Advertisement

Control of Breathing During Mechanical Ventilation

  • M. Younes
Part of the Update in Intensive Care Medicine book series (UICMSOFT)

Keywords

Respir Crit Ventilator Setting Pressure Support Ventilation Inspiratory Muscle Inspiratory Effort 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Younes M, Georgopoulos D (1998) Control of breathing relevant to mechanical ventilation. In: Marini J, Slutsky A (Eds) Physiological Basis of Ventilatory Support. Vol 118, Lung Biology in Health and Disease. Marcel Dekker, New York Vol 118, pp: 1–74Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Younes M, Riddle W (1981) A model for the relation between respiratory neural and mechanical outputs. I. Theory. J Appl Physiol 51:963–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Corne S, Webster K, Younes M (2000) Effect of inspiratory flow rate on diaphragmatic motor output in normal subjects. J Appl Physiol 89:481–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Puddy A, Younes M (1992) Effect of inspiratory flow rate on respiratory motor output in normal humans. Amer Rev Resp Dis 146:787–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tobert DG, Simon PM, Stroetz RW, Hubmayr RD (1997) The determinants of respiratory rate during mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 155:485–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Laghi F, Karamchandani K, Tobin MJ (1999) Influence of ventilator settings in determining respiratory frequency during mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160:1766–1770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Corne S, Gillespie D, Roberts D, Younes M(1997) Effect of inspiratory flow rate on respiratory rate in intubated ventilated patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156:304–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kondili E, Prinianakis G, Anastasaki M, Georgopoulos D (2001) Acute effects of ventilator settings on respiratory motor output in patients with acute lung injury. Intensive Care Med 27:1147–1157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fernandez F, Mendez M, Younes M (1999) Effect of ventilator flow-rate on respiratory timing in normal subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159:710–719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Laghi F, Segal J, Choe WK, Tobin MJ (2001) Effect of imposed inflation time on respiratory frequency and hyperinflation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 163:1365–1370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Younes M, Kun J, Webster K, Roberts D (2002) Response of ventilator dependent patients to delayed opening of exhalation valve. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166:21–30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Puddy A, Patrick W, Webster K, Younes M (1996) Control of breathing during volume-cycled ventilation in normal humans. J Appl Physiol 80:1749–1758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Younes M, Remmers J (1981) Control of tidal volume and respiratory frequency. In: Hornbein T (ed) Control of Breathing. Vol 17, Lung biology in Health and Disease. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp:617–667Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    von Euler C (1986) Brain stem mechanisms for generation and control of breathing pattern. In: Cherniack NS, Widdicombe JG (eds) Handbook of Physiology: The Respiratory System. Vol 2, Am Physiol Soc, Bethesda, pp:1–68Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sant’Ambrogio G (1982) Information arising from the tracheobronchial tree of mammals. Physiol Rev 62:531–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Clark FJ, von Euler C (1972) On the regulation of depth and rate of breathing. J Physiol 222:267–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Phillipson EA, Murphy E, Kozar LF (1976) Regulation of respiration in sleeping dog. J Appl Physiol 40:688–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Younes M, Vaillancourt P, Milic-Emili J (1974) Interaction between chemical factors and duration of apnea following lung inflation. J Appl Physiol 36:190–20lPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gautier H (1976) Pattern of breathing during hypoxia or hypercapnia of the awake or anesthetized cat. Respir Physiol 27:193–206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Georgopoulos D, Mitrouska I, Bshouty Z, Anthonisen NR, Younes M (1996) Effects of NREM sleep on the response of respiratory output to varying inspiratory flow. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 153:1624–1630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Iber C, Simon PM, Skatrud JB, Mahowald MW, Dempsey JA (1995) The Breuer-Hering reflex in humans: effects of pulmonary denervation and hypocapnia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 152:217–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hamilton RD, Winning AJ, Horner RL, Guz A. The effect of lung inflation on breathing in man during wakefulness and sleep. Respir Physiol 73:145–154Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xirouhaki N, Kondili E, Mitrouska I, Siafakas N, Georgopoulos D (1999) Response of respiratory motor output to varying pressure in mechanically ventilated patients. Eur Respir J 14:508–516CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Giannouli E, Webster K, Roberts D, Younes M (1999) Responses of ventilator dependent patients to different levels of pressure support and proportional assist. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159:1716–1725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Younes M (1993) Patient-ventilator interaction with pressure-assisted modalities of ventilatory support. Semin Respir Med 14:299–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nava S, Bruschi C, Fracchia C, Braschi A, Rubini F (1997) Patient-ventilator interaction and inspiratory effort during pressure support ventilation in patients with different pathologies. Eur Respir J 10:177–183CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Imsand C, Feihl F, Perret C, Fitting JW (1994) Regulation of inspiratory neuromuscular output during synchronized intermittent mechanical ventilation. Anesthesiology 80:13–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Giuliani R, Mascia L, Recchia F, Caracciolo A, Fiore T, Ranieri VM (1995) Patient-ventilator interaction during synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation. Effects of flow triggering. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Polacheck J, Strong R, Arens J, Davies C, Metcalff I, Younes M (1980) Phasic vagal influence on inspiratory motor output in anesthetized man. J Appl Physiol 49:609–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tryfon S, Kontakiotis T, Mavrofridis E, Patakas D (2001) Hering-Breuer reflex in normal adults and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial fibrosis. Respiration 68:140–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Viale JP, Duperret S, Mahul P, et al (1998) Time course evolution of ventilatory responses to inspiratory unloading in patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157:428–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jubran A, Van de Graaff WB, Tobin MJ (1995) Variability of patient-ventilator interaction with pressure support ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 152:129–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Parthasarathy S, Jubran A, Tobin MJ (1998) Cycling of inspiratory and expiratory muscle groups with the ventilator in airflow limitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158:1471–1478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grasso S, Puntillo F, Mascia L, et al (2000) Compensation for increase in respiratory workload during mechanical ventilation. Pressure-support versus proportional-assist ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161:819–826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Patrick W, Webster K, Puddy A, Sanii R, Younes M (1995) Respiratory response to CO2 in the hypocapnic range in conscious humans. J Appl Physiol 79:2058–2068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Meza S, Mendez M, Ostrowski M, Younes M (1998) Susceptibility to periodic breathing with assisted ventilation during sleep in normal subject. J Appl Physiol 85:1929–1940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Morrell MJ, Shea SA, Adams L, Guz A (1993) Effects of inspiratory support upon breathing in humans during wakefulness and sleep. Respir Physiol 93:57–70CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yamada Y, Du HL (2000) Analysis of the mechanisms of expiratory asynchrony in pressure support ventilation: a mathematical approach. J Appl Physiol 88:2143–2150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tobin MJ, Jubran A, Laghi F (2001) Patient-ventilator interaction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 163:1059–1063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Leung P, Jubran A, Tobin MJ (1997) Comparison of assisted ventilator modes on triggering, patient effort, and dyspnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 155:1940–1948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dempsey JA, Skatrud JB (2001) Apnea following mechanical ventilation may be caused by nonchemical neuromechanical influences. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 163:1297–1298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Younes M (2001) Apnea following mechanical ventilation cannot be due to neuromechanical influences. Am J Respir Crit Care Medicine 163: 1298–1301Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Georgopoulos D, Mitrouska I, Webster K, Bshouty Z, Younes M (1997) Effects of inspiratory muscle unloading on the response of respiratory motor output to CO2. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 155:2000–2009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fauroux B, Isabey D, Desmarais G, Brochard L, Harf A, Lofaso F (1998) Nonchemical influence of inspiratory pressure support on inspiratory activity in humans. J Appl Physiol 85:2169–2175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wilson CR, Satoh M, Skatrud JB, Dempsey JA (1999) Non-chemical inhibition of respiratory motor output during mechanical ventilation in sleeping humans. J Physiol 518:605–618CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Scheid P, Lofaso F, Isabey D, Harf A (1994) Respiratory response to inhaled CO2 during positive inspiratory pressure in humans. J Appl Physiol 77:876–882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Skatrud JB, Dempsey JA (1983) Interaction of sleep state and chemical stimuli in sustaining rhythmic ventilation. J Appl Physiol 55:813–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bonmarchand G, Chevron V, Chopin C, et al (1996) Increased initial flow rate reduces inspiratory work of breathing during pressure support ventilation in patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Intensive Care Med 22:1147–1154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Marini JJ, Smith TC, Lamb VJ (1988) External work output and force generation during synchronized intermittent mechanical ventilation. Effect of machine assistance on breathing effort. Am Rev Respir Dis 138:1169–1179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Parthasarathy S, Tobin MJ (2002) Effect of ventilator mode on sleep quality in critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166:1423–1429CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schiffman PL, Trontell MC, Mazar MF, Edelman NH (1983) Sleep deprivation decreases ventilatory response to CO2 but not load compensation. Chest 84:695–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chen H, Tang Y (1989) Sleep loss impairs inspiratory muscle endurance. Am Rev Respir Dis 140:907–909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bonnet MH, Berry RB, Arand DL (1991) Metabolism during normal, fragmented, and recovery sleep. J Appl Physiol 71:1112–1118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Benca RM, Quintans J (1997) Sleep and host defences: a review. Sleep 20:1027–1037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Everson CA, Toth LA (2000) Systemic bacterial invasion induced by sleep deprivation. Am J Physiol 278: R905–R916Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jammes Y, Auran Y, Gouvermet J, Delpierre S, Grimaud C (1979) The ventilatory pattern of conscious man according to age and morphology. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 15:527–540Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Younes M (1992) Proportional Assist Ventilation: A new approach to ventilatory support. Theory. Amer Rev Respir Dis 145:114–120Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Marantz S, Patrick W, Webster K, Roberts D, Oppenheimer L, Younes M (1996) Response of ventilator dependent patients to different levels of proportional assist (PAV). J Appl Physiol 80:397–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Appendini L, Purro A, Gudjonsdottir M, et al (1999) Physiologic response of ventilator-dependent patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to proportional assist ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159:1510–1517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ranieri VM, Giuliani R, Mascia L, et al (1996) Patient-ventilator interaction during acute hypercapnia: pressure-support vs. proportional-assist ventilation. J Appl Physiol 81:426–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Davis JN, Stagg D (1975) Interrelationships of the volume and time components of individual breaths in resting man. J Physiol 245:481–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tobin MJ, Mador MJ, Guenther SM, Lodato RF, Sackner MA (1988) Variability of resting respiratory drive and timing in healthy subjects. J Appl Physiol 65:309–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Read DJ, Freedman S, Kafer ER (1974) Pressures developed by loaded inspiratory muscles in conscious and anesthetized man. J Appl Physiol 37:207–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Loveridge B, West P, Anthonisen NR, Kryger MH (1984) Breathing patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 130:730–733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Brack T, Jubran A, Tobin MJ (2002) Dyspnea and decreased variability of breathing in patients with restrictive lung disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:1260–1264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Boker A, Graham MR, Walley KR, et al (2002) Improved arterial oxygenation with biologically variable or fractal ventilation using low tidal volumes in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:456–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Suki B, Alencar AM, Sujeer MK, et al (1998) Life-support system benefits from noise. Nature 393:127–128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Younes

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations