Subclinical Cushing’s Syndrome

  • Felix Beuschlein
  • Martin Reincke


Adrenal Mass Adrenal Adenoma Adrenal Incidentaloma Adrenal Incidentalomas Subclinical Hypercortisolism 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ambrosi B, Peverelli S, Passini E, Ferrario R, Colombo P, Sartorio A, Faglia G (1995) Abnormalities of endocrine function in patients with clinically silent adrenals masses. Eur J Endocrinol 132:419–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Angeli A, Osella G, Ali A, Terzolo M (1997) Adrenal incidentaloma: An overview of clinical and epidemiological data from the National Italian Study Group. Horm Res 47:279–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bardet S, Rohmer V, Murat A, et al. (1996) 131J-6 beta-iodomethylnorcholesterol scintigraphy: an assessment of its role in the investigation of adrenocortical incidentalomas. Clin Endocrinol 44:587–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barzon L, Scaroni C, Sonino N, et al. (1998) Incidentally discovered adrenal tumors: endocrine and scintigraphic correlates. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:55–62CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barzon L, Scaroni C, Sonino N, et al. (1999) Risk factors and long term follow up of adrenal incidentalomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:520–526CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barzon L, Fallo F, Sonino N, Boscaro M (2002) Development of overt Cushing’s syndrome in patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Eur J Endocrinol 146:61–6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bernini G, Moretti A, Iacconi P, Miccoli P, Nami R, Lucani B, Salvetti A (2003) Anthropometric, haemodynamic, humoral and hormonal evaluation in patients with incidental adrenocortical adenomas before and after surgery. Eur J Endocrinol 148:213–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bondanelli M, Campo M, Transforini G, Ambrosio MR, Zatelli MC, Franceschetti P, Valentini A, Pansini R, degli Uberti EC (1997) Evaluation of hormonal function in a series of incidentally discovered adrenal masses. Metabolism 46:1078–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Caplan RH, Strutt PJ, Wickus GG (1994) Subclinical hormone secretion by incidentally discovered adrenal masses. Arch Surg 129:291–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Contreras LN, Cardoso E, Lozano MP, Pozzo J, Pagano P, Claus-Hermbeg H (2000) [Detection of preclinical Cushing’s syndrome in overweight type 2 diabetic patients] Medicina (B Aires) 60:326–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Copeland PM (1983) The incidentally discovered adrenal mass. Ann Intern Med 98:940–945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Corsello SM, Della-Casa S, Bollanti L, Rufini V, Rota CA, Danza F, Colasanti S, Vellante C, Troncone L, Barbarino A (1993) Incidentally discovered adrenal masses: A functional and morphological study. Exp Clin Endocrinol 101:131–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dralle H, Scheumann GFW, Nashan B, Brabant G (1994) Review: recent developments in adrenal surgery. Acta Chir Belg 94:137–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Extabe J, Vazques JA (1994) Morbidity and mortality in Cushing’s syndrome: An epidemiologic approach. Clin Endocrinol 40:479–484Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fernandez-Real J-M, Ricart-Engel W, Simo R (1994) Preclinical Cushing’s syndrome: Report of three cases and literature review. Horm Res 41:230–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fletcher DR, Beiles CB, Hardy KY (1994) Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Aust N Z Surg 64:427–430Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gnazzoni G, Montorsi F, Bergamaschi F, Rigatti P, Cornaggia G, Lanzi R, Pontiroli AE (1994) Effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Urol 152: 1375–1378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grumbach MM, Biller BM, Braunstein GD, Campbell KK, Carney JA, Godley PA, Harris EL, Lee JK, Oertel YC, Posner MC, Schlechte JA, Wieand HS (2003) Management of the clinically inapparent adrenal mass (“incidentaloma”). Ann Intern Med. 138:424–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hensen J, Buhl M, Oelkers W (1990) Diagnostisches and therapeutisches Vorgehen bei Patienten mit hufällig entdeckten Nebennierentumoren. In: Allolio B, Schulte HM (eds) Moderne Diagnostik und therapeutische Strategien bei Nebennierenerkrankungen. Schattauer, Stuttgart, pp 210–215Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Huiras CM, Pehling GB, Caplan RH (1989) Adrenal insufficiency after operative removal of apparently nonfunctioning adrenal adenomas. JAMA 261:894–898CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kloos RT, Gross MD, Francis IR, Korobkin M, Shapiro B (1995) Incidentally discovered adrenal masses. Endocr Rev 16:460–484Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Leibowitz G, Tsu A, Chayen SD, Saloameh M, Raz I, Cerase E, Gross DJ (1996) Pre-clinical Cushing’s syndrome: an unexpected frequent cause of poor glycaemic control in obese diabetic patients. Clin Endocrinol 44:717–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mancini F, Mutter D, Peix JL, Chapuis Y, Henry JF, Proye C, Cougard P, Marescaux J (1999) [Experiences with adrenalectomy in 1997. Apropos of 247 cases. A multicenter prospective study of the French-speaking Association of Endocrine Surgery]. Chirurgie 124:368–74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mantero F, Masini AM, Opocher G, Giovagnetti M, Arnaldi G (1997) Adrenal incidentaloma: An overview of hormonal date from the National Italian Study Group. Horm Res 47:284–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McLeod MK, Thompson NW, Gross MD, Bondeson L (1990) Sub-clinical Cushing’s syndrome in patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Pitfalls in diagnosis and management. Ann Surg 56:398–403Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ness-Abramof R, Nabriski D, Apovian CM, Niven M, Weiss E, Shapiro MS, Shenkman L (2002) Overnight dexamethasone suppression test: a reliable screen for Cushing’s syndrome in the obese. Obes Res 10:1217–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Osella G, Terzolo M. Boretta G, Magro G, Ali A, Piovesan A, Pacotti P, Angeli A (1994) Endocrine evaluation of incidentally discovered adrenal masses (incidentalomas). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79:1532–1539CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Osella G, Terzolo M, Reimondo G, et al. (1997) Serum markers of bone and collagen turnover in patients with Cushing’s syndrome and in subjects with adrenal incidentalomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:3303–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Osella G, Reimondo G, Peretti P, Ali A, Paccotti P, Angeli A, Terzolo M (2001) The patients with incidentally discovered adrenal adenoma (incidentaloma) are not at increased risk of osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:604–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Reincke M, Allolio B (1995) Das Nebenniereninzidentalom: Die Kunst der Beschränkung in Diagnostik und Therapie. Dtsch Ärzteblatt 92:764–770Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reincke M, Nieke J, Krestin GP, Saeger W, Allolio B, Winkelmann W (1992) Preclinical Cushing’s syndrome in adrenal “incidentalomas”: comparison with adrenal Cushing’s syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75:826–832CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Reincke M (2000) Subclinical Cushing’s syndrome. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 29:43–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ross NS, Aron DC (1990) Hormonal evaluation of the patient with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass. N Engl J Med 323:1401–1405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ross NS (1994) Epidemiology of Cushing’s syndrome and subclinical disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 23:539–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rossi R, Tauchmanova L, Luciano A, Di Martino M, Battista C, Del Viscovo L, Nuzzo V, Lombardi GJ (2000) Subclinical Cushing’s syndrome in patients with adrena-lincidentaloma: clinical and biochemical features. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:1440–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Seppel T, Schlaghecke R (1996) Subklinischer Hypercortisolismus bei zufällig entdeckten Nebennierentumoren. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 121:503–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Siren JE, Haapiainen RK, Huikuri KT, Sivula AH (1993) Incidentalomas of the adrenal gland: 36 operated patients and review of literature. World J Surgery 17:634–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Terzolo M, Osella G, Ali A, et al (1998) Subclinical Cushing’s syndrome in adrenal incidentalomas. Clin Endocrinol 48:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Torlonto M, Zingrillo M, D’Aloiso L, et al. (1997) Pre-Cushing’s syndrome not recognized by conventional dexamethasone suppression test in an adrenal incidentaloma patient. J Endocrinol Invest 20:501–04PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tauchmanova L, Rossi R, Nuzzo V, del Puente A, Espositodel Puente A, Pizzi C, Fonderico F, Lupoli G, Lombardi G (2001) Bone loss determined by quantitative ultrasonometry correlates inversely with disease activity in patients with endogenous glucocorticoid excess due to adrenal mass. Eur J Endocrinol 145:241–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tauchmanova L, Rossi R, Biondi B, Pulcrano M, Nuzzo V, Palmieri EA, Fazio S, Lombardi G (2002) Patients with subclinical Cushing’s syndrome due to adrenal adenoma have increased cardiovascular risk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:4872–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tsagarakis S, Roboti C, Kokkoris P, et al. (1998) Elevated post-dexamethasone suppression cortisol concentrations correlate with hormonal alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Clin Endocrinol 49:165–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felix Beuschlein
  • Martin Reincke

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations