One- and Two-Dimensional Systems: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy of Organic and Inorganic Structures

  • Luca Gavioli
  • Massimo Sancrotti
Part of the NanoScience and Technology book series (NANO)

17.5 Conclusions

The review on low-dimensional systems reported provides just a little taste of the expanding field of nanoscale materials and structures. Many works are showing that qualitatively new behavior in the physical phenomena is often produced by the size constraints. Although such changes in behavior can be the dominant effects in nanoscale structures, we still have remarkably little experience or intuition for the expected phenomena and their practical implication.

As surface scientists, we realize that we are just uncovering a wide world of physical phenomena involving complex systems spanning from physics to chemistry and biology. In particular, the study of simplicity will give way to the study of complexity as the unifying theme. In this world, simple structures interact to create new phenomena and assemble themselves into devices, or complicated structures can be designed atom by atom for desired characteristics.

We hope that the few examples reported here will stimulate researchers to engage in the exploration of this exciting world.

We would like to thank Mattia Fanetti, Maria Grazia Betti, Carlo Mariani and Cinzia Cepek as collaborators for the results we presented here. The nanospectroscopy facility in Brescia was funded by INFM under the Strumentazione Avanzata program. The research work presented here was funded by FIRB-MIUR project “Carbon-based micro and nanostructures”, by PRIN-MIUR project “Nanotribology”, and by the CARIPLO Foundation.


Step Edge American Physical Society Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy Vicinal Surface Inorganic Structure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Zangwill A (1988) Physics at surfaces. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Davison SG, Steślicka, M. Basic theory of surface states. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Whitman LJ, Stroscio JA, Dragoset RA, Celotta RJ (1991) Phys Rev Lett 66:1338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Modesti S, Falasca A, Polentarutti M, Betti MG, De Renzi V, Mariani C (2000) Surf Sci 447:133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Soukiassian P, Semond F, Mayne A, Dujardin G (1997) Phys Rev Lett 79:2498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fölsch S, Hyldgaard P, Koch R, Ploog KH (2004) Phys Rev Lett 92:056803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nilius N, Wallis TM, Ho W (2002) Science 297:1853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wallis TM, Nilius N, Ho W (2002) Phys Rev Lett 89:236802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gavioli L, Padovani M, Spiller E, Sancrotti M, Betti MG (2003) Surf Sci 532–535:666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Crain JN, Kirakosian A, Altmann KN, Bromberger C, Erwin SC, McChesney JL, Lin JL, Himpsel FJ (2003) Phys Rev Lett 90:176805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bollinger MV, Lauritsen JV, Jacobsen KW, Nørskov JK, Helveg S, Besenbacher F (2001) Phys Rev Lett 87:196803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gavioli L, Fanetti M, Sancrotti M, Betti MG (2005) Phys Rev B 72:035458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lukas S, Witte G, Wöll C (2002) Phys Rev Lett 88:28301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guaino P, Cafolla AA, Carty D, Sheerin D, Huges G (2003) Surf Sci 540:107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kühnle A, Molina LM, Linderoth TR, Hammer B, Besenbacher F (2004) Phys Rev Lett 93:86101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brune H, Giovannini M, Bromann K, Kern K (1998) Nature 394:451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gavioli L, Kimberlin KR, Tringides MC, Wendelken JF, Zhang ZY (1999) Phys Rev Lett 82:129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Altfeder IB, Matveev KA, Chen DM (1997) Phys Rev Lett 78:2815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Su WB, Chang SH, Jian WB, Chang CS, Chen LJ, Tsong TT (2001) Phys Rev Lett 86:5116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jiang CS, Yu HB, Wang XD, Shih CK, Ebert P (2001) Phys Rev B 64:235410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Luh DA, Miller T, Paggel JJ, Chou MY, Chiang TC (2001) Science 292:1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gambardella P, Blanc M, Brune H, Kuhnke K, Kern K (2000) Phys Rev B61:2254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dallmeyer A, Carbone C, Eberhardt W, Pampuch C, Rader O, Gudat W, Gambardella P, Kern K (2000) Phys Rev B 61:R5133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gambardella P, Dallmeyer A, Maiti K, Malagoli MC, Eberhardt W, Kern K, Carbone C (2002) Nature 416:301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eigler DM, Schweizer EK (1990) Nature 344:524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Meyer G, Bartels L, Zöphel S, Henze E, Rieder KH (1997) Phys Rev Lett 78:1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hla SW, Bartels L, Meyer G, Rieder KH (2000) Phys Rev Lett 85:2777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kent AD, Molnar Sv, Gider S, Awschalom DD (1994) J Appl Phys 76:6656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Crain JN, Pierce DT (2005) Science 307:703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Röder H, Hahn E, Brune H, Bucher JP, Kern K (1993) Nature 366:141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Böhringer M, Morgenstern K, Schneider WD, Berndt R, Mauri F, De Vita A, Car R (1999) Phys Rev Lett 83:324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lukas S, Vollmer S, Witte G, Wöll C (2001) J Chem Phys 114:10123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Guaino P, Carty D, Huges G, McDonald O, Cafolla AA (2004) Appl Phys Lett 85:2777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bromann K, Félix C, Brune H, Harbich W, Monot R, Buttet J, Kern K (1996) Science 274:956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stangl J, Holy V, Bauer G (2004) Rev Mod Phys 76:725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ratsch C, Zangwill A, Smilauer P, Vvedensky DD (1994) Phys Rev Lett 72:3194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Venables JA, Spiller GDT, Hanbucken M (1984) Rep Prog Phys 47:399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Eremtchenko M, Schaefer JA, Tautz FS (2003) Nature 425:602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lopinski GP, Wayner DDM, Wolkow RA (2000) Nature 406:48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Weckesser J, De Vita A, Barth JV, Cai C, Kern K (2001) Phys Rev Lett 87:96101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Toerker M, Fritz T, Proehl H, Gutierrez R, Grossmann F, Rüdiger S (2002) Phys Rev B 65:245422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Casalis L, Danisman MF, Nickel B, Bracco G, Toccoli T, Iannotta S, Scoles G (2003) Phys Rev Lett 90:206101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hamers RJ (2001) Nature (London) 412:489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dimitrakopoulos CD, Malenfant PRL (2002) Adv Mater 14:99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Forrest SR (1997) Chem Rev 97:1793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Blochwitz J, Pfeiffer M, Fritz T, Leo K (1998) Appl Phys Lett 73:729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hill I, Rajagopal A, Kahn A, Hu Y (1998) Appl Phys. Lett. 73:662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Koller G, Blyth RI, Sardar SA, Netzler FP, Ramsay MG (2000) Appl Phys Lett 76:927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Veenstra SC, Stalmach U, Krasnikov VV, Hadziioannou G, Jonkman HT, Heeres A, Sawatzky GA (2000) Appl Phys Lett 76:2253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schlaf R, Schroeder PG, Nelson MW, Parkinson BA, Merrit CD, Crisafulli LA, Murata H, Kafafi ZH (2000) Surf Sci 450:142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hill IG, Kahn A, Soos ZG, Pascal RAJr (2000) Chem Phys Lett 327:181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Seki K, Ito E, Ishii H (1997) Synth. Met. 91:137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rikken GLJA, Kessener Y, Braun D, Staring EGJ, Demandt R (1994) 67:115Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Alvarado SF, Seidler PF, Lidzey DG, Bradley DDC (1998) Phys Rev Lett 81:1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kemerink M, Alvarado SF, Müller P, Koenraad PM, Salemink HWM, Wolter JH, Janssen RAJ (2004) Phys Rev B 70:45202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Meyer zu Heringdorf FJ, Reuter MC, Tromp RM (2001) Nature 412:517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Umbach E, Glockler K, Sokolowski M (1998) Surf Sci 402–404:20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Umbach E, Glockler K, Sokolowski M, Fink R (1996) Appl Phys A 63:565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Söhnchen S, Lukas S, Witte G (2004) J Chem Phys 121:525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wiesendanger R (1994) Scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tersoff J, Hamann DR (1983) Phys Rev Lett 50:1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tersoff J, Hamann DR (1985) Phys Rev B 31:805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lang ND (1987) Phys Rev Lett 58:45; Phys Rev B 36:8173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chen CJ (1990) Phys Rev Lett 65:448; Phys Rev B 42:8841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bardeen J (1961) Phys Rev Lett 6:57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ohnishi S, Tsukada M (1990) J Vac Sci Technol A 8:174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chen CJ (1988) J Vac Sci Technol A 6:319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mårtensson P, Feenstra RM (1989) Phys Rev B 39:7744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Datta S, Tian W, Hong S, Reifenberge R, Henderson JI, Kubiak CP (1997) Phys Rev Lett 79:2530 Lett 90:206101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gavioli L, Betti MG, Corradini V, Sancrotti M (2004) Phys Rev B 70:125317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bechstedt F, Scheffler M (1993) Surf Sci Rep 18:145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Whitman LJ, Stroscio JA, Dragoset RA, Celotta RJ (1991) Phys Rev B 44:5951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Betti MG, Corradini V, Sauvage Simkin M, Pinchaux R (2002) Phys Rev B 66:085335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Faraci G, Pennisi AR, Gozzo F, La Rosa S, Margaritondo G (1996) Phys Rev B 53:3987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Schirm KM, Soukiassian P, Mangat PS, Soonckindt L (1994) Phys Rev B 49:5490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Di Nardo NJ, Maeda Wong T, Plummer EW (1990) Phys Rev Lett 65:2177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Magnusson KO, Reihl B (1989) Phys Rev B 40:5864; Magnusson KO, Reihl B (1989) Phys Rev B 40:7814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hebenstreit J, Heinemann M, Scheffler M (1991) Phys Rev Lett 67:1031; Hebenstreit J, Scheffler M (1992) Phys Rev B 46:10134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pankratov O, Scheffler M (1993) Phys Rev Lett 71:2797; Pankratov O, Scheffler M (1993) Surf Sci 287–288:584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Calzolari A, Pignedoli CA, Di Felice R, Bertoni CM, Catellani A (2000) Surf Sci 454–456:207; Calzolari A, Pignedoli CA, Di Felice R, Bertoni CM, Catellani A (2001) Surf Sci 491:265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kaplan R, Bermudez VM (1995) Properties of SiliconCarbide. EMIS Datareview Series INSPEC, LondonGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Alerhand OL, Vanderbilt D, Meade RM, Joannopoulos JD (1998) Phys Rev Lett 61:1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Zeppenfeld P, Kryzowski M, Romainczyk C, Comsa G, Lagally MG (1994) Phys Rev Lett 72:2737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Brune H, Bromann K, Röder H, Kern K, Jacobsen J, Stoltze P, Jocobsen K, Nørskov J (1995) Phys Rev B 52:R14380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Clemens W, Kachel T, Rader O, Vescovo E, Blugel S, Carbone C, Eberhardt W (1992) Solid State Comm 81:739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Petrovykh DY, Viernow J, Lin JL, Leibsle FM, Men FK, Kirakosian A, Himpsel FJ (1999) J Vac Sci Technol A 17:1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Viernow J, Petrovykh DY, Men FK, Kirakosian A, Lin JL, Himpsel FJ (1999) Appl Phys Lett 74:2125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hessinger U, Leskovar M, Olmstead MA (1995) Phys Rev Lett 75:2380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Venables JA (1994) Surf Sci 299–300:798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mo YA, Kleiner J, Webb MB, Lagally MG (1998) Phys Rev Lett 66:1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tromp RM, Reuter MC (1988) Phys Rev Lett 61:1756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tromp RM, Reuter MC (1994) Phys Rev Lett 73:110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zhang ZY, Niu Q, Shih CK (1998) Phys Rev Lett 80:5381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Suo ZG, Zhang ZY (1998) Phys Rev B 58:5116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lau KH, Kohn W (1978) Surf Sci 75:69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Silly F, Pivetta M, Ternes M, Patthey F, Pelz JP, Schneider WD (2004) Phys Rev Lett 92:16101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ternes M, Weber C, Pivetta M, Patthey F, Pelz JP, Giamarchi T, Mila F, Schneider WD (2004) Phys Rev Lett 93:146805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Fasel R, Aebi P, Agostino RG, Naumovic D, Osterwalder J, Santaniello A, Schlapbach L (1996) Phys Rev Lett 76:4733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Fasel R, Agostino RG, Aebi P, Schlapbach L (1999) Phys Rev B 60:4517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Altman EI, Colton RJ (1993) Phys Rev B 48:18244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gimzewski JK, Modesti S, Gerber C, Schlittler RR (1993) Chem Phys Lett 213:401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Gimzewski JK, Modesti S, Schlittler RR (1994) Phys Rev Lett 72:1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hou JG, Jinlong Y, Haiqian W, Qunxiang L, Changgan Z, Hai L, Wang B, Chen DM, Qingshi Z (1999) Phys Rev Lett 83:3001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Xu H, Chen DM, Creager WN (1994) Phys Rev B 50:8454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Goldoni A, Cepek C, De Seta M, Avila J, Asensio MC, Sancrotti M (2000) Phys Rev B 61:10411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wirth KR, Zegenhagen J (1996) Surf Sci 351:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Pascual JI, Gomez-Herrero J, Sanchez-Portal D, Rust HP (2002) J Chem Phys 117:9531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Zegenhagen J, Lyman PF, Böhringer M, Bedzyk MJ (1997) Phys Status Solidi B 204:587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Neff HJ, Matsuda I, Hengsberger M, Baumberger F, Greber T, Osterwalder J (2001) Phys Rev B 64:235415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mortensen K (1991) Phys Rev Lett 66:461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Toulouse G (1977) Commun Phys 2:115Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kasay M, Tabata H, Kawai T (1998) Surf Sci 406:302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Weckesser J, Barth JV, Cai C, Müller B, Kern K (1999) Surf Sci 431:168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Yokoyama T, Yokoyama S, Kamikado T, Okuno Y, Mashiko S (2001) Nature 413:619Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Barth JV, Weckesser J, Cai C, Günter P, Bürgi L, Jeandupeux O, Kern K (2000) Angew Chem, Int Ed Engl 39:1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Guaino P, Cafolla AA, McDonald O, Carty D, Sheerin D, Huges G (2003) J Phys Cond Matt 15:S2693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Frohn J, Giesen M, Poensgen M, Wolf JF, Ibach H (1991) Phys Rev Lett 67:3543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lagoute J, Kanisawa K, Fölsch S (2004) Phys Rev B 70:245415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Northrup JE, Tiago ML, Louie SG (2002) Phys Rev B 66:121404(R)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lorente N, Hedouin MFG, Palmer RE, Persson M (2003) Phys Rev B 68:155401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Stranik SJ, Kama MM, Weiss PS (1994) Science 266:99Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Proehl H, Toerker M, Sellam F, Fritz T, Leo K, Simpson C, Müllen K (2001) Phys Rev B 63:205409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lidzey DG, Alvarado SF, Seidler PF, Bleyer A, Bradley DDC (1997) Appl. Phys Lett 71:2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Davis ME (2002) Nature 417: 813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Stein A, Adv Mater (2003) 15:763Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Stepanow S, Lingerfelder M, Dmitriev A, Spillmann H, Delvigne E, Lin N, Deng X, Cai C, Barth JV, Kern K (2004) Nat Mat 3:229CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luca Gavioli
    • 1
  • Massimo Sancrotti
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.INFM and Dipartimento di Matematica e FisicaUniversità Cattolica del Sacro CuoreBresciaItaly
  2. 2.Laboratorio TASC-INFMTriesteItaly

Personalised recommendations