Skip to main content

Requirements Elicitation: A Survey of Techniques, Approaches, and Tools

  • Chapter
Engineering and Managing Software Requirements

Abstract

Requirements elicitation is the process of seeking, uncovering, acquiring, and elaborating requirements for computer based systems. It is generally understood that requirements are elicited rather than just captured or collected. This implies there are discovery, emergence, and development elements in the elicitation process. Requirements elicitation is a complex process involving many activities with a variety of available techniques, approaches, and tools for performing them. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these determine when each is appropriate depending on the context and situation. The objectives of this chapter are to present a comprehensive survey of important aspects of the techniques, approaches, and tools for requirements elicitation, and examine the current issues, trends, and challenges faced by researchers and practitioners in this field.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Agarwal R, Tanniru, MR (1990) Knowledge acquisition using structured interviewing: An empirical investigation. Journal of Management Information Systems, 7(1): 123–140

    Google Scholar 

  2. Akao Y (1995) Quality function deployment: Integrating customer requirements into product design. Productivity press: Cambridge, MA

    Google Scholar 

  3. Alexander IF, Stevens R (2002) Writing better requirements. Addison Wesley, Great Britain

    Google Scholar 

  4. Ball LJ, Ormerod TC (2000) Putting ethnography to work: The case for a cognitive ethnography of design. International Journal of Human—Computer Studies, 53(1): 147–168

    Google Scholar 

  5. Beck K, Cunningham W (1989) A laboratory for teaching object-oriented thinking. In: Proceedings of the conference on object-oriented programming systems languages and applications, October 1–6, New Orleans, LA, pp. 1–6

    Google Scholar 

  6. Beyer HR, Holtzblatt K (1995) Apprenticing with the customer. Communications of the ACM, 38(5): 45–52

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bostrum RP (1989) Successful application of communication techniques to improve the systems development process. Information and Management, 16(5): 279–295

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bubenko JA, Jr., Wangler B (1993) Objectives driven capture of business rules and of information systems requirements. In: Proceedings of the international conference on systems, man and cybernetics, October 17–20, Le Touquet, France, pp. 670–677

    Google Scholar 

  9. Carlshamre P, Karlsson J (1996) A usability-oriented approach to requirements engineering. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International conference on Requirements Engineer-ing, April 15–18, Colorado Springs, CO, pp. 145–152

    Google Scholar 

  10. Checkland P, Scholes J (1990) Soft systems methodology in action. John Wiley & Sons: New York, NY

    Google Scholar 

  11. Christel MG, Kang KC (1992) Issues in requirements elicitation. Carnegie Mellon University Technical report, CMU/SEI-92-TR-012

    Google Scholar 

  12. Cockburn A (2001) Writing effective use cases. Addison Wesley: Reading, MA

    Google Scholar 

  13. Constantine L, Lockwood LAD (1999) Software for use: A practical guide to the models and methods of usage-centered design. Addison Wesley: Reading, MA

    Google Scholar 

  14. Coulin C, Zowghi D (2004) Requirements elicitation for complex systems: Theory and practice. In: Requirements Engineering for Socio-Technical Systems, Mate JL, Silva A (Eds.), Idea Group: USA

    Google Scholar 

  15. CREWS, http://sunsite.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/CREWS/, Accessed 15 November 2004

    Google Scholar 

  16. Dardenne A, van Lamsweerde A, Fickas S (1993) Goal-directed requirements acquisition. Science of Computer Programming, 20(1–2): 3–50

    Google Scholar 

  17. Davis AM (1994) Software requirements: Analysis and specification. Prentice Hall: New Jersey

    Google Scholar 

  18. Davis AM (2004) Just enough requirements management: Where marketing and development meet. Dorset House: New York

    Google Scholar 

  19. DeMarco T, Plauger PJ (1979) Structured analysis and system specification. Prentice Hall, New York, NY

    Google Scholar 

  20. Feblowitz M, Greenspan S, Reubenstein H, Walford R (1996) ACME/PRIME: Requirements acquisition for process-driven systems. In: Proceedings of the 8th International workshop on software specification and design, March 22–23, Paderborn, Germany, pp. 36–45

    Google Scholar 

  21. Foddy W (1994) Constructing questions for interviews and questionnaires. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  22. Gause DC, Weinberg GM (1989) Exploring requirements: Quality before design. Dorset House, New York

    Google Scholar 

  23. Goguen JA, Linde C (1993) Techniques for requirements elicitation. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International symposium on Requirements Engineering, January 4–6, San Diego, CA, pp. 152–164

    Google Scholar 

  24. Goldin L, Berry DM (1994) AbstFinder: A prototype natural language text abstraction finder for use in requirements elicitation. Automated Software Engineering 4(4): 375–412

    Google Scholar 

  25. Gottesdiener E (2002) Requirements by collaboration. Addison Wesley: Boston, MA

    Google Scholar 

  26. Haumer P, Pohl K, Weidenhaupt K (1998) Requirements elicitation and validation with real world scenes. IEEE transactions on Software Engineering, 24(12): 1036–1054

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Herela D, Greenberg S (1998) Using a groupware space for distributed requirements engineering. In: Proceedings of the 7th workshop on enabling technologies: Infrastructure for collaborative enterprises, June 17–19, Stanford, CA, pp. 57–62

    Google Scholar 

  28. Hickey AM, Davis AM (2002) The role of requirements elicitation techniques in achieving software quality. In: Proceedings of the 8th International workshop of requirements engineering: Foundation for software quality, September 9–10, Essen, Germany

    Google Scholar 

  29. Hickey AM, Davis AM (2003) Elicitation technique selection: How do experts do it? In: Proceedings of the 11th IEEE International requirements engineering conference, Sep-tember 8–12, Monterey Bay, CA, pp. 169–178

    Google Scholar 

  30. Hinkle D (1965) The change of personal constructs from the viewpoint of a theory of implications. Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio State University, USA

    Google Scholar 

  31. Hofmann HF, Lehner F, (2001) Requirements engineering as a success factor in software projects. IEEE Software, 18(4): 58–66

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Holtzblatt K, Beyer HR (1995) Requirements gathering: The human factor. Communications of ACM, 38(5): 30–32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. IEEE (1998) IEEE Std 830-1998 Software Requirements Specification, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017-2394, USA

    Google Scholar 

  34. Jackson M (1995) The world and the machine. In: Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International conference on software engineering, April 24–28, Seattle, WA, pp. 283–292

    Google Scholar 

  35. Jackson M (2000) Problem frames: Analyzing and structuring software development problems. Addison Wesley: Boston, MA

    Google Scholar 

  36. Jones C (1996) Applied software measurement: Assuring productivity and quality. McGraw-Hill: New York

    Google Scholar 

  37. Kaufman LD, Thebaut S, Interrante MF (1989) System modeling for scenario-based requirements engineering. SERC Technical Report, SERC-TR-33-F

    Google Scholar 

  38. Kelly G (1955) The psychology of personal constructs, Norton, New York

    Google Scholar 

  39. Kotonya G, Sommerville I (1998) Requirements engineering: Processes and techniques, John Wiley & Sons, Great Britain

    Google Scholar 

  40. Krueger RA (1994) Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA

    Google Scholar 

  41. Loucopoulos P, Karakostas V (1995) Systems requirements engineering, McGraw-Hill: London

    Google Scholar 

  42. Macaulay LA (1993) Requirements as a cooperative activity. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Requirements Engineering, January 4–6, San Diego, CA, pp. 174–181

    Google Scholar 

  43. Maiden N, Gizikis A, Robertson S, (2004) Provoking creativity: Imagine what your requirements could be like. IEEE Software, 21(5): 68–75

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Martin RC (2003) Agile software development: Principles, patterns and practices, Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River

    Google Scholar 

  45. McGraw KL, Harbison-Briggs K (1989) Knowledge acquisition: Principles and guidelines, Prentice Hall: New Jersey

    Google Scholar 

  46. Nielsen J, Clemmensen T, Yssing C (2002) Getting access to what goes on in people’s heads: Reflections on the think-aloud technique. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Nordic Con-ference on Human-Computer Interaction, October 19–23, Aarhus, Denmark, pp. 101–110

    Google Scholar 

  47. Nuseibeh B, Finkelstein A, Kramer J (1996) Method engineering for multi-perspective software development. Information and Software Technology Journal, 38(4): 267–274

    Google Scholar 

  48. Nuseibeh B, Easterbrook S (2000) Requirements engineering: A roadmap. In: Proceedings of the conference on the future of software engineering, June 4–11, Limerick, Ireland, pp. 35–46

    Google Scholar 

  49. OPEN Process Framework, http://www.donald-firesmith.com/, Accessed 15 November 2004

    Google Scholar 

  50. Osborn AF (1979) Applied imagination. Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York

    Google Scholar 

  51. Potts C, Takahashi K, Anton AI (1994) Inquiry-based requirements analysis. IEEE Software, 11(2): 21–32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Reubenstein H, Waters R (1991) The requirements apprentice: Automated assistance for requirements acquisition. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 17(3): 226–240

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Richardson J, Ormerod TC, Shepherd A (1998) The role of task analysis in capturing requirements for interface design. Interacting with Computers, 9(4): 367–384

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Robertson S, Robertson J (1999) Mastering the requirements process, Addison Wesley: Great Britain

    Google Scholar 

  55. Rolland C, Souveyet C, Ben Achour C (1998) Guiding goal modeling using scenarios. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 24(12): 1055–1071

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Scenario Plus, http://www.scenarioplus.org.uk/, Accessed 15 November 2004

    Google Scholar 

  57. Siddiqi J, Shekaran C (1996) Requirements engineering: The emerging wisdom. IEEE Software, 13(2): 15–19

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Sommerville I, Sawyer P (1997) Requirements engineering: A good practice guide, John Wiley & Sons, Great Britain

    Google Scholar 

  59. Sommerville I, Sawyer P, Viller S (1998) Viewpoints for requirements elicitation: A practical approach. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering, April 6–10, Colorado Springs, CO, pp. 74–81

    Google Scholar 

  60. Sommerville I (2001) Software engineering. 6th edition, Addison Wesley, USA

    Google Scholar 

  61. Sutcliffe A, Maiden N (1998) The domain theory for requirements engineering. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 24(3): 174–196

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Taylor-Cummings A (1998) Bridging the user-IS gap: A study of major systems projects. Journal of Information Technology, 13(1): 29–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Weatherall A (1998) Creative problem solving using Group Systems. In: Proceedings of the 31st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 6–9, Hawaii, 1, pp. 588–595

    Google Scholar 

  64. Wood D, Christel M, Stevens SM (1994) A multimedia approach to requirements capture and modeling. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Requirements Engineering, April 18–22, Colorado Springs, CO, pp. 53–56

    Google Scholar 

  65. Wood J, Silver D (1995) Joint application development. John Wiley & Sons, New York

    Google Scholar 

  66. Yourdon E (1989) Modern structured analysis. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ

    Google Scholar 

  67. Yu ESK (1997) Towards modeling and reasoning support for early-phase requirements Engineering. In: Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering, January 5–8, Washington, D.C, pp. 226–235

    Google Scholar 

  68. Zave P, Jackson M (1997) Four dark corners of requirements engineering. ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, 6(1): 1–30

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Zowghi D (1999) A logic-based framework for the management of changing software requirements. Doctoral Dissertation, Macquarie University, Australia

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2005 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Zowghi, D., Coulin, C. (2005). Requirements Elicitation: A Survey of Techniques, Approaches, and Tools. In: Aurum, A., Wohlin, C. (eds) Engineering and Managing Software Requirements. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-28244-0_2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-28244-0_2

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-540-25043-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-540-28244-0

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics