Reverse Genetics of Coronaviruses Using Vaccinia Virus Vectors
In this article, we describe the reverse genetic system that is based on the use of vaccinia virus cloning vectors. This system represents a generic approach to coronavirus reverse genetics and was first described for the generation of recombinant human coronavirus 229E representing a group I coronavirus. Subsequently, the same approach has been used to generate recombinant avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus and, recently, recombinant mouse hepatitis virus, representing group III and group II coronaviruses, respectively. We describe how vaccinia virus-mediated homologous recombination can be used to introduce specific mutations into the coronavirus genomic cDNA during its propagation in vaccinia virus and how recombinant coronaviruses can be isolated. Finally, we describe how the coronavirus reverse genetic system has now been extended to the generation of coronavirus replicon RNAs.
KeywordsVaccinia Virus Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Replicase Gene Reverse Genetic System Human Coronavirus
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