Carotid Arteries

  • Carlo Catalano
  • Federoca Pcediconi
  • Alessandro Napoli
  • Massimiliano Danti
  • Piergiorgio Nardis
  • Linda Bertoletti
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Carotid Artery Internal Carotid Artery Compute Tomography Angiography Carotid Stenosis Spiral Compute Tomography 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Robins M, Baum H (1981) National survey of stroke: incidence. Stroke 12:45–57Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barnett HJ, Taylor DW, Eliasziw M et al. (1998) Benefit of carotid endoarterectomy in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe stenosis. North American Symptomatic Carotid Endoarterectomy Trial Collaborators (comments). N Engl J Med 339:1415–1425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    European Carotid Surgery Trialists’ Collaborative Group (1991)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    European Carotid Surgery Trialists’ Collaborative Group (1998) 5. Taylor et al. (1991)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Taylor DC (1991). Duplex Ultrasound in the assessment of vascular disease in clinical Hypertension. Am J Hypertens, 4: 550–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Estol C, Claasen D Hirsch W, Wechsler L, Mossy J (1991). Correlative angiographic and pathologic findings in the diagnosis of ulcerated plaque in the carotid artery. Arch Neurol. 48: 692–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ricotta JJ, Schenk ED, Ekholm SE, De Weese JA (1986). Angiographic and pathologic correlates in carotid artery disease. Surgery 99: 284–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    North American Symptomatic Carotid Endoarterectomy Trial Collaborators (1991) Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high grade stenosis. N Engl J Med 325:445–453Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Executive Committee for the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (1995)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Streifler JY, Eliaszwiw M, Fox AJ, Benavente OR, Hachinsky VC, Ferguson GG, Barnett HJ (1994). Angiographic detection of carotid plaque ulceration. Comparison with surgical observation in a multicenter study. North American Symptomatic carotid endoarterectomy Trial. Stroke, 25: 1130–1132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rothwell PM, Pendlebury ST, Wardlaw J, Warlow CP (2000). Critical appraisal of the design and reporting of studies of imaging and measurement of carotid stenosis. Stroke 31: 1144–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carr S, Farb A, Pearce W, Virmani R, Yao J (1996) Atherosclerotic plaque rupture in symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. J Vasc Surg 23:755–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Seeger J, Barratt E, Lawson G, Klingman N (1995) The relationship between carotid plaque composition, plaque morphology, and neurological symptoms. J Surg Res 58:330–336CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Longstreth WT Jr, Shemansky L, Lefkowitz D, O’Learly DH, Polak SF, Wolfson SK Jr (1998). Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis defined by ultrasound and the risk of subsequent stroke in the elderly. The cardiovascular health study. Stroke 29: 2371–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Golledge J, Greenhalgh R, Davies A (2000) The symptomatic carotid plaque. Stroke 31:774–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eliasziw M, Streifler JY, Fox AJ Hachiniski VC, Ferguson GG, Barnett HJM (1994) Significance of plaque ulceration in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. Stroke 25:304–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hatsukamy TS, Ferguson MS, Beach KW, Gordon D, Detmer P, Burns D, Alpers C, Strandness DE Jr (1997). Carotid plaque morphology and clinical event. Stroke 28: 95–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bladin CF, Alexandrov AV, Murphy S, Maggisano R, Norris JW (1995). A new method of measuring internal carotid artery stenosis. Stroke 26: 230–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rothwell PM, Gibson RJ, Slattery J, Sellar RJ, Warlow CP, for the European Carotid Surgery Trialists’ Collaborative Group (1994) Equivalence of measurements of carotid stenosis: a comparison of three methods on 1001 angiograms. Stroke 25:2435–2439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Davies KN, Humphrey PR (1993). Complications of cerebral angiography in patients with symptomatic carotid territory ischaemia screened by carotid ultrasound. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 56: 967–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cinat M, Lane CT, Pham H, Lee A, Wilson SE, Gordon I (1998) Helical CT angiography in the preoperative evaluation of carotid artery stenosis. J Vasc Surg 28:290–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kaatee R, Beek FJ, de Lange EE et al. (1997) Renal artery stenosis: detection and quantification with spiral CT angiography versus optimized digital subtraction angiography. Radiology 205:121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Van Hoe L, Baert AL, Gryspeerdt S et al. (1996) Supraand juxtarenal aneurysms of the abdominal aorta: preoperative assessment with thin section spiral CT. Radiology 198:443–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cumming MJ, Morrow IM (1994). Carotid artery stenosis: a prospective comparison of CT angiography and conventional angiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 163: 517–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Leclerc X, Godefroy O, Pruvo JP, Leys D (1995) Computed tomography angiography for the evaluation of carotid artery stenosis. Stroke 26:1577–1581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schwartz RB, Jones KM, Chernoff DM, Mukherji SK, Khorasani R, Tice HM, Kikinis R, Hooton SM, Stieg PE (1992). Common carotid artery bifurcation: evaluation with spiral CT. Work in progress. Radiology 185: 435–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Castillo M (1993). Diagnosis of disease of the common carotid artery bifurcation: CT angiography vs catheter angiography. AJR Am J Roengenol 161: 395–8.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dillon EH, Van Leeuwen MS, Fernandez MA, Eikelboom BC Mali WP (1993). CT angiography: application to the evaluation of carotid artery stenosis. Radiology 189: 211–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hu H (1999) Multi-slice helical CT: scan and reconstruction. Med Phys 6:5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Klingenbeck-Regn K, Schaller S, Flohr T, et al. (1999) Subsecond multislice computed tomography: basics and applications. Eur J Radiol 31:110–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rubin GD, Shiau MC, Leung AN, Kee ST, Logan LJ, Sofilos MC (2000) Aorta and iliac arteries: single versus multiple detector-row helical CT angiography. Radiology 215:670–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ertl-Wagner B, Hoffmann RT, Bruning R, Dichgans M, Reiser MF (2002) Diagnostic evaluation of the craniocervical vascular system with a 16-slice multi-detector row spiral CT. Protocols and first experiences. Radiologe 42:728–732CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lell M, Wildberger JE, Heuschmid M, Flohr T, Stierstorfer K, Fellner FA, Lang W, Bautz WA, Baum U (2002) CT-angiography of the carotid artery: first results with a novel 16-slice-spiral-CT scanner. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 174:1165–1169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chang YJ, Golby AJ, Albers GW (1995) Detection of carotid stenosis. From NASCET results to clinical practice. Stroke 26:1325–1328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chang YJ, Golby AJ, Albers GW (1995). Detection of carotid artery stenosis. From NASCET results to clinical practice. Stroke 26: 1325–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rothwell PM, Gibson RJ, Slattery J, Warlow CP, for the European Carotid Surgery Trialists’ Collaborative Group (1994) Prognostic value and reproducibility of measurements of carotid stenosis: a comparison of three methods on 1001 angiograms. Stroke 25:2440–2444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Williams MA, Nicoliades AN (1987) Predicting the normal dimension of the internal and external carotid arteries form the diameter of the common carotid. Eur J Vasc Surg 1:91–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Alexandrov AV, Bladin CF, Maggisano R, Norris JW (1993) Measuring carotid stenosis. Time for reappraisal. Stroke 24:1292–1296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Staikov IN, Arnold M, Mattle HP, et al. (2000) Comparison of the ECST, CC and NASCET grading methods and ultrasound for assessing carotid stenosis. J Neurol 247:681–686CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Randoux B, Marro B, Koskas F, Duyme M, Sahel M, Zouaoui A, Marsalt C (2001). Carotid artery stenosis: prospective comparison of CT, Three-dimensional gadolinium enhanced MR and conventional angiography. Radiology 220: 179–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chen CJ, Lee TH, Hsu HL, et al. (2004) Multi-slice CT angiography in diagnosing total versus near occlusions of the internal carotid artery: comparison with catheter angiography. Stroke 35:83–85CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    CASANOVA Study Group (1991) Carotid surgery versus medical therapy in asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Stroke 22:1229–1235Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gronholdt M (1999) Ultrasound and lipoproteins as predictors of lipid-rich, rupture prone plaques in the carotid artery. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 19:2–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Anderson GB, Ashfort R, Steinke DE, Ferdinandy R, Findlay JM (2000) CT angiography for the detection and characterization of carotid artery bifurcation disease. Stroke 31:2168–2174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Estes JM, Quist WC, Lo Gerfo FW, Costello P (1998) Noninvasive characterization of plaque morhology using helical computed tomography. J Cardiovasc Surg 39:527–534Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Oliver TB, Lammie GA, Wright AR, et al. (1999) Atherosclerotic plaque at the carotid bifurcation: CT angiographic apperance with histopathologic correlation. Am J Neuroradiol 20:897–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Walker LJ, Ismail A, Mc Meekin W, Lambert D, Mendelow DA, Birchall D (2002). Computed Tomography Angiography for the evaluation of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: correlation with hystopatology of endoarterectomy specimens. Stroke 33: 977–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bogousslavsky J, Pierre P (1992). Ischemic stroke in patient under age 45. Neurol Clin 10: 113–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Houser OW, Mokri B, Sundt TM, Baker HL Jr, Reese DF (1984). Spontaneous cervical cephalic arterial dissection and its residuum: angiographic spectrum. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 5: 27–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bousson V, Levy C, Brunereau L, Djoury H, Tubiana JM (1999). Dissection of the internal carotid artery: Three dimensional Time-of-flight MR angiography and MR imaging features. AJR Am J Roentgenol 173: 139–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Heiserman JE, Drayer BP, Fram EK, Keller PJ (1992). MR angiography of cervical fibromuscolar displasia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 13: 1457–61Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wagner AL (2001). Isolated stenosis of a persistent hypoglossal artery visualized at 3D CT Angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 22: 1613–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Silverberg GD, Britt RH, Goffinet DR (1978). Radiation-induced carotid artery disease. Cancer jan 41: 130–7Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Elerding SC, Fernandez RN, Grotta JC, Lindberg RD, Causay LC, Mc Murtrey A (1981). Carotid artery disease following external cervical irradiation. Ann Surg 194: 609–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Roubin GS, New G, Iyer SS, et al. (2001) Immediate and late clinical outcomes of carotid artery stenting in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. A 5-year prospective analysis. Circulation 103:532–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hollingworth W, Nathens AB, Kanne JP, et al. (2003) The diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography angiography for traumatic or atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid and vertebral arteries: a systematic review. Eur J Radiol 48:88–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sameshima T, Futami S, Morita Y, Yokogami K, Miyahara S, Sameshima Y, Goya T, Wakisaka S (1999). Clinical usefulness of and problems with three dimensional CT angiography for the evaluation of arteriosclerotic stenosis of the carotid artery: comparison with conventional angiography, MRA and ultrasound sonography. Surg Neurol 51: 301–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Katz DS, Hon M (2001) CT angiography of the lower extremities and aortoiliac system with a multi-detector row helical CT scanner: promise of new opportunities fulfilled. Radiology 221:7–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Macari MJ, Bini E, Milano A, et al. (2001) Low-dose CT colonography in colorectal polyp detection. Radiology 221:403Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lorusso V, Taroni P, Alvino S, Spinazzi A (2001) Pharmacokinetics and safety of Iomeprol in healthy volunteers and in patients with renal impairment or end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis. Invest Radiol 36:309–316CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rofsky NM, Adelman MA (2000) MR angiography in the evaluation of atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease. Radiology 214:325–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Barnett HJM, Warlow CP (1995) Carotid endoarterectomy and the measurement of stenosis. Stroke 24:1281–1284Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rubin GD, Schmidt AJ, Logan LJ, Sofilos MC (2001) Multi-detector row CT angiography of lower extremity arterial inflow and runoff: initial experience. Radiology 221:146–158PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlo Catalano
    • 1
  • Federoca Pcediconi
    • 1
  • Alessandro Napoli
    • 1
  • Massimiliano Danti
    • 1
  • Piergiorgio Nardis
    • 1
  • Linda Bertoletti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiological SciencesUniversity of Rome “La Sapienza,”RomeItaly

Personalised recommendations