ecol Evol 13:52–58Google Scholar
  199. Phillips RA, Silk JRD, Phalan B, Catry P, Croxall JP (2004) Seasonal sexual segregation in two Thalassarche albatross species: competitive exclusion, reproductive role specialization or foraging niche divergence? Proc R Soc Lond B 271:1283–1291Google Scholar
  200. Pitcher TE, Dunn PO, Whittingham LA (2005) Sperm competition and the evolution of testes size in birds. J Evol Biol 18:557–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Podos J (2001) Correlated evolution of morphology and vocal signal structure in Darwin’s finches. Nature 409:185–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Polo V, Bautista LM (2002) Daily body mass regulation in dominance-structured coal tit (Parus ater) flocks in response to variable food access: a laboratory study. Behav Ecol 18:696–704Google Scholar
  203. Pope TR (2000) The evolution of male philopatry in Neotropical monkeys. In: Kappeler PM (ed) Primate Males. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 219–235Google Scholar
  204. Pratt SC, Mallon EB, Sumpter DJ, Franks NR (2002) Quorum sensing, recruitment, and collective decision-making during colony emigration by the ant Leptothorax albipennis. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 52:117–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Preuschoft S, van Hooff JARAM (1995) Homologizing primate facial displays: a critical review of methods. Fol Primatol 65:121–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Pribil S, Searcy WA (2001) Experimental confirmation of the polygyny threshold model for red-winged blackbirds. Proc R Soc Lond B 268:1643–1646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Prins HHT (1996) Ecology and Behaviour of the African Buffalo. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  208. Prokopy RJ, Roitberg BD (2001) Joining and avoidance behavior in nonsocial insects. Annu Rev Entomol 46:631–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Pulliam HR, Caraco T (1984) Living in groups: is there an optimal group size? In: Krebs JR, Davies NB (eds) Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  210. Pulliam HR, Pyke GH, Caraco T (1982) The scanning behavior of juncos: a game-theoretical approach. J theoret Biol 95:89–103Google Scholar
  211. Pusey AE, Packer C (1987) Dispersal and philopatry. In: Smuts B, Cheney D, Seyfarth R, Wrangham R, Struhsaker T (eds) Primate Societies. Univ of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 250–266Google Scholar
  212. Rajpurohit LS, Sommer V, Mohnot SM (1995) Wanderers between harems and bachelor bands: male hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) at Jodhpur in Rajasthan. Behaviour 132:255–299Google Scholar
  213. Rantala MJ, Jokinen I, Kortet R, Vainikka A, Suhonen J (2002) Do pheromones reveal male immunocompetence? Proc R Soc Lond B 269:1681–1685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Reichard U (2003a) Monogamy: past and present. In: Reichard U, Boesch C (eds) Monogamy: Mating Strategies and Partnerships in Birds, Humans and other Mammals. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 3–25Google Scholar
  215. Reichard U (2003b) Social monogamy in gibbons: the male perspective. In: Reichard U, Boesch C (eds) Monogamy: Mating Strategies and Partnerships in Birds, Humans and other Mammals. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 190–213Google Scholar
  216. Rendell LE, Whitehead H (2003) Vocal clans in sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). Proc R Soc Lond B 270:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Richardson BJ, Hayes RA, Wheeler SH, Yardin MR (2002) Social structures, genetic structures and dispersal strategies in Australian rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 51:113–121Google Scholar
  218. Robbins MM (1996) Male-male interactions in heterosexual and all-male wild mountain gorilla groups. Ethology 102:942–965Google Scholar
  219. Roberts G (1996) Why individual vigilance declines as group size increases. Anim Behav 51:1077–1086Google Scholar
  220. Ross KG (2001) Molecular ecology of social behaviour: analyses of breeding systems and genetic structure. Mol Ecol 10:265–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Rubenstein DI, Wrangham RW (1986) Ecological aspects of social evolution. Princeton Univ Press, Princeton/NJGoogle Scholar
  222. Ruckstuhl KE, Neuhaus P (2002) Sexual segregation in ungulates: a comparative test of three hypotheses. Biol Rev 77:77–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Ruiter JR de, Geffen E (1998) Relatedness of matrilines, dispersing males and social groups in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Proc R Soc Lond B 265:79–87Google Scholar
  224. Rukstalis M, Fite JE, French JA (2003) Social change affects vocal structure in a callitrichid primate (Callithrix kuhlii). Ethology 109:327–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Sato T (1994) Active accumulation of spawning substrate: a determinant of extreme polygyny in a shell-brooding cichlid fish. Anim Behav 48:669–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Schaik CP van (1983) Why are diurnal primates living in groups? Behaviour 87:120–144Google Scholar
  227. Schaik CP van (1989) The ecology of social relationships amongst female primates. In: Standen V, Foley RA (eds) Comparative Socioecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 195–218Google Scholar
  228. Schaik CP van, Hörstermann M (1994) Predation risk and the number of adult males in a primate group: a comparative test. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 35:261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Schaik CP van, Kappeler PM (1997) Infanticide risk and the evolution of male-female association in primates. Proc R Soc Lond B 264:1687–1694Google Scholar
  230. Schaik CP van, van Noordwijk MA (1985) Evolutionary effect of the absence of felids on the social organization of the macaques on the island of Simeulue (Macaca fascicularis, Miller 1903). Fol Primatol 44:138–147Google Scholar
  231. Scheffel A, Kramer B (2000) Electric signals in the social behavior of sympatric elephantfish (Mormyridae, Teleostei) from the upper Zambezi River. Naturwissenschaften 87:142–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Schlyter F, Zhang QH (1996) Testing avian poygyny hypotheses in insects: harem size distribution and female egg gallery spacing in three Ips bark beetles. Oikos 76:57–69Google Scholar
  233. Schradin C (2000) Confusion effect in a reptilian and a primate predator. Ethology 106:691–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Schülke O, Kappeler PM (2003) So near and yet so far: territorial pairs but low cohesion between pair-partners in a nocturnal lemur, Phaner furcifer. Anim Behav 65:331–343Google Scholar
  235. Schwagmeyer PL, Woonter SJ (1985) Mating competition in an asocial ground squirrel, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 17:291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Searcy WA, Yasukawa K (1989) Alternative models of territorial polygyny in birds. Am Nat 134:323–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Seeley TD (2003) Consensus building during nest-site selection in honey bee swarms: the expiration of dissent. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 53:417–424Google Scholar
  238. Seeley TD, Buhrman SC (1999) Group decision making in swarms of honey bees. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 45:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Seeley TD, Visscher PK (2004) Quorum sensing during nest-site selection by honeybee swarms. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 56:594–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Semple S, McComb K (1996) Behavioural deception. Trends Ecol Evol 11:434–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Semple S, McComb K (2000) Perception of female reproductive state from vocal cues in a mammal species. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:707–712Google Scholar
  242. Setchell JM, Kappeler PM (2003) Selection in relation to sex in primates. Adv Stud Behav 33:87–173Google Scholar
  243. Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL (1997) Some features of vocal development in nonhuman primates. In: Snowdon CT, Hausberger M (eds) Social Influences on Vocal Development. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 249–273Google Scholar
  244. Sharp SP, McGowan A, Wood MJ, Hatchwell BJ (2005) Learned kin recognition cues in a social bird. Nature 434:1127–1130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Shelley EL, Blumstein DT (2004) The evolution of vocal alarm communication in rodents. Behav Ecol 16:169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Sherman PW (1977) Nepotism and the evolution of alarm calls. Science 197:1246–1253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Siemers BM, Schnitzler H-U (2004) Echolocation signals reflect niche differentiation in five sympatric congeneric bat species. Nature 429:657–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Silk JB (2002) Practice random acts of agression and senseless acts of intimidation: the logic of status contests in social groups. Evol Anthropol 11:221–225Google Scholar
  249. Silk JB, Alberts SC, Altmann J (2003) Social bonds of female baboons enhance infant survival. Science 302:1231–1234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Sillero-Zubiri C, Gottelli D, Macdonald DW (1996) Male philopatry, extra-pack copulations and inbreeding avoidance in Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 38:331–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Slabbekoorn H, Peet M (2003) Birds sing at a higher pitch in urban noise. Nature 424:267–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Slagsvold T, Lifjeld JT (1994) Polygyny in birds: the role of competition between females for male parental care. Am Nat 143:59–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Sober E, Wilson DS (1998) Unto others: the evolution and psychology of unselfish behavior. Harvard Univ Press, Cambridge/MAGoogle Scholar
  254. Sommer S, Schwab D, Ganzhorn JU (2002) MHC diversity of endemi c Malagasy rodents in relation to geographic range and social system. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 51:214–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Sonerud GA, Smedshaug CA, Brathen O (2001) Ignorant hooded crows follow knowledgeable roost-mates to food: support for the information centre hypothesis. Proc R Soc Lond B 268:827–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Stacey PB, Ligon JD (1991) The benefits-of-philopatry hypothesis for the evolution of cooperative breeding: variation in territory quality and group size effects. Am Nat 137:831–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Steenbeek R, van Schaik CP (2001) Competition and group size in Thomas’s langurs (Presbytis thomasi): the folivore paradox revisited. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 49:100–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Steenbeek R, Sterck EHM, de Vries H, van Hooff JARAM (2000) Costs and benefits of the one-male, age-graded and all-male phases in wild Thomas’s langur groups. In: Kappeler PM (ed) Primate Males. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 130–145Google Scholar
  259. Stephens DW, McLinn CM, Stevens JR (2002) Discounting and reciprocity in an iterated prisoner’s dilemma. Science 298:2216–2218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Sterck EHM, Watts DP, van Schaik CP (1997) The evolution of female social relationships in nonhuman primates. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 41:291–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Stevens JR, Hauser MD (2004) Why be nice? Psychological constraints on the evolution of cooperation. Trends Cogn Sci 8:60–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Strassman J (2001) The rarity of multiple mating by females in the social Hymenoptera. Insec Soc 48:1–13Google Scholar
  263. Sun L, Müller-Schwarze D, Schulte BA (2000) Dispersal pattern and effective population size of the beaver. Can J Zool 78:393–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Sword GA, Lorch PD, Gwynne DT (2005) Migratory bands give crickets protection. Nature 433:703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Tarpy DR, Gilley DC (2004) Group decision making during queen production in colonies of highly eusocial bees. Apidologie 35:207–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Terborgh J, Goldizen AW (1985) On the mating system of the cooperatively breeding saddle-backed tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 16:293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Thrall PH, Antonovics J, Dobson AP (2000) Sexually transmitted diseases in polygynous mating systems: prevalence and impact on reproductive success. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:1555–1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Tibbetts EA, Dale J (2004) A socially enforced signal of quality in a paper wasp. Nature 432:218–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Todt D, Hultsch H (1996) Acquisition and performance of song repertoires: ways of coping with diversity and versatility. In: Kroodsma DE, Miller EH (eds) Ecology and Evolution of Acoustic Communication in Birds. Cornell Univ Press, Ithaca, pp 79–96Google Scholar
  270. Todt D, Naguib M (2000) Vocal interactions in birds: the use of song as a model in communication. Adv Stud Behav 29:247–296Google Scholar
  271. Trillmich J, Fichtel C, Kappeler PM (2004) Coordination of group movements in wild verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). Behaviour 141:1103–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Trivers RL (1971) The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Q Rev Biol 46:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Trivers RL (1972) Parental investment and sexual selection. In: Campbell B (ed) Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man. Aldine, Chicago, pp 136–179Google Scholar
  274. Velicer GJ, Yu YN (2003) Evolution of novel cooperative swarming in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Nature 425:75–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Vincent ACJ, Marsden AD, Evans KL, Sadler LM (2004) Temporal and spatial opportunities for polygamy in a monogamous seahorse, Hippocampus whitei. Behaviour 141:141–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Waal FBM de (1997) The chimpanzee’s service economy: food for grooming. Evol Hum Behav 18:375–386Google Scholar
  277. Waal FBM de (2000) Primates-a natural heritage of conflict resolution. Science 289:586–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Waal FBM de (2005) How animals do business. Sci Am 292:54–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Waal FBM de, van Roosmalen A (1979) Reconciliation and consolation among chimpanzees. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 5:55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Wallander J, Blomqvist D, Lifjeld JT (2001) Genetic and social monogamy-does it occur without mate guarding in the ringed plover? Ethology 107:561–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Watts DP (2002) Reciprocity and interchange in the social relationships of wild male chimpanzees. Behaviour 139:343–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Watts DP, Mitani JC (2001) Boundary patrols and intergroup encounters in wild chimpanzees. Behaviour 138:299–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Weatherhead PJ, Forbes MRL (1994) Natal philopatry in passerine birds: genetic or ecological influences? Behav Ecol 5:426–433Google Scholar
  284. Weatherhead PJ, Yezerinac SM (1998) Breeding synchrony and extra-pair mating in birds. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 43:217–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. West SA, Murray MG, Machado CA, Griffin AS, Herre EA (2001) Testing Hamilton’s rule with competition between relatives. Nature 409:510–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. West SA, Pen I, Griffin AS (2002) Cooperation and competition between relatives. Science 296:72–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Whitehead H (1997) Analysing animal social structure. Anim Behav 53:1053–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Whiteman EA, Côté IM (2004) Monogamy in marine fishes. Biol Rev 79:351–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Widemo F, Owens IPF (1995) Lek size, male mating skew and the evolution of lekking. Nature 373:148–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Widemo F, Owens IPF (1999) Size and stability of vertebrate leks. Anim Behav 58:1217–1221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Wilkinson GS (1984) Reciprocal food sharing in the vampire bat. Nature 308:181–184Google Scholar
  292. Williams GC (1966) Adaptation and Natural Selection. Princeton Univ Press, Princeton/NJGoogle Scholar
  293. Wolff JO, Macdonald DW (2004) Promiscuous females protect their offspring. Trends Ecol Evol 19:127–134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Wrangham RW (1980) An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups. Behaviour 75:262–300Google Scholar
  295. Wrangham RW, Gittleman JL, Chapman CA (1993) Constraints on group size in primates and carnivores: population density and day-range as assays of exploitation competition. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 32:199–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Wright TF, Wilkinson GS (2001) Population genetic structure and vocal dialects in an Amazon parrot. Proc R Soc Lond B 268:609–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Wynne-Edwards VC (1962) Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behaviour. Oliver and Boyd, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  298. Zahavi A (1977) The cost of honesty (further remarks on the handicap principle). J theoret Biol 67:603–605Google Scholar
  299. Zahavi A (1979) Ritualisation and the evolution of movement signals. Behaviour 72:77–81Google Scholar
  300. Zeh JA, Zeh DW (2001) Reproductive mode and the genetic benefits of polyandry. Anim Behav 61:1051–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Zuberbühler K (2000) Interspecies semantic communication in two forest primates. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:713–718Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Personalised recommendations