Sinkholes in insoluble rocks
While the vast majority of sinkholes are found in the more soluble rocks, notably limestone, dolomite and gypsum, such features also occur in other rock types. The most common insoluble rock type that hosts sinkholes is basalt that was extruded as lava flows during effusive (rather than explosive) volcanic eruptions. These sinkholes are formed by the collapse of the lava tubes. However, landforms that resemble sinkholes in their processes and morphology also have been described in other rocks, notably sandstone and loess, where drainage has passed through conduit-type voids or pipes. All these features of pseudokarst, and many other more obscure landforms, differ from those in true karst by having been formed by processes other than dissolution (Halliday, 2004b).
KeywordsBasalt Lava Cover Ratio Open Tube Lava Tube Composite Foundation
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