Behçet's Disease

  • Manfred Zierhut
  • Nicole Stübiger
  • Christoph Deuter
  • Ina Kötter
Part of the Essentials in Ophthalmology book series (ESSENTIALS)


Familial Mediterranean Fever Macular Hole Cystoid Macular Edema Anterior Uveitis Ocular Involvement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adamantiades B (1931) Sur un cas d'iritis á hypopyon recidivante. Ann Ocul (Paris) 168:271–274Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adler YD, Mansmann U, Zouboulis CC (2001) Mycophenolate mofetil is ineffective in the treatment of mucocutaneous Adamantiades-Behçet's disease. Dermatology 203:322–324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahmad T, Wallace GR, James TE, et al. (2003) Mapping the HLA association in Behcet's disease: a role for tumor necrosis factor polymorphisms? Arthritis Rheum 48:807–813CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Akman-Demir G, Serdaroglu P, Tasci B (1999) Clinical patterns of neurological involvement in Behcet's disease: evaluation of 200 patients. The Neuro-Behcet Study Group. Brain 122:2171–2182CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Atmaca LS (1989) Fundus changes associated with Behçet's disease. Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 227:340–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Atmaca LS, Batioglu F, Ýdil A (1996) Retinal and disc neovascularisation in Behçet's disease and efficacy of laser photocoagulation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 234:94–99CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aydintug O, Tokgöz G, D'Cruz DP, Gürler A, Cervera R, Düzgün N, et al. (1993) Antibodies to endothelial cells in patients with Behçet's disease. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 67:157–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bang D (1997) Treatment of Behçet's disease. Yonsei Med J 38:401–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Behçet H (1937) Über rezidivierende aphtöse, durch ein Virus verursachte Geschwüre am Mund, am Auge und an den Genitalien. Derm Wochenschr 36:1152–1157Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ben-Chetrit E, Cohen R, Chajek-Shaul T (2002) Familial Mediterranean fever and Behcet's disease — are they associated? J Rheumatol 29:530–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    BenEzra D, Cohen E (1986) Treatment and visual prognosis in Behçet's disease. Br J Ophthalmol 70:589–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bentley CR, Stanford MR, Shilling JS (1993) Macular ischemia in posterior uveitis. Eye 7:411–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boiardi L, Salvarani C, Casali B, et al. (2001) Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 gene polymorphisms in Behcet's disease. J Rheumatol 28:1283–1287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Carletto A, Pacor ML, Biasi D, Caramaschi P, Zemininan S, Bellavite P, et al. (1997) Changes of neutrophil migration without modification of in vitro metabolism and adhesion in Behçet's disease. J Rheumatol 24:1332–1336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chafa O, Fischer AM, Meriane F, Chellali T, Sternberg C, Otmani F, et al. (1992) Behçet syndrome associated with protein S deficiency. Thromb Haemostasis 67:1–3Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chajek T, Fainaru M (1975) Behçet's disease: report of 41 cases and a review of the literature. Medicine 54:179–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chajek-Shaul T, Pisanty S, Knobler H, et al. (1987) HLA-B*51 may serve as an immunogenetic marker for a subgroup of patients with Behcet's syndrome. Am J Med 83:666–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chambers JC, Haskard DO, Kooner JS (2001) Vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress mechanisms in patients with Behçet's syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol 37:517–520CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Choukri F, Chakib A, Himmich H, Hue S, Caillat-Zucman S (2001) HLA-B*51 and B*15 alleles confer predisposition to Behcet's disease in Moroccan patients. Hum Immunol 62:180–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chung YM, Yeh TS, Sheu MM (1990) Behcet's disease with ocular involvement in Taiwan: a joint survey of six major ophthalmological departments. J Formos Med Assoc 89:413–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cochereau-Massin I, Wechsler B, Le Hoang P, et al. (1992) Prognostic oculaire de la maledie de Behçet. J Fr Ophthalmol 15:343–347Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Criteria for Diagnosis of Behcet's Disease (1990) International Study Group for Behcet's Disease. Lancet 335:1078–1080Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Davatchi F, Shahram F, Akkbarian M (1992) The prevalence of Behçet's disease in Iran. In: Nasution AR, Darmawan J, Isbagio H (eds) Proceedings of the 7th APLAR Congress of Rheumatology. Churchill Livingstone, Japan, pp 95–98Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    deSmet MD, Dayan M (2000) Prospective determination of T-cell responses to S-antigen in Behçet's disease patients and controls. Invest Ophthamol Vis Sci 41:3480–3484Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Deuter CME, Kötter I, Günaydin I, Zierhut M, Stübiger N (2004) Ocular involvement in Behçet's disease: first 5-year results for visual development after treatment with interferon alfa-2a. Ophthalmologe 101:129–134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dilsen N, Konice M, Aral O (1985) Our diagnostic criteria of Behcet's disease — an overview: recent advances in Behcet's disease. Royal Society of Medicine Services, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dilsen N, Konice M, Aral O, Ocal L, Inanc M, Gul A (1993) Comparative study of the skin pathergy test with blunt and sharp needles in Behcet's disease: confirmed specificity but decreased sensitivity with sharp needles. Ann Rheum Dis 52:823–825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dilsen N (1996) History and development of Behçet's disease. VII International Conference on Behçet's Disease. Rev Rheum Engl Ed 63:512–519Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dundar SV, Gencalp U, Simsek H (1985) Familial cases of Behçet's disease. Br J Dermatol 113:319–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Efthimiou J, Addison IE, Johnson BV (1989) In vivo leukocyte migration in Behçet's syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 48:206–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Eglin RP, Lehner T, Subak-Sharpe JH (1982) Detection of RNA complementary to herpes simplex virus in mononuclear cells from patients with Behçet's syndrome and recurrent oral ulcers. Lancet 2:1356–1361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eksioglu-Demiralp E, Direskeneli H, Ergun T, Fresko I, Akoglu T (1999) Increased CD4+CD16+ and CD4+CD56+T cell subsets in Behçet's disease. Rheumatol Int 19:23–26CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Er H, Evereklioglu C, Cumureu T, Turkoz Y, Ozerol E, Sahin K, et al. (2002) Serum homocysteine level is increased and correlated with endothelin-1 and nitric oxide in Behçet's disease. Br J Ophthalmol 86:653–567CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Esin S, Gul A, Hodara V, Jeddi-Tehrani M, Dilsen N, Konice M, et al. (1997) Peripheral blood T cell expansions in patients with Behcet's disease. Clin Exp Immunol 107:520–527CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Espinosa G, Font J, Tassies D, et al. (2002) Vascular involvement in Behcet's disease: relation with thrombophilic factors, coagulation activation, and thrombomodulin. Am J Med 112:37–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Estrach C, Mpofu S, Moots RJ (2002) Behçet's syndrome: response to infliximab after failure of etanercept. Rheumatology 41:1213–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Evereklioglu C, Turkoz Y, Er H, Inaloz HS, Ozbek E, Cekmen M (2002) Increased nitric oxide production in patients with Behçet's disease: is it a new activity marker? J Am Acad Dermatol 46:50–54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Falk K, Rotzschke O, Takiguchi M, et al. (1995) Peptide motifs of HLA-B*51,-B52 and-B78 molecules, and implications for Behcet's disease. Int Immunol 7:223–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fortune F, Walker J, Lehner T (1990) The expression of γδT cell receptor and the prevalence of primed, activated and Ig-A bound T cell in Behçet's syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol 82:326–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Freydottir J, Lau SH, Fortune F (1999) γδT cells in Behçet's disease (BD) and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Clin Exp Immunol 118:451–457CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gonzalez-Escribano MF, Rodriguez MR, Walter K, Sanchez-Roman J, Garcia-Lozano JR, Nunez-Roldan A (1998) Association of HLA-B*51 subtypes and Behcet's disease in Spain. Tissue Antigens 52:78–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gül A, Esin S, Dilsen N, Konice M, Wigzell H, Biberfeld P (1995) Immunohistology of skin pathergy reaction in Behcet's disease. Br J Dermatol 132:901–907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gül A, Özbek U, Öztürk C, Inanç M, Koniçe M, Özçelik T (1996) Coagulation factor V gene mutation increases the risk of venous thrombosis in Behçet's disease. Br J Rheumatol 35:1178–1180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gül A, Aslantas AB, Tekinay T, Koniçe M, Özçelik T (1999) Procoagulant mutations and venous thrombosis in Behçet's disease. Rheumatology (Oxford) 38:1298–1299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gül A, Inanc M, Ocal L, Aral O, Konice M (2000) Familial aggregation of Behcet's disease in Turkey. Ann Rheum Dis 59:622–625CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gül A, Hajeer AH, Worthington J, Ollier WE, Silman AJ (2001) Linkage mapping of a novel susceptibility locus for Behcet's disease to chromosome 6p22–23. Arthritis Rheum 44:2693–2696CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gül A, Uyar FA, Inanc M, et al. (2001) Lack of association of HLA-B*51 with a severe disease course in Behcet's disease. Rheumatology (Oxford) 40:668–672CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gürler A, Boyvat A, Türsen Ü (1997) Clinical manifestations of Behcet's disease: an analysis of 2147 patients. Yonsei Med J 38:423–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hamuryudan V, Özyazgan Y, Hizli N, Mat C, Yurdakul S, Tüzün Y, aenocak M, Yazici H (1997) Azathioprine in Behçet's syndrome: effects on long-term prognosis. Arthritis Rheum 40:769–774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hamuryudan V, Mat C, Saip S, Ozyazgan Y, Siva A, Yurdakul S, Zwingenberger K, Yazici H (1998) Thalidomide in the treatment of the mucocutaneous lesions of the Behçet syndrome. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 128:443–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hamzaoui K, Ayed K, Hamza M, et al. (1988) Natural killer cells in Behcet's disease. Clin Exp Immunol 71:126–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hasan A, Fortune F, Wilson A, Warr K, Shinnick T, Mizushima Y, et al. (1996) Role of γδT cells in pathogenesis and diagnosis of Behçet's disease. Lancet 347:789–794CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hirohata S, Hashimoto S (1998) Abnormal T cell responses to bacterial superantigens in Behçet's disease. Clin Exp Immunol 112:317–324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Houman MH, Ben Ghorbel I, Khiari Ben Salah I, Lamloum M, Ben Ahmed M, Miled M (2001) Deep vein thrombosis in Behcet's disease. Clin Exp Rheumatol 19:S48–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hu W, Hasa A, Wilson A, Stanford MR, Li-Yang Y, Todryk S, et al. (1998) Experimental mucosal induction of uveitis with 60-kDa heat shock protein-derived peptide 336–351. Eur J Immunol 28:2444–2455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ishihara M, Ohno S, Mizuki N, et al. (1996) Allelic variations in the TAP2 and LMP2 genes in Behcet's disease. Tissue Antigens 47:249–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Isogyi E, Ohno S, Kotake S, Isogai H, Tsurumizu T, Fujii N, et al. (1990) Chemiluminescence of neutrophils from patients with Behçet's disease and its correlation with an increased proportion of uncommon serotypes of Streptococcus sanguis in the oral flora. Arch Oral Biol 35:43–48CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Joseph A, Raj D, Dua HS, Powell PT, Lanyon PC, Powell RJ (2003) Infliximab in the treatment of refractory posterior uveitis. Ophthalmology 110:1449–1453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kadayifcilar S, Gedik S, Eldem B, Irkec M (2002) Cataract surgery in patients with Behçet's disease. J Cataract Refract Surg 28:316–320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kahan A, Hamzaoui K, Ayed K (1992) Abnormalities of T lymphocyte subsets in Behçet's disease demonstrated with anti-CD45RA and anti-CD29 monoclonal antibodies. J Rheumatol 19:742–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kaklamani VG, Kaklamanis PG (2001) Treatment of Behçet's disease — an update. Semin Arthritis Rheum 30:299–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kaktos (1993) In:Hippokrates (ed) Third book on epidemiology. Case 7,13:209Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kaneko F, Takahashi Y, Muramatsu R, Adachi K, Miura Y, Nakane A (1985) Natural killer cell numbers and function in peripheral lymphoid cells in Behçet's disease. Br J Dermatol 113:313–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kaneko S, Suzuki N, Yamashita N, Nagafuchi H, Nakajima T, Wakisaka S, et al. (1997) Characterization of T cells specific for an epitope of human 60-kD heat shock protein (hsp) in patients with Behçet's disease (BD) in Japan. Clin Exp Immunol 108:204–212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Karasneh J, Hajeer AH, Barrett J, Ollier WER, Thornhill M, Gul A (2003) Association of specific interleukin 1 gene cluster polymorphisms with increased susceptibility for Behcet's disease. Rheumatology 42:860–864CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kato Y, Numaga J, Kato S, Kaburaki T, Kawashima H, Fujino Y (2001) Central nervous system symptoms in a population of Behçet's disease patients with refractory uveitis treated with cyclosporine A. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 29:335–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Keino H, Sakai JI, Nishioka K, Sumida T, Usui M (2000) Clonally accumulating T cells in the anterior chamber of Behçet's disease. Am J Ophthalmol 130:243–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kilmartin DJ, Finch A, Acheson RW (1997) Primary association of HLA-B*51 with Behcet's disease in Ireland. Br J Ophthalmol 81:649–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kilmartin DJ, Forrester JV, Dick AD (1998) Tacrolimus (FK506) in failed cyclosporine A therapy in endogenous posterior uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 6:101–109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kiraz S, Ertenli I, Çalgüneri M, Öztürk MA, Haznedaroglu IC, Altun B, et al. (2001) Interactions of nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase in Behçet's disease. Clin Exp Rheumatol 19(Suppl 24):S25–S29Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kitaichi N, Kotake S, Sasamoto Y, Namba K, Matsuda A, Ogasawara K, et al. (1999) Prominent increase of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the sera of patients with uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 40:247–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kitaichi N, Ogasawara K, Iwabuchi K, Nishihira J, Namba K, Onoé K Jr, et al. (1999) Different influence of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in signal transduction pathway of various T cell subsets. Immunobiology 201:356–367Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kotake S, Higashi K, Yoshikawa K, Sasamoto Y, Okamoto T, Matsuda H (1999) Central nervous system symptoms in patients with Behçet disease receiving cyclosporine therapy. Ophthalmology 106:586–589CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kötter I, Stübiger N (1999) Aktuelle Aspekte der Diagnostik und Therapie des Morbus Behçet. Akt Rheumatol 24:51–57Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kötter I, Gunaydin I, Stubiger N, et al. (2001) Comparative analysis of the association of HLA-B*51 suballeles with Behcet's disease in patients of German and Turkish origin. Tissue Antigens 58:166–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kötter I, Stübiger N, Zierhut M (2003) Use of interferon-α in Behçet's disease. In: Zierhut M, Ohno S (eds) Immunology of Behçet's disease. Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, Netherlands, pp 155–159Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kötter I, Zierhut M, Eckstein AK, Vonthein R, Ness T, Guenaydin I, Grimbacher B, Blaschke S, Meyer-Riemann W, Peter HH, Stübiger N (2003) Human recombinant interferon alfa-2a for the treatment of Behçet's disease with sight threatening posterior or panuveitis. Br J Ophthalmol 87:423–431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Krause I, Uziel Y, Guedj D et al. (1998) Mode of presentation and multisystem involvement in Behcet's disease: the influence of sex and age of disease onset. J Rheumatol 25:1566–1569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Krause L, Turnbull JR, Torun N, Pleyer U, Zouboulis CC, Förster MH (2003) Interferon alfa-2a in the treatment of ocular Adamantiades-Behçet's disease. Adv Exp Med Biol 528:511–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kretschmann K, Seeliger MW, Ruether K, et al. (1998) Multifocal electroretinography in patients with macular dystrophy. Br J Ophthalmol 82:267–275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lee CR, Kim WH, Cho YS, et al. (2001) Colono-scopic findings in intestinal Behcet's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 7:243–249CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lee KH, Bang D, Choi ES, Chun WH, Lee ES, Lee S (1999) Presence of circulating antibodies to a disease-specific antigen on cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells in patients with Behçet's disease. Arch Dermatol Res 291:374–381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lee S (1997) Diagnostic criteria of Behcet's disease: problems and suggestions. Yonsei Med J 38:365–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lehner T, Lavery E, Smith R, von der Zee R, Mizushima Y, Shinnick T (1991) Association between the 65-kilodalton heat shock protein, Streptococcus sanguis, and the corresponding antibodies in Behçet's disease. Infect Immun 59:1434–1441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lehner T (1997) The role of heat shock protein, microbial and autoimmune agents in aetiology of Behçet's disease. Intern Rev Immunol 14:21–32Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lehner T (2000) Immunopathogenesis of Behçet's disease. In: Bang D, Lee ES, Lee S (eds) Behçet's disease. Design Mecca, Seoul, pp 3–18Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Leiba M, Sidi Y, Gur H, Leiba A, Ehrenfeld M (2001) Behcet's disease and thrombophilia. Ann Rheum Dis 60:1081–1085CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Livneh A, Aksentijevich I, Langevitz P, et al. (2001) A single mutated MEFV allele in Israeli patients suffering from familial Mediterranean fever and Behcet's disease (FMF-BD). Eur J Hum Genet 9:191–196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mammo L, Al-Dalaan A, Bahabri SS, Saour JN (1997) Association of factor V Leiden with Behçet's disease. J Rheumatol 24:2196–2198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mamo JG (1970) The rate of visual loss in Behçet's disease. Arch Ophthalmol 84:451–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mason RM, Barnes CG (1969) Behcet's syndrome with arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 28:95–103Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Matsuo T, Sato Y, Shiraga F, et al. (1999) Choroidal abnormalities in Behçet's disease observed by simultaneous indocyanine green and fluorescein angiography with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Ophthalmology 106:295–300CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    McLennan N, Masters M (1998) GroE is vital for cell-wall synthesis. Nature 392:1–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mege JL, Dilsen N, Sanguedolce V, Gul A, Bongrand P, Roux H, et al. (1993) Overproduction of monocyte derived tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL) 6, IL-8 and increased neutrophil superoxide generation in Behçet's disease. A comparative study with familial Mediterranean fever and healthy subjects. J Rheumatol 20:1544–1549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Misgav M, Goldberg Y, Zeltser D, Eldor A, Berliner AS (2000) Fatal pulmonary artery thrombosis in a patient with Behçet's disease, activated protein C resistance and hyper-homocysteinemia. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 11:421–423CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mishima S, Masuda K, Izawa Y, et al. (1979) Behçet's disease in Japan: Ophthalmological aspects. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 76:225–279Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mizuki N, Ohno S, Ando H, et al. (1996) HLA-C genotyping of patients with Behcet's disease in the Japanese population. Hum Immunol 50:47–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mizuki N, Inoko H, Ohno S (1997) Molecular genetics (HLA) of Behcet's disease. Yonsei Med J 38:333–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mizuki N, Ota M, Yabuki K, et al. (2000) Localization of the pathogenic gene of Behcet's disease by microsatellite analysis of three different populations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:3702–3708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mizushima Y (1988) Revised diagnostic criteria for Behcet's disease in 1987. Ryumachi 28:66–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mochizuki M, Suzuki N, Takeno M, Nagafuchi H, Harada T, Kaneoka H, et al. (1994) Fine antigen specificity of human γδT cell lines Vγ9+ established by repetitive stimulation with a serotype (KTH-1) of a gram-positive bacterium, Streptococcus sanguis. Eur J Immunol 24:1536–1543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mochizuki M (1997) Immunotherapy for Behçet's disease. Intern Rev Immunol 14:49–66Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Müftüoglu AÜ, Yazici H, Yurdakul S, et al. (1981) Behçet's disease: lack of correlation of clinical manifestations with HLA antigens. Tissue Antigens 17:226–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Nakae K, Masaki F, Hashimoto T, et al. (1993) Behçet's disease. In:Wechsler B, Godeau P (eds) International Congress Series 1037. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 145–151Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Nakamura S, Ohno S (2003) The efficacy of anti-TNF-alpha antibody in the treatment of uveitis patients with Behçet's disease. In: Zierhut M, Ohno S (eds) Immunology of Behçet's disease. Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, Netherlands, pp 151–154Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Niwa Y, Miyake S, Sakane T, Shingu M, Yokoyama M (1982) Auto-oxidative damage in Behçet's disease — endothelial cell damage following the elevated oxygen radicals generated by stimulated neutrophils. Clin Exp Immunol 49:247–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Niwa Y, Mizushima Y (1990) Neutrophil-potentiating factors released from stimulated lymphocytes; special reference to the increase in neutrophil-potentiating factors from streptococcus-stimulated lymphocytes of patients with Behçet's disease. Clin Exp Immunol 79:353–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Nussenblatt RB, Palestine AG, Chan CC, Mochizuki M, Yancey K (1985) Effectiveness of cyclosporine therapy for Behçet's disease. Arthritis Rheum 28:671–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    O'Duffy JD (1974) Suggested criteria for diagnosis of Behçet's disease. J Rheumatol 1:18Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    O'Duffy JD, Robertson DM, Goldstein NP (1984) Chlorambucil in the treatment of uveitis and meningoencephalitis of Behçet's disease. Am J Med 76:75–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ohno S, Ohguchi M, Hirose S, et al. (1982) Close association of HLA-Bw51 with Behcet's disease. Arch Ophthalmol 100:1455–1458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Orem A, Vanizor B, Cimsit, Kiran E, Deger O, Malkoc M (1999) Decreased nitric oxide production in patients with Behçet's disease. Dermatology 198:33–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Özdal PÇ, Ortaç S, Taskintuna I, Firat E (2002) Long-term therapy with low dose cyclosporine A in ocular Behçet's disease. Doc Ophthalmol 105:301–312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Palimeris G, Papakonstantinou P, Mantas M (1984) The Adamantiades-Behçet's syndrome in Greece. In: Saari KM (ed) Uveitis update. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 321Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Park KD, Bang D, Lee ES, Lee SH, Lee S (1993) Clinical study on death in Behcet's disease. J Korean Med Sci 8:241–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Park SH, Park KS, Seo YI, et al. (2002) Association of MICA polymorphism with HLA-B*51 and disease severity in Korean patients with Behcet's disease. J Korean Med Sci 17:366–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Paul M, Klein T, Krause I, Molad Y, Narinsky R, Weinberger A (2001) Allelic distribution of HLA-B* 5 in HLA-B5-positive Israeli patients with Behcet's disease. Tissue Antigens 58:185–186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Pronai L, Ichikawa Y, Nakzawa H, Arimori S (1991) Enhanced superoxide generation and the decreased scavenging activity of peripheral blood leukocytes in Behçet's disease — effect of colchicines. Clin Exp Rheumatol 9:227–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Rammensee HG, Friede T, Stevanovic S (1995) MHC ligands and peptide motifs: first listing. Immunogenetics 41:178–228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Robinson J, Waller MJ, Parham P, Bodmer JG, Marsh SG (2001) IMGT/HLA database — a sequence database for the human major histocompatibility complex. Nucleic Acids Res 29:210–213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Sahin S, Akoglu T, Direskeneli H, Sen LS, Lawrence R (1996) Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells and factors affecting adhesion in patients with Behçet's disease. Ann Rheum Dis 55:128–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sakane T, Kotani H, Takada S, Tsunematsu T (1982) Functional aberration of T cell subsets in patients with Behçet's disease. Arthritis Rheum 25:1343–1351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sakane T, Takeno M, Suzuki N, Inaba G (1999) Behcet's disease. N Engl J Med 341:1284–1291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Salavarani C, Calamia K, Silingardi M, Ghirarduzzi A, Olivieri I (2000) Thrombosis associated with the prothrombin GA20210 mutation in Behçet's disease. J Rheumatol 27:515–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Salvarani C, Boiardi L, Casali B, Olivieri I, Ciancio G, Cantini F, et al. (2002) Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms in Behçet's disease. J Rheumatol 29:535–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Saylan T, Özarmargan G, Azizlerli G, et al. (1986) Behçet disease in Turkey. N Zbl Hautkr 1120–1122Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Serdaroglu P (1998) Behcet's disease and the nervous system. J Neurol 245:197–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sfikakis PP, Theodossiadis PG, Katsiari CG, Kaklamanis P, Markomichelakis NN (2001) Effect of infliximab on sight-threatening panuveitis in Behçet's disease. Lancet 358:295–296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Shehto NM, Ghosh K, Abdul Kader B, al Assad HS (1992) Extensive venous thrombosis in a case of Behçet's disease associated with heterozygous protein C deficiency. Thromb Haemostasis 67:283Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Shimizu T, Matsumura N (1972) [Behcet's disease]. Nippon Rinsho 30:416–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sloper CML, Powell RJ, Dua HS (1999) Tacrolimus (FK506) in the treatment of posterior uveitis refractory to cyclosporine. Ophthalmology 106:723–728CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Stratigos AJ, Laskaris G, Stratigos JD (1992) Behçet's disease. Semin Neurol 12:346–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Stübiger N, Besch D, Deuter CME, et al. (2003) Multifocal ERG changes in patients with ocular Behçet's disease during therapy with interferon alpha 2a. In: Zouboulis CC (ed) Adamantiades-Behçet's disease (Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Behçet's disease, Berlin), vol 528. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 529–532Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Stübiger N, Kötter I, Zierhut M (2000) Complete regression of retinal neovascularisation after therapy with interferon alfa in Behçet's disease. Br J Ophthalmol 84:1437–1438Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Stübiger N, Zierhut M, Kötter I (2003) Ocular manifestations in Behçet's disease. In: Zierhut M, Ohno S (eds) Immunology of Behçet's disease. Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, Netherlands, pp 36–45Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Süllü Y, Öge I, Erkan D, Aritürk N, Mohajeri F (1998) Cyclosporin-A therapy in severe uveitis of Behçet's disease. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 76:96–99CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Sumita K, Yamashita N, Takeno M, Sakane T (1997) Dysregulated tyrosine phosphorylation cascade in TCR/CD3 signaling pathway leads to T cell irritability in patients with Behçet's disease. Arthritis Rheum 40(Suppl):S232Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Suzuki Y, Hoshi K, Matsuda T, Mizushima Y (1992) Increased peripheral blood gδ T cells and natural killer cells in Behçet's disease. J Rheumatol 19:588–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Tokay S, Direskeneli H, Yurdakul S, Akoglu T (2001) Anticardiolipin antibodies in Behçet's disease: a reassessment. Rheumatology (Oxford) 40:192–195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Toker E, Kazokoglu H, Acar N (2002) High dose intravenous steroid therapy for severe posterior segment uveitis in Behçet's disease. Br J Ophthalmol 86:521–523CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Triolo G, Accardo-Palumbo A, Triolo G, Carbone MC, Ferrante A, Giardina E (1999) Enhancement of endothelial cell E-selection expression by sere from patients with active Behçet's disease: moderate correlation with anti-endothelial cell antibodies and serum myeloperoxidase levels. Clin Immunol 91:330–337CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Trojano M, Paolicelli D (2001) The differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: classification and clinical features of relapsing and progressive neurological syndromes. Neurol Sci 22Suppl 2:S98–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Tursen U, Kaya TI, Eskandari G, et al. (2001) Association of factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene mutation with Behcet's disease. Arch Dermatol Res 293:537–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Vaiopoulos G, Sfikakis PP, Hatzinikolaou P (1996) Adamantiades-Behçet's disease in sisters. Clin Rheumatol 15:382–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Verity DH, Vaughan RW, Madanat W, Kondeatis E, Zureikat H, Fayyad F, et al. (1997) Factor V Leiden mutation is associated with ocular involvement in Behçet's disease. Am J Ophthalmol 128:352–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Verity DH, Marr JE, Ohno S, Wallace GR, Stanford MR (1999) Behcet's disease, the Silk Road and HLA-B*51: historical and geographical perspectives. Tissue Antigens 54:213–220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Verity DH, Wallace GR, Vaughan RW, et al. (1999) HLA and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) polymorphisms in ocular Behcet's disease. Tissue Antigens 54:264–272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Watanabe T, Shimoji S, Sugiyama Y, Tsukamoto T, Yamamoto T (1995) Pulse-dose cyclophosphamide therapy for steroid-refractory autoimmune neurological diseases. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 35:611–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Wechsler B, Bodaghi B, Huong DL, Fardeau C, Amoura Z, Cassoux N, Piette JC, LeHoang P (2000) Efficacy of interferon alfa-2a in severe and refractory uveitis associated with Behçet's disease. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 8:293–301CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wechsler B, Du LT, Kieffer E (1999) Cardiovascular manifestations of Behcet's disease. Ann Med Interne (Paris) 150:542–554Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Yamamoto JH, Minami M, Inaba G, Masuda K, Mochizuki M (1990) Cellular autoimmunity to retinal specific antigens in patients with Behçet's disease. Br J Ophthalmol 77:584–589Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Yamashita N, Kaneoka H, Kaneke S, Takeno M, Oneda K, Koizumi H, et al. (1997) Role of γδT lymphocytes in the development of Behçet's disease. Clin Exp Immunol 107:241–247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Yazici H, Pazarli H, Barnes CG, Tüzün Y, Özyazgan Y, Silman A, Serdaroglu S, Oguz V, Yurdakul S, Lovatt GE, Yazici B, Somani S, Müftüoglu A (1990) A controlled trial of azathioprine in Behçet's syndrome. N Engl J Med 322:281–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Yazici H, Basaran G, Hamuryudan V, et al. (1996) The ten-year mortality in Behcet's syndrome. Br J Rheumatol 35:139–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Yazici H, Ozyagan Y (1999) Medical management of Behçet's syndrome. Dev Ophthalmol 31:118–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Zafirakis P, Foster CS (2002) Adamantiades-Behçet disease. In: Foster CS, Vitale AT (eds) Diagnosis and treatment of uveitis. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 632–652Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Zierhut M, Saal J, Pleyer U, Kötter I, Dürk H, Fierlbeck G (1995) Behçet's disease: epidemiology and eye manifestations in German and Mediterranean patients. Ger J Ophthalmol 4: 246–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Zierhut M, Mizuki N, Ohno S, et al. (2003) Human genome and diseases: review. Immunology and functional genomics of Behcet's diseases. CMSL Cell Mol Life Sci 60:1903–1922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Zouboulis CC, Buttner P, Djawari D, et al. (1993) The HLA pattern in Adamantiades-Behcet's disease in Germany. Association of occurrence, clinical symptoms and follow-up in 39 patients. Hautarzt 44:81–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Zouboulis CC, Djawari D, Kich W (1993) Adamantiades-Behçet's disease in Germany. In: Godeau P, Wechsler B (eds) Behçet's disease. Elsevier Science, New York, pp 193–196Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Zouboulis CC, Kötter I, Djawari D, et al. (1997) Epidemiological features of Adamantiades-Behçet's disease in Germany and in Europe. Yonsei Med J 38:411–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Zouboulis CC (1999) Epidemiology of Adamantiades-Behcet's disease. Ann Med Interne (Paris) 150:488–498Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Zouboulis CC (2003) Epidemiology of Adamantiades-Behçet's disease. In: Zierhut M, Ohno S (eds) Immunology of Behçet's disease. Swets & Zeitlinger, Nisse, Netherlands, pp 1–16Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manfred Zierhut
  • Nicole Stübiger
  • Christoph Deuter
  • Ina Kötter

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations