The Cognitive Reality of Schematic Maps

  • Alexander Klippel
  • Kai-Florian Richter
  • Thomas Barkowsky
  • Christian Freksa


In graphics and language, schematisation is an important method to emphasize certain aspects and to deemphasize others. Different disciplines use schematisation for different reasons. In cartography, graphic schematisation is one aspect of map generalisation. In contrast, cognitive science addresses schematisation as a method to intentionally emphasize certain aspects of knowledge beyond technical necessity; therefore, the notion of schematic map is proposed to denote maps that employ schematisation for cognitive representational reasons. This chapter discusses different views of schematisation from cartography, linguistics, and artificial intelligence. Connections to qualitative reasoning in artificial intelligence are drawn. We address human spatial cognition and present examples of task-oriented representations. Finally, multimodality for conveying spatial knowledge and its application in schematic maps are discussed.


Spatial Cognition Spatial Object Route Information Spatial Thinking Canonical View 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Klippel
    • 1
  • Kai-Florian Richter
    • 1
  • Thomas Barkowsky
    • 1
  • Christian Freksa
    • 1
  1. 1.Transregional Collaborative Research Center SFB/TR 8 Spatial CognitionUniversität BremenBremen

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