Rock failure in collapse and caprock sinkholes
All ground voids constitute elements of weakness within a rock mass, and karst is distinguished by having the largest natural voids, where roof failure can create a significant geohazard. The natural consequence of progressive roof failure is upward void migration, which may reach the surface where it causes instantaneous major subsidence in the form of a collapse sinkhole. Where the roof failure migrates up through non-karstic rocks, the surface failure in an outcrop of insoluble rock creates a caprock sinkhole. Both these forms of sinkhole involve failure and collapse of bedrock, and are therefore distinct from the subsidence sinkholes where soil cover is flushed into stable rock fissures (Chapter 4).
KeywordsRock Failure Breccia Pipe Roof Collapse Collapse Sinkhole Cave Roof
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