Advertisement

Pheromone Action in the Fungal Groups Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota, and in the Oomycota

  • C. Schimek
  • J. Wöstemeyer
Part of the The Mycota book series (MYCOTA, volume 1)

Keywords

Mating Type Mating Type Locus Sexual Process Aquatic Fungus Phytophthora Parasitica 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arsenault GP, Biemann K, Barksdale AW, McMorris TC (1968) The structure of antheridiol, a sex hormone in Achlya bisexualis. J Am Chem Soc 90:5635–5636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Austin DJ, Bu’Lock JD, Gooday GW (1969) Trisporic acids: sexual hormones from Mucor mucedo and Blakeslea trispora. Nature 223:1178–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Austin DJ, Bu’Lock JD, Drake D (1970) The biosynthesis of trisporic acids from β-carotene via retinal and trisporol. Experientia 26:348–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barksdale AW (1963) The role of hormone A during sexual conjugation in Achlya ambisexualis. Mycologia 55:627–632Google Scholar
  5. Barksdale AW (1967) The sexual hormones of the fungus Achlya. Ann N Y Acad Sci 144:313–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barksdale AW (1969) Sexual hormones of Achlya and other fungi. Science 166:831–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barksdale AW, Lasure LL (1973) Induction of gametangial phenotypes in Achlya. Bull Torrey Bot Club 100:199–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barksdale AW, Lasure LL (1974) Production of hormone B by Achlya heterosexualis. Appl Microbiol 28:544–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barksdale AW, McMorris TC, Seshadri R, Arunachalam T (1974) Response of Achlya ambisexualis E87 to the hormone antheridiol and certain other steroids. J Gen Microbiol 82:295–299Google Scholar
  10. Bastien J, Rochette-Egly C (2004) Nuclear retinoid receptors and the transcription of retinoid target genes. Gene 17:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blakeslee AF (1904) Sexual reproduction in the Mucorineae. Proc Am Acad Arts Sci 40:205–319Google Scholar
  12. Brunt SA, Silver JC (1986a) Steroid hormone-induced changes in secreted proteins in the filamentous fungus Achlya. Exp Cell Res 163:22–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brunt SA, Silver JC (1986b) Cellular localization of steroid hormone-regulated proteins during sexual development in Achlya. Exp Cell Res 165:306–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brunt SA, Silver JC (1987) Steroid hormone-regulated basic proteins in Achlya ambisexualis. Exp Mycol 11:65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brunt SA, Silver JC (1991) Molecular cloning and characterization of two distinct hsp85 sequences from the steroid responsive fungus Achlya ambisexualis. Curr Genet 19:383–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brunt SA, Silver JC (2004) Molecular cloning and characterization of two different cDNAs encoding the molecular chaperone hsp90 in the oomycete Achlya ambisexualis. Fungal Genet Biol 41:239–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brunt SA, Borkar M, Silver JC (1998a) Regulation of hsp90 and hsp70 genes during antheridiol-induced hyphal branching in the oomycete Achlya ambisexualis. Fungal Genet Biol 24:310–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brunt SA, Perdew GH, Toft DO, Silver JC (1998b) Hsp90-containing multiprotein complexes in the eukaryotic microbe Achlya. Cell Stress Chaperones 3:44–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brunt SA, Rhiel R, Silver JC (1990) Steroid hormone regulation of the Achlya ambisexualis 85-kilodalton heat shock protein, a component of the Achlya steroid receptor complex. Mol Cell Biol 10:273–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bu’Lock JD, Osagie AU (1973) Prenols and ubiquinones in single-strain and mated cultures of Blakeslea trispora. J Gen Microbiol 76:77–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bu’Lock JD, Drake D, Winstanley DJ (1972) Specificity and transformations of the trisporic acid series of fungal sex hormones. Phytochemistry 11:2011–2018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bu’Lock JD, Jones BE, Quarrie SA, Winskill N (1973) The biochemical basis of sexualitiy in Mucorales. Naturwissenschaften 60:550–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bu’Lock JD, Jones BE, Taylor D, Winskill N, Quarrie SA (1974) Sex hormones in Mucorales. The incorporation of C20 and C18 precursors into trisporic acids. J Gen Microbiol 80:301–306Google Scholar
  24. Bu’Lock JD, Jones BE, Winskill N (1976) The apocarotenoid system of sex hormones and prohormones in Mucorales. Pure Appl Chem 47:191–202Google Scholar
  25. Caglioti L, Cainelli G, Camerino B, Mondelli R, Prieto A, Quilico A, Salvatori T, Selva A (1966) The structure of trisporic-C acid. Tetrahedron Suppl 7:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carlile MJ, Machlis L (1965a) A comparative study of the chemotaxis of the motile phases of Allomyces. Am J Bot 52:484–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carlile MJ, Machlis L (1965b) The response of male gametes of Allomyces to the sexual hormone sirenin. Am J Bot 52:478–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cerdá-Olmedo E, Hüttermann A (1986) Förderung und Hemmung der Carotinsynthese bei Phycomyces durch Aromaten. Angew Bot 69:59–70Google Scholar
  29. Chern LL, Ko WH, Tang CS (1996) Factors affecting yields of α hormones of Phytophthora parasitica obtained by adsorption. Can J Microbiol 42:172–176Google Scholar
  30. Chern LL, Tang CS, Ko WH (1999) Chemical characterization of alpha hormones of Phytophthora parasitica. Bot Bull Acad Sinica 40:79–85Google Scholar
  31. Chung HJ, Fu HY, Thomas TL (2005) Abscisic acid-inducible nuclear proteins bind to bipartite promoter elements required for ABA response and embryo-regulated expression of the carrot Dc3 gene. Planta 220:424–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cvitanich C, Judelson HS (2003) A gene expressed during sexual and asexual sporulation in Phytophthora infestans is a member of the Puf family of translational regulators. Eukaryot Cell 2:465–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Czempinski K, Kruft V, Wöstemeyer J, Burmester A (1996) 4-Dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase from Mucor mucedo, an enzyme of the sexual hormone pathway: purification, and cloning of the corresponding gene. Microbiology 142:2647–2654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Edwards JA, Mills JS, Sundeen J, Fried JH (1969) The synthesis of the fungal sex hormone antheridiol. J Am Chem Soc 91:1248–1249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Elliott CG (1972) Sterols and the production of oospores by Phytophthora cactorum. J Gen Microbiol 72:321–327Google Scholar
  36. Elliott CG (1979) Influence of the structure of the sterol molecule on sterol-induced reproduction in Phytophthora infestans. J Gen Microbiol 115:117–126Google Scholar
  37. Elliott CG (1983) Physiology of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora. In: Erwin DC, Bartnicki-Garcia S, Tsao PH (eds) Phytophthora. Its biology, taxonomy, ecology and pathology. American Phytopathological Society, St Paul, pp 71–81Google Scholar
  38. Elliott CG, Knights BA (1981) Uptake and interconversion of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters by Phytophthora cactorum. Lipids 16:1–7Google Scholar
  39. Elliott CG, Sansome E (1977) The influence of sterols on meiosis in Phytophthora cactorum. J Gen Microbiol 98:141–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Elliott CG, Hendrie MR, Knights BA (1966) The sterol requirement of Phytophthora cactorum. J Gen Microbiol 42:425–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Eslava AP, Álvarez MI, Cerdá-Olmedo E (1974) Regulation of carotene biosynthesis in Phycomyces by vitamin A and β-Ionone. Eur J Biochem 48:617–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fabritius AL, Judelson HS (1997) Mating-type loci segregate aberrantly in Phytophthora infestans but normally in Phytophthora parasitica: implications for models of mating-type determination. Curr Genet 32:60–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fabritius AL, Judelson HS (2003) Amating-induced protein of Phytophthora infestans is a member of a family of elicitors with divergent structures and stage-specific patterns of expression. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 16:926–935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fabritius AL, Cvitanich C, Judelson HS (2002) Stage-specific gene expression during sexual development in Phytophthora infestans. Mol Microbiol 45:1057–1066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Feofila EP, Fateeva TV, Arbuzov VA (1976) Mechanism of the action of trisporic acids on carotene-synthesizing enzymes of a (−) strain of Blakeslea trispora. Microbiologiya 45:153–155Google Scholar
  46. Gessler NN, Sokolov AV, Belozerskaya TA (2002) Initial stages of trisporic acid synthesis in Blakeslea trispora. Appl Biochem Microbiol 38:536–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gooday GW (1978) Functions of trisporic acid. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 284:509–520Google Scholar
  48. Gooday GW (1983) Hormones and sexuality in fungi. In: Bennett JW, Ciegler A (eds) Secondary metabolism and differentiation in fungi. Dekker, New York, pp 239–266Google Scholar
  49. Gooday GW (1994) Hormones in mycelial fungi. In: Wessels JGH, Meinhardt F (eds) The Mycota, vol 1, 1st edn. Growth, differentiation and sexuality. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 401–411Google Scholar
  50. Gooday GW, Adams DJ (1993) Sex hormones in fungi. Adv Microb Physiol 34:69–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Govind NS, Cerdá-Olmedo E (1986) Sexual activation of carotenogenesis in Phycomyces blakesleeanus. J Gen Microbiol 132:2775–2780Google Scholar
  52. Gow NAR, Gooday GW (1987) Effects of antheridiol on growth, branching and electrical currents of hyphae of Achlya ambisexualis. J Gen Microbiol 133:3531–3536Google Scholar
  53. Groner B, Hynes N, Sippel AE, Schutz G (1976) Induction of specific proteins in hyphae of Achlya ambisexualis by the steroid hormone antheridiol. Nature 261:599–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hänfler J, Teepe H, Weigel C, Kruft V, Lurz R, Wöstemeyer J (1992) Circular extrachromosomal DNA codes for a surface protein in the (+) mating type of the zygomycete Absidia glauca. Curr Genet 22:319–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hendrix JW (1964) Sterol induction of reproduction and stimulation of growth of Pythium and Phytophthora. Science 144:1028–1029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hendrix JW (1965) Influence of sterols on growth and reproduction of Pythium and Phytophthora. Phytopathology 55:790–797Google Scholar
  57. Hill TW (1996) Electrophoretic characterization of endo-(1,4)-β-glucanases secreted during assimilative growth and antheridiol-induced branching in Achlya ambisexualis. Can J Microbiol 42:557–561Google Scholar
  58. Horgen PA (1977) Cytosol-hormone stimulation of transcription in the aquatic fungus, Achlya ambisexualis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 75:1022–1028PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Horgen PA, Iwanochko M, Bettiol MF (1983) Antheridiol, RNA polymerase II and sexual development in the aquatic fungus, Achlya. Arch Microbiol 134:314–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Horowitz DK, Russell PJ (1974) Hormone-induced differentiation of antheridial branches in Achlya ambisexualis: dependence on ribonucleic acid synthesis. Can J Microbiol 20:977–980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Horton JS, Horgen PA (1985) Synthesis of an antheridiol-inducible polypeptide during sexual morphogenesis of Achlya ambisexualis. Can J Biochem 63:355–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Horton JS, Horgen PA (1989) Molecular cloning of cDNAs regulated during steroid-induced sexual differentiation in the aquatic fungus Achlya. Exp Mycol 13:263–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jones BE, Williamson IP, Gooday GW (1981) Sex pheromones in Mucor. In: O’Day DA, Horgen PA(eds) Sexual interactions in eukaryotic microbes. Academic Press, New York, pp 179–198Google Scholar
  64. Judelson HS (1996a) Genetic and physical variability at the mating type locus of the oomycete, Phytophthora infestans. Genetics 144:1005–1013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Judelson HS (1996b) Chromosomal heteromorphism linked to the mating type locus of the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. Mol Gen Genet 252:155–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Judelson HS, Spielman LJ, Shattock RC (1995) Genetic mapping and non-mendelian segregation of mating type loci in the oomycete, Phytophthora infestans. Genetics 141:503–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kerwin JL, Duddles ND (1989) Reassessment of the role of phospholipids in sexual reproduction by sterol-auxotrophic fungi. J Bacteriol 171:3831–3839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kerwin JL, Washino RK (1983) Sterol induction of sexual reproduction in Lagenidium giganteum. Exp Mycol 7:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Knights BA, Elliott CG (1976) Metabolism of Δ5-and Δ5,7-sterols by Phytophthora cactorum. Biochim Biophys Acta 441:341–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Ko WH (1980) Hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora. J Gen Microbiol 116:459–463Google Scholar
  71. Ko WH (1983) Isolation and partial characterization of α hormones produced by Phytophthora parasitica. J Gen Microbiol 129:1397–1401Google Scholar
  72. Ko WH (1985) Stimulation of sexual reproduction of Phytophthora by phospholipids. J Gen Microbiol 131:2591–2594Google Scholar
  73. Ko WH (1988) Hormonal heterothallism and homothallism in Phytophthora. Annu Rev Phytopathol 26:57–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Langcake P (1974) Uptake of sterols by Phytophthora infestans, their intracellular distribution and metabolism. Trans Br Mycol Soc 64:55–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lenton JR, Hall J, Smith AR, Ghisalberti EL, Rees HH, Goad LJ, Goodwin TW (1971) The utilization of potential phytosterol precursors by Ochromonas malhamensis. Arch Biochem Biophys 143:664–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Machlis L (1958) Evidence for a sexual hormone in Allomyces. Physiol Plant 11:181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Machlis L (1973) Factors affecting the stability of various sirenins and analogues and the uptake of sirenin by the sperm of Allomyces. Plant Physiol 52:527–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. McMorris TC (1978) Sex hormones of the aquatic fungus Achlya. Lipids 13:716–722Google Scholar
  79. McMorris TC, Barksdale AW (1967) Isolation of a sex hormone from the water mold Achlya ambisexualis. Nature 215:820–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McMorris TC, White RH (1977) Biosynthesis of the oogoniols, steroidal sex hormones of Achlya: the role of fucosterol. Phytochemistry 16:359–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. McMorris TC, Seshadri R, Weihe GR, Arsenault GP, Barksdale AW (1975) Structures of oogoniol-1,-2, and-3, steroidal sex hormones of the water mold, Achlya. J Am Chem Soc 97:2544–2545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McMorris TC, Toft DO, Moon S, Wang W (1993) Biological responses of the female strain Achlya ambisexualis 734 to dehydro-oogoniol and analogues. Phytochemistry 32:833–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mehta BJ, Salgado LM, Bejarano ER, Cerdá-Olmedo E (1997) New mutants of Phycomyces blakesleeanus for β-carotene production. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:3657–3661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Meissner G, Delbrück M (1968) Carotenes and retinal in Phycomyces mutants. Plant Physiol 43:1279–1283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mesland DAM, Huisman JG, van den Ende H (1974) Volatile sexual hormones in Mucor mucedo. J Gen Microbiol 80:111–117Google Scholar
  86. Michalski CJ (1978) Protein synthesis during hormone stimulation in the aquatic fungus, Achlya ambisexualis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 84:417–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mullins JT (1979) A freeze-fracture study of hormone-induced branching in the fungus Achlya. Tissue Cell 11:585–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mullins JT (1994) Hormonal control of sexual dimorphism. In: Wessels JGH, Meinhardt F (eds) The Mycota, vol 1, 1st edn. Growth, differentiation and sexuality. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 413–421Google Scholar
  89. Mullins JT, Ellis EA (1974) Sexual morphogenesis in Achlya: ultrastructural basis for the hormonal induction of antheridial hyphae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:1347–1350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Musgrave A, Nieuwenhuis D (1975) Metabolism of radioactive antheridiol by Achlya species. Arch Microbiol 105:313–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Musgrave A, Ero L, Scheffer R (1978) The self-induced metabolism of antheridiol in water moulds. Acta Bot Neerl 27:397–404Google Scholar
  92. Napoli JL (1999) Interactions of retinoid binding proteins and enzymes in retinoid metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta 1440:139–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Nes WD, Patterson GW, Bean GA (1980) Effect of steric and nuclear changes in steroids and triterpenoids on sexual reproduction in Phytophthora infestans. Plant Physiol 66:1008–1011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Nieuwenhuis M, van den Ende H (1975) Sex specificity of hormones synthesis in Mucor mucedo. Arch Microbiol 102:167–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ootaki T, Yamazaki Y, Noshita T, Takahashi S (1996) Excess carotenoids disturb prospective cell-to-cell recognition system in mating responses of Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Mycoscience 37:427–435Google Scholar
  96. Pommerville JC (1978) Analysis of gamete and zygote motility in Allomyces. Exp Cell Res 113:161–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pommerville JC (1981) The role of sex pheromones in Allomyces. In: O’Day DH, Horgen PA (eds) Sexual interactions in eukaryotic microbes. Academic Press, New York, pp 52–73Google Scholar
  98. Pommerville J, Olson LW (1987) Evidence for a male produced pheromone in Allomyces macrogynus. Exp Mycol 11:145–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pommerville JC, Strickland B, Romo D, Harding KE (1988) Effects of analogs of the fungal sexual pheromone sirenin on male gamete motility in Allomyces macrogynus. Plant Physiol 88:139–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Popplestone CR, Unrau AM (1973) Major sterols of Achlya bisexualis. Phytochemistry 12:1131–1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Popplestone CR, Unrau AM (1974) Studies on the biosynthesis of antheridiol. Can J Chem 52:462–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Preus MW, McMorris TC (1979) The configuration at C-24 in oogoniol (24R-3β,11α,15β,29-tetrahydroxymast-5-en-7-one) and identification of 24 (28)-dehydrooogoniols as hormones in Achlya. J Am Chem Soc 101:3066–3071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Quiles-Rosillo MD, Ruiz-Vázquez RM, Torres-Martínez S, Garre V (2005) Light induction of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Blakeslea trispora. Fungal Genet Biol 42:141–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Randall TA, Fong AA, Judelson HS (2003) Chromosomal heteromorphism and an apparent translocation detected using a BAC contig spanning the mating type locus of Phytophthora infestans. Fungal Genet Biol 38:75–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Raper JR (1952) Chemical regulation of sexual processes in the Thallophytes. Bot Rev 18:447–545Google Scholar
  106. Riehl RM, Toft DO (1984) Analysis of the steroid receptor of Achlya ambisexualis. J Biol Chem 259:15324–15330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Riehl RM, Toft DO, Meyer MD, Carlson GL, McMorris TC (1984) Detection of a pheromone-binding protein in the aquatic fungus Achlya ambisexualis. Exp Cell Res 153:544–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Riehl RM, Sullivan WP, Vroman BT, Bauer VJ, Pearson GR, Toft DO (1985) Immunological evidence that the non-hormone binding component of avian steroid receptors exists in a wide range of tissues and species. Biochemistry 24:6586–6591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ruiz-Hidalgo MJ, Benito EP, Sandmann G, Eslava AP (1997) The phytoene dehydrogenase gene of Phycomyces: regulation of its expression by blue light and vitamin A. Mol Gen Genet 253:734–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Salgado LM, Cerdá-Olmedo E (1992) Genetic interactions in the regulation of carotenogenesis in Phycomyces. Curr Genet 21:67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Salgado LK, Bejarano ER, Cerdá-Olmedo E (1989) Carotene-superproducing mutants of Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Exp Mycol 13:332–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Salgado LM, Avalos J, Bejarano ER, Cerdá-Olmedo E (1991) Correlation between in vivo and in vitro carotenogenesis in Phycomyces. Phytochemistry 30:2587–2591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schachtschabel D, Schimek C, Wöstemeyer J, Boland W (2005) Biological activity of trisporoids and trisporoid analogues in Mucor mucedo (−). Phytochemistry 66:1358–1365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Schimek C, Kleppe K, Saleem A-R, Voigt K, Burmester A, Wöstemeyer J (2003) Sexual reactions in Mortierellales are mediated by the trisporic acid system. Mycol Res 107:736–747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Schimek C, Petzold A, Schultze K, Wetzel J, Wolschendorf F, Burmester A, Wöstemeyer J (2005) 4-dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the sex hormone pathway in Mucor mucedo, is constitutively transcribed but its activity is differently regulated in (+) and (−) mating types. Fungal Genet Biol 42:804–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schmidt AD, Heinekamp T, Matuschek M, Liebmann B, Bollschweiler C, Brakhage AA (2005) Analysis of mating-dependent transcription of Blakeslea trispora carotenoid biosynthesis genes carB and carRA by quantitative real-time PCR. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 67:549–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Schultze K, Schimek C, Wöstemeyer J, Burmester A (2005) Sexuality and parasitism share common regulatory pathways in the fungus Parasitella parasitica. Gene 348:33–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Silver JC, Horgen PA (1974) Hormonal regulation of presumptive mRNA in the fungus Achlya ambisexualis. Nature 249:252–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Silver JC, Andrews DR, Pekkala D (1983) Effect of heat-shock on synthesis and phosphorylation of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in the fungus Achlya. Can J Biochem Cell Biol 61:447–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Silver JC, Brunt SA, Kyriakopoulou G, Borkar M, Nazarian-Armavil V (1993) Regulation of two different hsp70 transcript populations in steroid hormone-induced fungal development. Dev Genet 14:6–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sutherland RB, Horgen PA (1977) Effects of the steroid sex hormone, antheridiol, on the initiation of RNA synthesis in the simple eukaryote, Achlya ambisexualis. J Biol Chem 252:8812–8820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Sutter RP (1975) Mutations affecting sexual development in Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:127–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sutter RP (1977) Regulation of the first stage of sexual development in Phycomyces blakesleeanus and in other mucoraceous fungi. In: O’Day DH, Horgen PA (eds) Eukaryotic microbes as model development systems. Dekker, New York, pp 251–272Google Scholar
  124. Sutter RP (1987) Sexual development. In: Lipson E, Cerdá-Olmedo E (eds) Phycomyces. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, pp 317–336Google Scholar
  125. Sutter RP, Whitaker JP (1981a) Sex pheromone metabolism in Blakeslea trispora. Naturwissenschaften 68:147–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sutter RP, Whitaker JP (1981b) Zygophore-stimulating precursors (pheromones) of tripsoric acids active in (−)-Phycomyces blakesleeanus. J Biol Chem 256:2334–2341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Sutter RP, Zawodny PD (1984) Apotrisporin: a major metabolite of Blakeslea trispora. Exp Mycol 8:89–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sutter RP, Dadok J, Bothner-By AA, Smith RR, Mishra PK (1989) Cultures of separated mating types of Blakeslea trispora make D and E forms of trisporic acids. Biochemistry 28:4060–4066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sutter RP, Grandin AB, Dye BD, Moore WR (1996) (−) Mating type-specific mutants of Phycomyces defective in sex pheromone biosynthesis. Fungal Genet Biol 20:268–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Taylor IB, Burbidge A, Thompson AJ (2000) Control of abscisic acid synthesis. J Exp Bot 51:1563–1574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Teepe H, Böttge J-A, Wöstemeyer J (1988) Isolation and electrophoretic analysis of surface proteins of the zygomycete Absidia glauca. FEBS Lett 234:100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Thomas DM, Goodwin TW (1967) Studies on carotenogenesis in Blakeslea trispora. I. General observations on synthesis in mated and unmated strains. Phytochemistry 6:355–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Thomas DS, McMorris TC (1987) Allomonal functions of steroid hormone, antheridiol, in water mold Achlya. J Chem Ecol 13:1131–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Thomas DS, Mullins JT (1967) Role of enzymatic wall-softening in plant morphogenesis: hormonal induction in Achlya. Science 156:84–85Google Scholar
  135. Thomas DS, Mullins JT (1969) Cellulase induction and wall extension in the water mold Achlya ambisexualis. Physiol Plant 22:347–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Vail WJ, Morris C, Lilly VG (1967) Hormone-like substances which increase carotenogenesis in + and − sexes of Choanephora cucurbitarum. Mycologia 59:1069–1074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Van den Ende H (1968) Relationship between sexuality and carotene synthesis in Blakeslea trispora. J Bacteriol 96:1298–1303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Van den Ende H (1976) Sexual interactions in plants. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  139. Van den Ende H (1978) Sexual morphogenesis in the Phycomycetes. In: Smith JE, Berry DR (eds) The filamentous fungi. Arnold, London, pp 257–274Google Scholar
  140. Van den Ende H, Wiechmann AH, Reyngoud DJ, Hendriks T (1970) Hormonal interactions in Mucor mucedo and Blakeslea trispora. J Bacteriol 101:423–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Velayos A, Papp T, Aguilar-Elena R, Fuentes-Vicente M, Eslava AP, Iturriaga EA, Álvarez MI (2003) Expression of the carG gene, encoding geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, is up-regulated by blue light in Mucor circinelloides. Curr Genet 43:112–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Werkman BA (1976) Localization and partial characterization of a sex-specific enzyme in homothallic and heterothallic Mucorales. Arch Microbiol 109:209–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Werkman TA, van den Ende H (1973) Trisporic acid synthesis in Blakeslea trispora. Interaction between plus and minus mating types. Arch Microbiol 90:365–374Google Scholar
  144. Werkman BA, van den Ende H (1974) Trisporic acid synthesis in homothallic and heterothallic Mucorales. J Gen Microbiol 82:273–278Google Scholar
  145. White JD, Takabe K, Prisbylla MP (1985) Stereoselective synthesis of trisporic acids A and B, their methyl esters, and trisporol A and B, hormones and prohormones of mucoraceous fungi. J Org Chem 50:5233–5244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wöstemeyer A, Teepe H, Wöstemeyer J (1990) Genetic interactions in somatic inter-mating type hybrids of the zygomycete Absidia glauca. Curr Genet 17:163–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wöstemeyer J, Wöstemeyer A, Burmester A, Czempinski K (1995) Relationships between sexual processes and parasitic interactions in the host-pathogen systemAbsidia glauca-Parasitella parastica. Can J Bot 73:S243–S250Google Scholar
  148. Wöstemeyer J, Grünler A, Schimek C, Voigt K (2005) Genetic regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in fungi. In: Arora DK (ed) Applied Mycology and Biotechnology, vol 5. Genes, genomics and bioinformatics. Elsevier, Dordrecht (in press)Google Scholar
  149. Yakovleva IM, Vakulova LA, Feofilova EP, Bekhtereva MN, Samokhvalov GI (1980) Influence of synthetic compounds structurally close to trisporic acids on carotenogenesis and lipogenesis of the mucor fungus Blakeslea trispora. Microbiologiya 49:274–278Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Schimek
    • 1
  • J. Wöstemeyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Mikrobiologie, Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine Mikrobiologie und MikrobengenetikFriedrich-Schiller-Universität JenaJenaGermany

Personalised recommendations