Resource allocation in clonal plants

  • Markus Lötscher
Part of the Progress in Botany book series (BOTANY, volume 67)


White Clover Clonal Plant Internode Length Leaf Trace Physiological Integration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acuña GH, Wilman D (1993) Effects of cutting height on the productivity and composition of perennial ryegrass-white clover swards. J Agric Sci 121:29–37Google Scholar
  2. Alpert P (1991) Nitrogen sharing among ramets increases clonal growth in Fragaria chiloensis. Ecology 72:69–80Google Scholar
  3. Alpert P (1999a) Clonal integration in Fragaria chiloensis differs between populations: ramets from grassland are selfish. Oecologia 120:69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alpert P (1999b) Effects of clonal integration on plant plasticity in Fragaria chiloensis. Plant Ecol 141:99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alpert P, Mooney HA (1986) Resource sharing among ramets in the clonal herb, Fragaria chiloensis. Oecologia 70:227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alpert P, Simms EL (2002) The relative advantages of plasticity and fixity in different environments: when is it good for a plant to adjust? Evol Ecol 16:285–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alpert P, Stuefer JF (1997) Division of labour in clonal plants. In: De Kroon H, Van Groenendal J (eds) The ecology and evolution of clonal plants. Backhuys, Leiden, pp 137–154Google Scholar
  8. Avice JC, Ourry A, Lemaire G, Volenec JJ, Boucaud J (1997) Root protein and vegetative storage protein are key organic nutrients for alfalfa shoot regrowth. Crop Sci 37:1187–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ballaré CL, Scopel AL, Sánchez RA (1997) Foraging for light: photosensory ecology and agricultural implications. Plant Cell Environ 20:820–825Google Scholar
  10. Barthram GT (1997) Shoot characteristics of Trifolium repens grown in association with Lolium perenne or Holcus lanatus in pastures grazed by sheep. Grass Forage Sci 52:336–339Google Scholar
  11. Birch CPD, Hutchings MJ (1994) Exploitation of patchily distributed soil resources by the clonal herb Glechoma hederacea. J Ecol 82:653–664Google Scholar
  12. Birch CPD, Hutchings MJ (1999) Clonal segmentation. Plant Ecol 141:21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boschma SP, Scott JM, Hill MJ, King JR, Lutton JJ (2003) Plant reserves of perennial grasses subjected to drought and defoliation stresses on the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. Aust J Agric Res 54:819–828Google Scholar
  14. Bouchart V, Macduff JH, Ourry A, Svenning MM, Gay AP, Simon JC, Boucaud J (1998) Seasonal pattern of accumulation and effects of low temperatures on storage compounds in Trifolium repens. Physiol Plant 104:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Briske DD (1996) Strategies of plant survival in grazed systems: a functional interpretation. In: Lemaire G, Chapman D (eds) The ecology and management of grazing systems. CAB, Wallingford, pp 37–67Google Scholar
  16. Bullock JM, Mortimer AM, Begon M (1994) Physiological integration among tillers of Holcus lanatus: age-dependence and responses to clipping and competition. New Phytol 128:737–747Google Scholar
  17. Cain ML (1994) Consequences of foraging in clonal plant species. Ecology 75:933–944Google Scholar
  18. Cain ML, Dudle DA, Evans JP (1996) Spatial models of foraging in clonal plant species. Am J Bot 83:76–85Google Scholar
  19. Campbell BD, Grime JP, Mackey JML (1991) A trade-off between scale and precision in resource foraging. Oecologia 87:532–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Casal JJ, Deregibus VA, Sánchez RA (1985) Variations in tiller dynamics and morphology in Lolium multiflorum Lam. vegetative and reproductive plants as affected by differences in red/far-red irradiation. Ann Bot 56:553–559Google Scholar
  21. Casal JJ, Sánchez RA, Deregibus VA (1987) Tillering responses of Lolium multiflorum plants to changes of red/far-red ratio typical of sparse canopies. J Exp Bot 38:1432–1439Google Scholar
  22. Casal JJ, Sánchez RA, Gibson D (1990) The significance of changes in the red/far-red ratio, associated with either neighbour plants or twilight, for tillering in Lolium multiflorum Lam. New Phytol 116:565–572Google Scholar
  23. Chapman DF (1986) Development, removal, and death of white clover leaves under three grazing managements in hill country. N Z J Agric Res 29:39–47Google Scholar
  24. Chapman DF, Hay MJM (1993) Translocation of phosphorus from nodal roots in two contrasting genotypes of white clover (Trifolium repens). Physiol Plant 89:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chapman DF, Robson MJ, Snaydon RW (1990) The carbon economy of developing leaves of white clover (Trifolium repens L.). Ann Bot 66:623–628Google Scholar
  26. Chapman DF, Robson MJ, Snaydon RW (1991) The influence of leaf position and defoliation on the assimilation and translocation of carbon in white clover (Trifolium repens L). 1. Carbon distribution patterns. Ann Bot 67:295–302Google Scholar
  27. Chapman DF, Robson MJ, Snaydon RW (1992a) The carbon economy of clonal plants of Trifolium repens L. J Exp Bot 43:427–434Google Scholar
  28. Chapman DH, Robson MJ, Snaydon RW (1992b) Physiological integration in the clonal perennial herb Trifolium repens L. Oecologia 89:338–347Google Scholar
  29. Charpentier A, Stuefer JF (1999) Functional specialization of ramets in Scirpus maritimus. Plant Ecol 141:129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Corre N, Bouchart V, Ourry A, Boucaud J (1996) Mobilization of nitrogen reserves during regrowth of defoliated Trifolium repens L. and identification of potential vegetative storage proteins. J Exp Bot 47:1111–1118Google Scholar
  31. Cunningham SM, Volenec JJ (1996) Purification and characterization of vegetative storage proteins from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) taproots. J Plant Physiol 147:625–632Google Scholar
  32. Cyr DR, Bewley JD (1990) Proteins in the roots of the perennial weeds chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and dandelion (Taraxacum officinaleWeber) are associated with overwintering. Planta 182:370–374Google Scholar
  33. D’Hertefeldt T, Falkengren-Grerup U (2002) Extensive physiological integration in Carex arenaria and Carex disticha in relation to potassium and water availability. New Phytol 156:469–477Google Scholar
  34. De Kroon H, Hutchings MJ (1995) Morphological plasticity in clonal plants: the foraging concept reconsidered. J Ecol 83:143–152Google Scholar
  35. De Visser R, Vianden H, Schnyder H (1997) Kinetics and relative significance of remobilized and current C and N incorporation in leaf and root growth zones of Lolium perenne after defoliation: assessment by 13C and 15N steady-state labelling. Plant Cell Environ 20:37–46Google Scholar
  36. Deregibus VA, Sánchez RA, Casal JJ, Trlica MJ (1985) Tillering responses to enrichment of red light beneath the canopy in a humid natural grassland. J Appl Ecol 22:199–206Google Scholar
  37. Derner JD, Briske DD (1998) An isotopic (15N) assessment of intraclonal regulation in C4 perennial grasses: ramet interdependence, independence or both. J Ecol 86:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dietz H, Steinlein T (2001) Ecological aspects of clonal growth in plants. Prog Bot 62:511–529Google Scholar
  39. Donaghy DJ, Fulkerson WJ (2002) The impact of defoliation frequency and nitrogen fertilizer application in spring on summer survival of perennial ryegrass under grazing in subtropical Australia. Grass Forage Sci 57:351–359Google Scholar
  40. Dong M (1993) Morphological plasticity of the clonal herb Lamiastrum galeobdolon (L.) Ehrend.&Polatschek in response to partial shading. New Phytol 124:291–300Google Scholar
  41. Dong M (1995) Morphological responses to local light conditions in clonal herbs from contrasting habitats, and their modification due to physiological integration. Oecologia 101:282–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Evans JP (1991) The effect of resource integration on fitness-related traits in a clonal dune perennial, Hydrocotyle bonariensis. Oecologia 86:268–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Evans JP (1992) The effect of local resource availability and clonal integration on ramet functional morphology in Hydrocotyle bonariensis. Oecologia 89:265–276Google Scholar
  44. Evans JP, Whitney S (1992) Clonal integration across a salt gradient by a nonhalophyte, Hydrocotyle bonariensis (Apiaceae). Am J Bot 79:1344–1347Google Scholar
  45. Frankow-Lindberg BE (2001) Adaptation to winter stress in nine white clover populations: Changes in non-structural carbohydrates during exposure to simulated winter conditions and “spring” regrowth potential. Ann Bot 88:745–751Google Scholar
  46. Fransen B, Van Rheenen JWA, Van Dijk A, Kreulen RDK (1996) High levels of inter-ramet water translocation in two rhizomatous Carex species, as quantified by deuterium labelling. Oecologia 106:73–84Google Scholar
  47. Friedman D, Alpert P (1991) Reciprocal transport between ramets increases growth of Fragaria chiloensis when light and nitrogen occur in separate patches but only if patches are rich. Oecologia 86:76–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gautier H, Varlet-Grancher C, Baudry N (1997) Effects of blue light on the vertical colonization of space by white clover and their consequences for dry matter distribution. Ann Bot 80:665–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gautier H, Varlet-Grancher C, Baudry N (1998) Comparison of horizontal spread of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) grown under two artificial light sources differing in their content of blue light. Ann Bot 82:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Goulas E, Le Dily F, Teissedre L, Corbel C, Robin C, Ourry A (2001) Vegetative storage proteins in white clover (Trifolium repens L.): quantitative and qualitative features. Ann Bot 88:789–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Goulas E, Le Dily F, Simon JC, Ourry A (2002) Morphological pattern of development affects the contribution of nitrogen reserves to regrowth of defoliated white clover (Trifolium repens L.). J Exp Bot 53:1941–1948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Grime JP (1977) Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and their relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. Am Nat 111:1169–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Grime JP, Mackey JML (2002) The role of plasticity in resource capture by plants. Evol Ecol 16:299–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hay MJM, Newton PCD (1996) Effect of severity of defoliation on the viability of reproductive and vegetative axillary buds of Trifolium repens L. Ann Bot 78:117–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hay MJM, Newton PCD, Robin C, Cresswell A (2001) Branching responses of a plagiotropic clonal herb to localised incidence of light simulating that reflected from vegetation. Oecologia 127:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hendershot KL, Volenec JJ (1993) Taproot nitrogen accumulation and use in overwintering alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). J Plant Physiol 141:68–74Google Scholar
  57. Héraut-Bron V, Robin C, Verlet-Grancher C, Guckert A (2001) Phytochrome-mediated effects on leaves of white clover: consequences for light interception by the plant under competition for light. Ann Bot 88:737–743Google Scholar
  58. Herben T, Suzuki J (2002) A simulation study of the effects of architectural constraints and resource translocation on population structure and competition in clonal plants. Evol Ecol 15:403–423Google Scholar
  59. Hester MW, McKee KL, Burdick DM, Koch MS, Flynn KM, Patterson S, Mendelssohn IA (1994) Clonal integration in Spartina patens across a nitrogen and salinity gradient. Can J Bot 72:767–771Google Scholar
  60. Holzapfel C, Alpert P (2003) Root cooperation in a clonal plant: connected strawberries segregate roots. Oecologia 134:72–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Huber H, Stuefer JF (1997) Shade-induced changes in the branching pattern of a stoloniferous herb: functional response or allometric effect? Oecologia 110:478–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Huber H, Wiggerman L (1997) Shade avoidance in the clonal herb Trifolium fragiferum: a field study with experimentally manipulated vegetation height. Plant Ecol 130:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hutchings M, Bradbury IK (1986) Ecological perspectives on clonal perennial herbs. BioScience 36:178–182Google Scholar
  64. Hutchings MJ (1999) Clonal plants as cooperative systems: benefits in heterogeneous environments. Plant Species Biol 14:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hutchings MJ, De Kroon H (1994) Foraging in plants: the role of morphological plasticity in resource acquisition. Adv Ecol Res 25:159–238Google Scholar
  66. Hutchings MJ, Wijesinghe DK (1997) Patchy habitats, division of labour and growth dividends in clonal plants. Trends Ecol Evol 12:390–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hutchings MJ, Wijesinghe DK, John EA (2000) The effects of heterogeneous nutrient supply on plant performance: a survey of responses, with special reference to clonal herbs. In: Hutchings MJ, John EA, Stewart AJA (eds) The ecological consequences of environmental heterogeneity. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 91–130Google Scholar
  68. Jónsdóttir IS, Callaghan TV (1988) Interrelationships between different generations of interconnected tillers of Carex bigelowii. Oikos 52:120–128Google Scholar
  69. Jónsdóttir IS, Watson MA (1997) Extensive physiological integration: an adaptive trait in resource-poor environments? In: De Kroon H, Van Groenendal J (eds) The ecology and evolution of clonal plants. Backhuys, Leiden, pp 109–136Google Scholar
  70. Kahmen S, Poschlod P, Schreiber K-F (2002) Conservation management of calcareous grasslands. Changes in plant species composition and response of functional traits during 25 years. Biol Conserv 104:319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kang JH, Brink GE (1995) White clover morphology and physiology in response to defoliation interval. Crop Sci 35:264–269Google Scholar
  72. Kelly CK (1995) Thoughts on clonal integration: facing the evolutionary context. Evol Ecol 9:575–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kemball WD, Marshall C (1994) The significance of nodal rooting in Trifolium repens: 32P distribution and local growth responses. New Phytol 127:83–91Google Scholar
  74. Kemball WD, Marshall C (1995) Clonal integration between parent and branch stolons in white clover: a developmental study. New Phytol 129:513–521Google Scholar
  75. Kemball WD, Palmer MJ, Marshall C (1992) The effect of local shading and darkening on branch growth, development and survival in Trifolium repens and Galium aparine. Oikos 63:366–375Google Scholar
  76. Kim TH, Ourry A, Boucaud J, Lemaire G (1993) Partitioning of nitrogen derived from N2 fixation and reserves in nodulated Medicago sativa L. during regrowth. J Exp Bot 44:555–562Google Scholar
  77. Klimeš L, Klimešová J (1999) CLO-PLA2 — a database of clonal plants in central Europe. Plant Ecol 141:9–19Google Scholar
  78. Klimeš L, Klimešová J (2002) The effects of mowing and fertilization on carbohydrate reserves and regrowth of grass: do they promote plant coexistence in species-rich meadows? Evol Ecol 15:363–382Google Scholar
  79. Klimeš L, Klimešová J, Hendriks R, Van Groenendael J (1997) Clonal plant architecture: a comparative analysis of form and function. In: De Kroon H, Van Groenendal J (eds) The ecology and evolution of clonal plants. Backhuys, Leiden, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  80. Lardner HA, Wright SBM, Cohen RDH (2003) Assessing eight grass species for pasture by measuring etiolated spring regrowth. Can J Plant Sci 83:551–554Google Scholar
  81. Lattanzi FA, Schnyder H, Thornton B (2004a) Defoliation effects on carbon and nitrogen substrate import and tissue-bound efflux in leaf growth zones of grasses. Plant Cell Environ 27:347–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lattanzi FA, Schnyder H, Thornton B (2004b) The sources of carbon and nitrogen supplying leaf growth. Assessment of the role of stores with compartmental models. Plant Physiol 137:383–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lau RR, Young DR (1988) Influence of physiological integration on survivorship and water relations in a clonal herb. Ecology 69:215–219Google Scholar
  84. Lawson AR, Kelly KB, Sale PWG (2000) Defoliation frequency and cultivar effects on the storage and utilisation of stolon and root reserves in white clover. Aust J Agric Res 51:1039–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Leeflang L (1999) Are stoloniferous plants able to avoid neighbours in response to low R:FR ratios in reflected light? Plant Ecol 141:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Leeflang L, During HJ, Werger MJA (1998) The role of petioles in light acquisition by Hydrocotyle vulgaris L. in a vertical light gradient. Oecologia 117:235–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Li R, Volenec JJ, Joern BC, Cunningham SM (1996) Seasonal changes in nonstructural carbohydrates, protein, and macronutrients in roots of alfalfa, red clover, sweetclover, and birdsfoot trefoil. Crop Sci 36:617–623Google Scholar
  88. Lötscher M, Hay MJM (1995) Differences in resource allocation to stolon branches of Kopu white clover genotypes induced by manipulation of rooting. Agric Soc N Z Special Publ 11:145–148Google Scholar
  89. Lötscher M, Hay MJM (1996a) Distribution of mineral nutrient from nodal roots of Trifolium repens: genotypic variation in intra-plant allocation of 32P and 45Ca. Physiol Plant 97:269–276Google Scholar
  90. Lötscher M, Hay MJM (1996b) Distribution of phosphorus and calcium from nodal roots of Trifolium repens: the relative importance of transport via xylem or phloem. New Phytol 133:445–452Google Scholar
  91. Lötscher M, Hay MJM (1997) Genotypic differences in physiological integration, morphological plasticity and utilization of phosphorus induced by variation in phosphate supply in Trifolium repens. J Ecol 85:341–350Google Scholar
  92. Lötscher M, Nösberger J (1996) Influence of position and number of nodal roots on outgrowth of axillary buds and development of branches in Trifolium repens (L.). Ann Bot 78:459–465Google Scholar
  93. Lötscher M, Nösberger J (1997) Branch and root formation in Trifolium repens is influenced by the light environment of unfolded leaves. Oecologia 111:499–504Google Scholar
  94. Louahlia S, Macduff JH, Ourry A, Humphreys M, Boucaud J (1999) Nitrogen reserve status affects the dynamics of nitrogen remobilization and mineral nitrogen uptake during recovery of contrasting cultivars of Lolium perenne from defoliation. New Phytol 142:451–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lüscher A, Stäheli B, Braun R, Nösberger J (2001) Leaf area, competition with grass, and clover cultivar: key factors for successful overwintering and fast regrowth of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) in spring. Ann Bot 88:725–735Google Scholar
  96. Marcuvitz S, Turkington R (2000) Differential effects of light quality, provided by different grass neighbours, on the growth and morphology of Trifolium repens L. (white clover). Oecologia 125:293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Marshall C (1990) Source-sink relations of interconnected ramets. In: Van Groenendael J, De Kroon H (eds) Clonal growth in plants: regulation and function. SPB, The Hague, pp 23–41Google Scholar
  98. Marshall C (1996) Sectoriality and physiological organisation in herbaceous plants: an overview. Vegetatio 127:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Marshall C, Price EAC (1997) Sectoriality and its implications for physiological integration. In: De Kroon H, Van Groenendael J (eds) The ecology and evolution of clonal plants. Backhuys, Leiden, pp 79–107Google Scholar
  100. Morelli G, Ruberti I (2002) Light and shade in the photocontrol of Arabidopsis growth. Trends Plant Sci 7:399–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Morvan-Bertrand A, Boucaud J, Prud’Homme M-P (1999a) Influence of initial levels of carbohydrates, fructans, nitrogen, and soluble proteins on regrowth of Lolium perenne L. cv. Bravo following defoliation. J Exp Bot 50:1817–1826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Morvan-Bertrand A, Pavis N, Boucaud J, Prud’Homme M-P (1999b) Partitioning of reserve and newly assimilated carbon in roots and leaf tissues of Lolium perenne during regrowth after defoliation: assessment by 13C steady-state labelling and carbohydrate analysis. Plant Cell Environ 22:1097–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nagy F, Schäfer E (2000) Control of nuclear import and phytochromes. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:450–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Newton PCD, Hay MJM (1994) Patterns of nodal rooting in Trifolium repens (L.) and correlations with stages in the development of axillary buds. Grass Forage Sci 49:270–276Google Scholar
  105. Oborny B (1994) Growth rules in clonal plants and environmental predictability — a simulation study. J Ecol 82:341–351Google Scholar
  106. Oborny B, Cain ML (1997) Models of spatial spread and foraging in clonal plants. In: De Kroon H, Van Groenendal J (eds) The ecology and evolution of clonal plants. Backhuys, Leiden pp 155–183Google Scholar
  107. Ourry A, Boucaud J, Salette J (1988) Nitrogen mobilization from stubble and roots during re-growth of defoliated perennial ryegrass. J Exp Bot 39:803–809Google Scholar
  108. Ourry A, Bigot J, Boucaud J (1989) Protein mobilization from stubble and roots, and proteolytic activities during post-clipping re-growth of perennial ryegrass. J Plant Physiol 134:298–303Google Scholar
  109. Pennings S, Callaway RM (2000) The advantages of clonal integration under different ecological conditions: a community-wide test. Ecology 81:709–716Google Scholar
  110. Piqueras J, Klimeš L, Redbo-Torstensson P (1999) Modelling the morphological response to nutrient availability in the clonal plant Trientalis europaea L. Plant Ecol 141:117–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Price EAC, Hutchings MJ (1992) Studies of growth in the clonal herb Glechoma hederacea. II. The effects of selective defoliation. J Ecol 80:39–47Google Scholar
  112. Price EAC, Hutchings MJ (1996) The effects of competition on growth and form in Glechoma hederacea. Oikos 75:279–290Google Scholar
  113. Price EAC, Marshall C, Hutchings MJ (1992) Studies of growth in the clonal herb Glechoma hederacea. I. Patterns of physiological integration. J Ecol 80:25–38Google Scholar
  114. Price EAC, Hutchings MJ, Marshall C (1996) Causes and consequences of sectoriality in the clonal herb Glechoma hederacea. Vegetatio 127:41–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Price EAC, Gamble R, Williams GG, Marshall C (2002) Seasonal patterns of partitioning and remobilization of 14C in the invasive rhizomatous perennial Japanese knotweed [Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene]. Evol Ecol 15:347–362Google Scholar
  116. Pywell RF, Bullock JM, Roy DB, Warman L, Walker KJ, Rothery P (2003) Plant traits as predictors of performance in ecological restoration. J Appl Ecol 40:65–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Robin C, Guerin V, Guckert A (1989) Effect of ramification of the stolon on the assimilates distribution in the white clover. Agronomie 9:849–857Google Scholar
  118. Robin C, Varlet-Grancher C, Gastal F, Flenet F, Guckert A (1992) Photomorphogenesis of white clover (Trifolium repens L.): phytochrome mediated effects on 14C-assimilate partitioning. Eur J Agron 1:235–240Google Scholar
  119. Robin C, Hay MJM, Newton PCD (1994a) Effect of light quality (red: far-red ratio) and defoliation treatments applied at a single phytomer on axillary bud outgrowth in Trifolium repens L. Oecologia 100:236–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Robin C, Hay MJM, Newton PCD, Greer DH (1994b) Effect of light quality (red:far-red ratio) at the apical bud of the main stolon on morphogenesis of Trifolium repens L. Ann Bot 74:119–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sackville Hamilton NR, Hay MJM (1998) Vascular architecture of a large-leafed genotype of Trifolium repens. Ann Bot 81:441–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Salzman AG, Parker MA. (1985) Neighbors ameliorate local salinity stress for a rhizomatous plant in a heterogeneous environment. Oecologia 65:273–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Schlichting CD, Smith H (2002) Phenotypic plasticity: linking molecular mechanisms with evolutionary outcomes. Evol Ecol 16:189–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Schmitt J, Dudley SA, Pigliucci M (1999) Manipulative approaches to testing adaptive plasticity: phytochrome-mediated shade-avoidance responses in plants. Am Nat 154:S43–S54Google Scholar
  125. Schnyder H, De Visser R (1999) Fluxes of reserve-derived and currently assimilated carbon and nitrogen in perennial ryegrass recovering from defoliation. The regrowing tiller and its component functionally distinct zones. Plant Physiol 119:1423–1435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Shumway SW (1995) Physiological integration among clonal ramets during invasion of disturbance patches in a New England salt marsh. Ann Bot 76:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Simon JC, Jacquet A, Decau ML, Goulas E, Le Dily F (2004) Influence of cutting frequency on the morphology and C and N reserve status of two cultivars of white clover (Trifolium repens L.). Eur J Agron 20:341–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Singh DK, Sale PWG (1997) Defoliation frequency and the response by white clover to increasing phosphorus supply. 2. Non-structural carbohydrate concentrations in plant parts. Aust J Agric Res 48:119–124Google Scholar
  129. Skálová H, Krahulec F (1992) The response of three Festuca rubra clones to changes in light quality and plant density. Funct Ecol 6:282–290Google Scholar
  130. Skálová H, Pecháčková S, Suzuki J, Herben T, Hara T, Hadincová V, Krahulec F (1997) Withinpopulation genetic differentiation in traits affecting clonal growth: Festuca rubra in a mountain grassland. J Evol Biol 10:383–406Google Scholar
  131. Slade AJ, Hutchings MJ (1987) The effects of nutrient availability on foraging in the clonal herb Glechoma hederacea. J Ecol 75:95–112Google Scholar
  132. Solangaarachchi SM, Harper JL (1987) The effect of canopy-filtered light on the growth of white clover Trifolium repens. Oecologia 72:372–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Stammel B, Kiehl K, Pfadenhauer J (2003) Alternative management on fens: response of vegetation to grazing and mowing. Appl Veg Sci 6:245–254Google Scholar
  134. Staswick PE (1994) Storage proteins of vegetative tissues. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 45:303–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Stoll P, Egli P, Schmid B (1998) Plant foraging and rhizome growth pattern of Solidago altissima in response to mowing and fertilizer application. J Ecol 86:341–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Stuefer JF (1995) Separating the effects of assimilate and water integration in clonal fragments by the use of steam-girdling. Abstr Bot 19:75–81Google Scholar
  137. Stuefer JF (1996) Potential and limitations of current concepts regarding the response of clonal plants to environmental heterogeneity. Vegetatio 127:55–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Stuefer JF, Hutchings MJ (1994) Environmental heterogeneity and clonal growth: a study of the capacity for reciprocal translocation in Glechoma hederacea L. Oecologia 100:302–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Stuefer JF, Huber H (1998) Differential effects of light quantity and spectral light quality on growth, morphology and development of two stoloniferous Potentilla species. Oecologia 117:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Stuefer JF, Huber H (1999) The role of stolon internodes for ramet survival after clone fragmentation in Potentilla anserina. Ecol Lett 2:135–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Stuefer JF, During HJ, De Kroon H (1994) High benefits of clonal integration in two stoloniferous species, in response to heterogeneous light environments. J Ecol 82:511–518Google Scholar
  142. Stuefer JF, De Kroon H, During HJ (1996) Exploitation of environmental heterogeneity by spatial division of labour in a clonal plant. Funct Ecol 10:328–334Google Scholar
  143. Stuefer JF, During HJ, Schieving F (1998) A model on optimal root-shoot allocation and water transport in clonal plants. Ecol Model 111:171–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Sutherland WJ (1987) Growth and foraging behaviour. Nature 330:18–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sutherland WJ, Stillman RA (1988) The foraging tactics of plants. Oikos 52:239–244Google Scholar
  146. Sutherland WJ, Stillman RA (1990) Clonal growth: insights from models. In: Van Groenendael J, De Kroon H (eds) Clonal growth in plants: regulation and function. SPB, The Hague, pp 95–111Google Scholar
  147. Suzuki JI, Stuefer JF (1999) On the ecological and evolutionary significance of storage in clonal plants. Plant Species Biol 14:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Teuber N, Laidlaw AS (1996) Influence of irradiance on branch growth of white clover stolons in rejected areas within grazed swards. Grass Forage Sci 51:73–80Google Scholar
  149. Thomas RG (1987) The structure of a mature plant. In: Baker MJ, Williams WM (eds) White clover. CAB, Wallingford, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  150. Thomas RG, Hay MJM, Newton PCD (2002) A developmentally based categorization of branching in Trifolium repens L.: influence of nodal roots. Ann Bot 90:379–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Thomas RG, Hay MJM, Newton PCD (2003) Relationships among shoot sinks for resources exported from nodal roots regulated branch development of distal non-rooted portions of Trifolium repens L. J Exp Bot 54:2091–2104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Thomas RG, Hay MJM, Newton PCD, Tilbrook JC (2004) Relative importance of nodal roots and apical buds in the control of branching in Trifolium repens L. Plant Soil 255:55–66Google Scholar
  153. Thompson L (1995) Sites of photoperception in white clover. Grass Forage Sci 50:259–262Google Scholar
  154. Thompson L, Harper JL (1988) The effect of grasses on the quality of transmitted radiation and its influence on the growth of white clover Trifolium repens. Oecologia 75:343–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Thornton B, Millard P (1993) The effects of nitrogen supply and defoliation on the seasonal internal cycling of nitrogen in Molinia caerulea. J Exp Bot 44:531–536Google Scholar
  156. Thornton B, Millard P (1996) Effects of severity of defoliation on root functioning in grasses. J Range Manage 49:443–447Google Scholar
  157. Thornton B, Millard P, Duff EI, Buckland ST (1993) The relative contribution of remobilization and root uptake in supplying nitrogen after defoliation for regrowth of laminae in four grass species. New Phytol 124:689–694Google Scholar
  158. Thornton B, Millard P, Duff EI (1994) Effects of nitrogen supply on the source of nitrogen used for regrowth of laminae after defoliation of four grass species. New Phytol 128:615–620Google Scholar
  159. Van Kleunen M, Fischer M (2001) Adaptive evolution of plastic foraging responses in a clonal plant. Ecology 82:3309–3319Google Scholar
  160. Van Kleunen M, Fischer M, Schmid B (2000) Clonal integration in Ranunculus reptans: byproduct or adaptation? J Evol Biol 13:237–248Google Scholar
  161. Vandenbussche F, Vriezen WH, Smalle J, Laarhoven LJJ, Harren FJM, Van Der Straeten D (2003) Ethylene and auxin control the Arabidopsis response to decreased light intensity. Plant Physiol 133:517–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Volenec JJ, Ourry A, Joern BC (1996) A role for nitrogen reserves in forage regrowth and stress tolerance. Physiol Plant 97:185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wardlaw IF (1990) The control of carbon partitioning in plants. New Phytol 116:341–381Google Scholar
  164. Watson MA, Caspar BB (1984) Morphogenetic constraints on patterns of carbon distribution in plants. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 15:233–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Welham CVJ, Turkington R, Sayre C (2002) Morphological plasticity of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) in response to spatial and temporal resource heterogeneity. Oecologia 130:231–238Google Scholar
  166. Wilman D, Acuña GH (1993) Effects of cutting height on the growth of leaves and stolons in perennial ryegrass-white clover swards. J Agric Sci 121:39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Winkler E, Fischer M (2002) The role of vegetative spread and seed dispersal for optimal life histories of clonal plants: a simulation study. Evol Ecol 15:281–301Google Scholar
  168. Winkler E, Stöcklin J (2000) Sexual and vegetative reproduction of Hieracium pilosella L. under competition and disturbance: a grid-based simulation model. Ann Bot 89:525–536Google Scholar
  169. Yu F, Chen Y, Dong M (2002) Clonal integration enhances survival and performance of Potentilla anserina, suffering from partial sand burial on the Ordos Plateau, China. Evol Ecol 15:303–318Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Lötscher
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für GrünlandlehreTechnische Universität MünchenFreisingGermany

Personalised recommendations