Advertisement

Neuroblastoma pp 123-192 | Cite as

Treatment of Neuroblastoma

  • Brian H. Kushner
  • Susan L. Cohn
  • Katherine K. Matthay
  • Nai-Kong V. Cheung
  • Michael P. La Quaglia
  • Daphne A. Haas-Kogan
  • Suzanne L. Wolden
  • Stephan A. Grupp
  • Irene Y. Cheung
  • Peter F. Ambros
Part of the Pediatric Oncology book series (PEDIATRICO)

Keywords

Clin Oncol Radiat Oncol Biol Phys Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation Pediatric Oncology Group Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Collection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acharya S, Jayabose S, Kogan SJ, Tugal O, Beneck D, Leslie D, Slim M (1997). Prenatally diagnosed neuroblastoma. Cancer 80:304–310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adam A, Hochholzer L (1981) Ganglioneuroblastoma of the posterior mediastinum: a clinicopathologic review of 80 cases. Cancer 47:373–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarado CS, London WB, Look AT, Brodeur GM, Altmiller DH, Thorner PS, Joshi VV, Rowe ST, Nash MB, Smith EI, Castleberry RP, Cohn SL (2000) Natural history and biology of stage A neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group Study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 22:197–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernardi B de, Rogers D, Carli M, Madon E, de Laurentis T, Bagnulo S, Tullio MT di, Paolucci G, Pastore G (1987) Localized neuroblastoma. Surgical and pathologic staging. Cancer 60:1066–1072PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernardi B de, Conte M, Mancini A, Donfrancesco A, Alvisi P, Toma P, Casale F, Cordero di Montezemolo L, Cornelli PE, Carli M (1995) Localized resectable neuroblastoma: results of the second study of the Italian Cooperative Group for Neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 13:884–893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berthold F, Brandeis WE, Lampert F (1986) Neuroblastoma: diagnostic advances and therapeutic results in 370 patients. Monogr Paediatr 18:206–223Google Scholar
  7. Bourhis J, Dominici C, McDowell H, Raschella G, Wilson G, Castello MA, Plouvier E, Lemerle J, Riou G, Benard J (1991) N-myc genomic content and DNA ploidy in stage IVS neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 9:1371–1375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowman LC, Castleberry RP, Cantor A, Joshi V, Cohn SL, Smith EI, Yu A, Brodeur GM, Hayes FA, Look AT (1997) Genetic staging of unresectable or metastatic neuroblastoma in infants: a Pediatric Oncology Group Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 89:373–380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Carachi R, Campbell PE, Kent M (1983) Thoracic neural crest tumors. A clinical review. Cancer 51:949–954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Castleberry RP, Crist WM, Cain WS, Holbrook T, Malluh A, Salter MM (1979) Management of localized thoracic neuroblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 7:153–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohn SL, Look AT, Joshi VV, Holbrook T, Salwen H, Chagnovich D, Chesler L, Rowe ST, Valentine MB, Komuro H, Castleberry RP, Bowman LC, Rao PV, Seeger RC, Brodeur GM (1995) Lack of correlation of N-myc gene amplification with prognosis in localized neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. Cancer Res 55:721–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Coldman AJ, Fryer CJ, Elwood JM, Sonley MJ (1980) Neuroblastoma: influence of age at diagnosis, stage, tumor site, and sex on prognosis. Cancer 46:1896–1901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. DuBois SG, Kalika Y, Lukens JN, Brodeur GM, Seeger RC, Atkinson JB, Haase GM, Black CT, Perez C, Shimada H, Gerbing R, Stram DO, Matthay KK (1999) Metastatic sites in stage IV and IVS neuroblastoma correlate with age, tumor biology, and survival. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 21:181–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Evans AE, Albo V, D'Angio GJ, Finklestein JZ, Leiken S, Santulli T, Weiner J, Hammond GD (1976) Cyclophosphamide treatment of patients with localized and regional neuroblastoma: a randomized study. Cancer 38:655–660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Evans AE, Baum E, Chard R (1981) Do infants with stage IV-S neuroblastoma need treatment? Arch Dis Child 56:271–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Evans AE, Brand W, Lorimier A de, McCreadie S, Sather H, Leikin S, Hammond D (1984) Results in children with local and regional neuroblastoma managed with and without vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and imidazolecarboxamide. A report from the Children's Cancer Study Group. Am J Clin Oncol 7:3–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Evans AE, Silber JH, Shpilsky A, D'Angio GJ (1996) Successful management of low-stage neuroblastoma without adjuvant therapies: a comparison of two decades, 1972 through 1981 and 1982 through 1992, in a single institution. J Clin Oncol 14:2504–2510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Franks LM, Bollen A, Seeger RC, Stram DO, Matthay KK (1997) Neuroblastoma in adults and adolescents: an indolent course with poor survival. Cancer 79:2028–2035CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gaspar N, Hartmann O, Munzer C, Bergeron C, Millot F, Cousin-Lafay L, Babin-Boilletot A, Blouin P, Pajot C, Coze C (2003) Neuroblastoma in adolescents. Cancer 98:349–355CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Guglielmi M, Bernardi B de, Rizzo A, Federici S, Boglino C, Siracusa F, Leggio A, Cozzi F, Cecchetto G, Musi L, Bardini T, Fagnani AM, Bartoli GC, Pampaloni A, Rogers D, Conte M, Milanaccio C, Bruzzi P (1996) Resection of primary tumor at diagnosis in stage IV-S neuroblastoma: Does it affect the clinical course? J Clin Oncol 14:1537–1544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hachitanda Y, Hata J (1996) Stage IVS neuroblastoma: a clinical, histological, and biological analysis of 45 cases. Hum Pathol 27:1135–1138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hayes FA, Green A, Hustu HO, Kumar M (1983) Surgicopathologic staging of neuroblastoma: prognostic significance of regional lymph node metastases. J Pediatr 102:59–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hero B, Simon T, Horz S, Berthold F (2000) Metastatic neuroblastoma in infancy: What does the pattern of metastases contribute to prognosis? Med Pediatr Oncol 35:683–687CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ho PT, Estroff JA, Kozakewich H, Shamberger RC, Lillehei CW, Grier HE, Diller L (1993) Prenatal detection of neuroblastoma: a ten-year experience from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Children's Hospital. Pediatrics 92:358–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Holgersen LO, Subramanian S, Kirpekar M, Mootabar H, Marcus JR (1996) Spontaneous resolution of antenatally diagnosed adrenal masses. J Pediatr Surg 31:153–155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Katzenstein HM, Bowman LC, Brodeur GM, Thorner PS, Joshi VV, Smith EI, Look AT, Rowe ST, Nash MB, Holbrook T, Alvarado C, Rao PV, Castleberry RP, Cohn SL (1998) Prognostic significance of age, MYCN oncogene amplification, tumor cell ploidy, and histology in 110 infants with stage D(S) neuroblastoma: the Pediatric Oncology Group experience — a Pediatric Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 16:2007–2017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kushner BH, Cheung N-K.V, La Quaglia MP, Ambros PF, Ambros IM, Bonilla MA, Gerald WL, Ladanyi M, Gilbert F, Rosenfield NS, Yeh SDJ (1996a) Survival from locally invasive or widespread neuroblastoma without cytotoxic therapy. J Clin Oncol 14:373–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kushner BH, Cheung N-K.V, La Quaglia MP, Ambros PF, Bonilla MA, Ladanyi M, Gerald WL (1996b) International neuroblastoma staging system stage 1 neuroblastoma: a prospective study and literature review. J Clin Oncol 14:2174–2180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Le Tourneau JN, Bernard JL, Hendren WH, Carcassonne M (1985) Evaluation of the role of surgery in 130 patients with neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 20:244–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Look AT, Hayes FA, Shuster JJ, Douglass EC, Castleberry RP, Bowman LC, Smith EI, Brodeur GM (1991) Clinical relevance of tumor cell ploidy and N-myc gene amplification in childhood neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 9:581–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Matthay KK, Sather HN, Seeger RC, Haase GM, Hammond GD (1989) Excellent outcome of stage II neuroblastoma is independent of residual disease and radiation therapy. J Clin Oncol 7:236–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. McGuire WA, Simmons D, Grosfeld JL, Baehner RL (1985) Stage II neuroblastoma: Does adjuvant irradiation contribute to cure? Med Pediatr Oncol 13:117–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Nickerson HJ, Nesbit ME, Grosfeld JL, Baehner RL, Sather H, Hammond D (1985) Comparison of stage IV and IV-S neuroblastoma in the first year of life. Med Pediatr Oncol 13:261–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Nickerson HJ, Matthay KK, Seeger RC, Brodeur GM, Shimada H, Perez C, Atkinson JB, Selch M, Gerbing RB, Stram DO, Lukens J (2000) Favorable biology and outcome of stage IV-S neuroblastoma with supportive care or minimal therapy: a Children's Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol 18:477–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Ninane J, Pritchard J, Morris Jones PH, Mann JR, Malpas JS (1982) Stage II neuroblastoma. Adverse prognostic significance of lymph node involvement. Arch Dis Child 57:438–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Nishihira H, Toyoda Y, Tanaka Y, Ijiri R, Aida N, Takeuchi M, Ohnuma K, Kigasawa H, Kato K, Nishi T (2000) Natural course of neuroblastoma detected by mass screening: a 5-year prospective study at a single institution. J Clin Oncol 18:3012–3017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Nitschke R, Humphrey GB, Sexauer CL, Smith EI (1983) Neuroblastoma: therapy for infants with good prognosis. Med Pediatr Oncol 11:154–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Nitschke R, Smith EI, Shochat S, Altshuler G, Travers H, Shuster JJ, Hayes FA, Patterson R, McWilliams N (1988) Localized neuroblastoma treated by surgery: a Pediatric Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 6:1271–1279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. O'Neill JA, Littman P, Blitzer P, Soper K, Chatten J, Shimada H (1985) The role of surgery in localized neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 20:708–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Perez CA, Matthay KK, Atkinson JB, Seeger RC, Shimada H, Haase GM, Stram DO, Gerbing RB, Lukens JN (2000) Biological variables in the outcome of stages I and II neuroblastoma treated with surgery as primary therapy: a Children's Cancer Group Study. J Clin Oncol 18:18–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Rosen EM, Cassady JR, Kretschmar C, Frantz CN, Levey R, Sallan SE (1984) Influence of local-regional lymph node metastases on prognosis in neuroblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 12:260–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Sauvat F, Sarnacki S, Brisse H, Medioni J, Rubie H, Aigrain Y, Gauthier F, Audry G, Helardot P, Landais P, Michon J, Hartmann O, Nihoul-Fekete C (2002) Outcome of suprarenal localized masses diagnosed during the perinatal period: a retrospective multicenter study. Cancer 94:2474–2480CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Saylors RL, Cohn SL, Morgan ER, Brodeur GM (1994) Prenatal detection of neuroblastoma by fetal ultrasounography. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 16:356–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Schleiermacher G, Rubie H, Hartmann O, Bergeron C, Chastagner P, Mechinaud F, Michon J (2003) Treatment of stage 4 s neuroblastoma: report of 10 years' experience of the French Society of Paediatric Oncology (SFOP). Br J Cancer 89: 470–476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Shimada H, Stram DO, Chatten J, Joshi VV, Hachitanda Y, Brodeur GM, Lukens JN, Matthay KK, Seeger RC (1995) Identification of subsets of neuroblastomas by combined histopathologic and N-myc analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 87: 1470–1476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Stephenson SR, Cook BA, Mease AD, Ruymann FB (1986) The prognostic significance of age and pattern of metastases in stage IV-S neuroblastoma. Cancer 58:372–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Yamamoto K, Hanada R, Kikuchi A, Ichikawa M, Aihara T, Oguma E, Moritani T, Shimanuki Y, Tanimura M, Hayashi Y (1998) Spontaneous regression of localized neuroblastoma detected by mass screening. J Clin Oncol 16:1265–1269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Zucker JM (1974) Retrospective study of 462 neuroblastomas treated between 1950 and 1970. Maandschr Kindergeneesk 42:369–385Google Scholar

References

  1. Berthold F, Hero B (2000) Neuroblastoma: current drug therapy recommendations as part of the total treatment approach. Drugs 59:1261–1277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bowman LC, Hancock ML, Santana VM et al. (1991) Impact of intensified therapy on clinical outcome in infants and children with neuroblastoma: the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital experience, 1962 to 1988. J Clin Oncol 9:1599–1608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bowman LC, Castleberry RP, Cantor A et al. (1997) Genetic staging of unresectable or metastatic neuroblastoma in infants: a Pediatric Oncology Group Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 89:373–380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Castel V, Badal MD, Bezanilla JL et al. (1995) Treatment of stage III neuroblastoma with emphasis on intensive induction chemotherapy: a report from the Neuroblastoma Group of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Oncology. Med Pediatr Oncol 24:29–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Castleberry RP, Kun LE, Shuster JJ et al. (1991) Radiotherapy improves the outlook for patients older than 1 year with Pediatric Oncology Group stage C neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 9:789–795PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheung NK, Kushner BH, La Quaglia MP et al. (1997) Survival from non-stage 4 neuroblastoma without cytotoxic therapy: an analysis of clinical and biological markers. Eur J Cancer 33:2117–2120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. De Bernardi B, Pianca C, Boni L et al. (1992) Disseminated neuroblastoma (stage IV and IV-S) in the first year of life. Outcome related to age and stage. Italian Cooperative Group on Neuroblastoma. Cancer 70:1625–1633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. DuBois SG, Kalika Y, Lukens JN et al. (1999) Metastatic sites in stage IV and IVS neuroblastoma correlate with age, tumor biology, and survival. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 21:181–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Evans AE, Baum E, Chard R (1981) Do infants with stage IV-S neuroblastoma need treatment? Arch Dis Child 56:271–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Evans AE, Silber JH, Shpilsky A et al. (1996) Successful management of low-stage neuroblastoma without adjuvant therapies: a comparison of two decades, 1972 through 1981 and 1982 through 1992, in a single institution. J Clin Oncol 14:2504–2510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Garaventa A, Boni L, Lo Piccolo MS et al. (2002) Localized unresectable neuroblastoma: results of treatment based on clinical prognostic factors. Ann Oncol 13:956–964CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. George R, London WB, Maris JM et al. (2003) Age as a continuous variable in predicting outcome for neuroblastoma patients with metastatic disease: impact of tumor biological features. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 22:799 (abstract)Google Scholar
  13. Guglielmi M, De Bernardi B, Rizzo A et al. (1996) Resection of primary tumor at diagnosis in stage IV-S neuroblastoma: Does it affect the clinical course? J Clin Oncol 14:1537–1544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Haase GM, Wong KY, deLorimier AA et al. (1989) Improvement in survival after excision of primary tumor in stage III neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 24:194–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hachitanda Y, Hata J (1996) Stage IVS neuroblastoma: a clinical, histological, and biological analysis of 45 cases. Hum Pathol 27:1135–1138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hero B, Simon T, Horz S et al. (2000) Metastatic neuroblastoma in infancy: What does the pattern of metastases contribute to prognosis? Med Pediatr Oncol 35:683–687CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Katzenstein HM, Bowman LC, Brodeur GM et al. (1998) Prognostic significance of age,MYCN oncogene amplification, tumor cell ploidy, and histology in 110 infants with stage D(S) neuroblastoma: the Pediatric Oncology Group experience — a Pediatric Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 16:2007–2017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Maris JM, Matthay KK (1999) Molecular biology of neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 17:2226–2279Google Scholar
  19. Martinez DA, King DR, Ginn-Pease ME et al. (1992) Resection of the primary tumor is appropriate for children with stage IV-S neuroblastoma: an analysis of 37 patients. J Pediatr Surg 27:1016–1020CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Matthay KK, Sather HN, Seeger RC et al. (1989) Excellent outcome of stage II neuroblastoma is independent of residual disease and radiation therapy. J Clin Oncol 7:236–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Matthay KK, Perez C, Seeger RC et al. (1998) Successful treatment of stage III neuroblastoma based on prospective biologic staging: a Children's Cancer Group Study. J Clin Oncol 16:1256–1264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Nickerson HJ, Matthay KK, Seeger RC et al. (2000) Favorable biology and outcome of stage IV-S neuroblastoma with supportive care or minimal therapy: a Children's Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol 18:477–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Paul SR, Tarbell NJ, Korf B et al. (1991) Stage IV neuroblastoma in infants. Long-term survival. Cancer 67:1493–1497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Rosen EM, Cassady JR, Frantz CN et al. (1985) Stage IV-N: a favorable subset of children with metastatic neuroblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 13:194–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Rubie H, Michon J, Plantaz D et al. (1998) Unresectable localized neuroblastoma: improved survival after primary chemotherapy including carboplatin-etoposide. Neuroblastoma Study Group of the Societe Francaise d'Oncologie Pediatrique (SFOP). Br J Cancer 77:2310–2317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Rubie H, Plantaz D, Coze C et al. (2001) Localised and unresectable neuroblastoma in infants: excellent outcome with primary chemotherapy. Neuroblastoma Study Group, Societe Francaise d'Oncologie Pediatrique. Med Pediatr Oncol 36:247–250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Sauvat F, Sarnacki S, Brisse H et al. (2002) Outcome of suprarenal localized masses diagnosed during the perinatal period: a retrospective multicenter study. Cancer 94:2474–2480CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Schleiermacher G, Rubie H, Hartmann O et al. (2003) Treatment of stage 4 s neuroblastoma: report of 10 years' experience of the French Society of Paediatric Oncology (SFOP). Br J Cancer 89:470–476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Schmidt ML, Lukens JN, Seeger RC et al. (2000) Biologic factors determine prognosis in infants with stage IV neuroblastoma: a prospective Children's Cancer Group Study. J Clin Oncol 18:1260–1268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Schmidt ML, Lal A, Seeger R et al. (2003) Favorable prognosis for patients ages 12–18 months with stage 4 MYCN-nonamplified neuroblastoma. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 22:800 (abstract)Google Scholar
  31. Strother D, Shuster JJ, McWilliams N et al. (1995) Results of pediatric oncology group protocol 8104 for infants with stages D and DS neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 17:254–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Strother D, van Hoff J, Rao PV et al. (1997) Event-free survival of children with biologically favourable neuroblastoma based on the degree of initial tumour resection: results from the Pediatric Oncology Group. Eur J Cancer 33:2121–2125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Tsuchida Y, Yokoyama J, Kaneko M et al. (1992) Therapeutic significance of surgery in advanced neuroblastoma: a report from the study group of Japan. J Pediatr Surg 27:616–622CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Van Noesel MM, Hahlen K, Hakvoort-Cammel FGAJ et al. (1997) Neuroblastoma 4S: a heterogeneous disease with variable risk factors and treatment strategies. Cancer 80:834–843CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. West DC, Shamberger RC, Macklis RM et al. (1993) Stage III neuroblastoma over 1 year of age at diagnosis: improved survival with intensive multimodality therapy including multiple alkylating agents. J Clin Oncol 11:84–90PubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. Abemayor E (1992) The effects of retinoic acid on the in vitro and in vivo growth of neuroblastoma cells. Laryngoscope 102:1133–1149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adkins ES, Sawin R, Gerbing RB, London WB, Matthay KK, Haase GM (2004) Efficacy of complete resection for highrisk neuroblastoma: a Children's Cancer Group study. J Pediatr Surg 39:931–936CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. August CS, Serota FT, Koch PA et al. (1984) Treatment of advanced neuroblastoma with supralethal chemotherapy, radiation, and allogeneic or autologous marrow reconstitution. J Clin Oncol 2:609–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Basniewski PG, Reid JM, Villablanca JG, Reynolds CP, Ames MM (1999) A phase I pharmacokinetic study of fenretinide (HPR) in chldren with high-risk solid tumors. A Children's Cancer Group (CCG) study. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 40:92Google Scholar
  5. Bowman L, Grossmann M, Rill D et al. (1998) IL-2 adenovector-transduced autologous tumor cells induce antitumor immune responses in patients with neuroblastoma. Blood 92:1941–1949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Burchill SA, Lewis IJ, Abrams KR et al. (2001) Circulating neuroblastoma cells detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA are an independent poor prognostic indicator in stage 4 neuroblastoma in children over 1 year. J Clin Oncol 19:1795–1801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Castel V, Canete A, Navarro S et al. (2001) Outcome of high-risk neuroblastoma using a dose intensity approach: improvement in initial but not in long-term results. Med Pediatr Oncol 37:537–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Castleberry RP, Cantor AB, Green AA et al. (1994) Phase II investigational window using carboplatin, iproplatin, ifosfamide, and epirubicin in children with untreated disseminated neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study (see comments). J Clin Oncol 12:1616–1620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheung IY, Lo Piccolo MS, Kushner BH, Kramer K, Cheung NK (2003) Quantitation of GD2 synthase mRNA by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction: clinical utility in evaluating adjuvant therapy in neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 21:1087–1093CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheung NV, Heller G (1991) Chemotherapy dose intensity correlates strongly with response, median survival, and median progression-free survival in metastatic neuroblastoma (see comments). J Clin Oncol 9:1050–1058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheung NK, Miraldi FD (1988) Iodine 131 labeled GD2 monoclonal antibody in the diagnosis and therapy of human neuroblastoma. Prog Clin Biol Res 271:595–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheung NK, Burch L, Kushner BH, Munn DH (1991) Monoclonal antibody 3F8 can effect durable remissions in neuroblastoma patients refractory to chemotherapy: a phase II trial. Prog Clin Biol Res 366:395–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheung NK, Kushner BH, Yeh SJ, Larson SM (1994) 3F8 monoclonal antibody treatment of patients with stage IV neuroblastoma: a phase II study. Prog Clin Biol Res 385:319–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheung NK, Kushner BH, Cheung IY et al. (1998a) Anti-G(D2) antibody treatment of minimal residual stage 4 neuroblastoma diagnosed at more than 1 year of age. J Clin Oncol 16:3053–3060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cheung NK, Kushner BH, Yeh SDJ, Larson SM (1998b) 3F8 monoclonal antibody treatment of patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma: a phase II study. Int J Oncol 12:1299–1306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheung NK, Kushner BH, La Quaglia MP et al. (2001a) N7: a novel multi-modality therapy of high risk neuroblastoma (NB) in children diagnosed over 1 year of age. Med Pediatr Oncol 36:227–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cheung NK, Kushner BH, Kramer K (2001b) Monoclonal antibody-based therapy of neuroblastoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 15:853–866CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Coze C, Hartmann O, Michon J et al. (1997) NB87 induction protocol for stage 4 neuroblastoma in children over 1 year of age: a report from the French Society of Pediatric Oncology. J Clin Oncol 15:3433–3440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Davidoff AM, Kimbrough SA, Ng CY, Shochat SJ, Vanin EF (1999) Neuroblastoma regression and immunity induced by transgenic expression of interleukin-12. J Pediatr Surg 34:902–907CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Delia D, Aiello A, Lombardi L et al. (1993) N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide induces apoptosis of malignant hemopoietic cell lines including those unresponsive to retinoic acid. Cancer Res 53:6036–6041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dini G, Philip T, Hartmann O et al. (1989) Bone marrow transplantation for neuroblastoma: a review of 509 cases. EBMT Group. Bone Marrow Transplant 4(Suppl 4):42–46Google Scholar
  22. Dini G, Lanino E, Garaventa A et al. (1991) Myeloablative therapy and unpurged autologous bone marrow transplantation for poor-prognosis neuroblastoma: report of 34 cases. J Clin Oncol 9:962–969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dopfer R, Berthold F, Einsele H et al. (1989) Bone marrow transplantation in children with neuroblastoma. Folia Haematol Int Mag Klin Morphol Blutforsch 116:427–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. DuBois SG, Kalika Y, Lukens JN et al. (1999) Metastatic sites in stage IV and IVS neuroblastoma correlate with age, tumor biology, and survival (see comments). J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 21:181–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Evans AE, August CS, Kamani N et al. (1994) Bone marrow transplantation for high risk neuroblastoma at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia: an update. Med Pediatr Oncol 23:323–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Evans AE, Kisselbach KD, Yamashiro DJ et al. (1999) Antitumor activity of CEP-751 (KT-6587) on human neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma xenografts. Clin Cancer Res 5:3594–3602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Faulkner LB, Garaventa A, Paoli A et al. (2000) In vivo cytore-duction studies and cell sorting — enhanced tumor-cell detection in high-risk neuroblastoma patients: implications for leukapheresis strategies. J Clin Oncol 18:3829–3836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Finklestein JZ, Krailo MD, Lenarsky C et al. (1992) 13-cis-retinoic acid (NSC 122758) in the treatment of children with metastatic neuroblastoma unresponsive to conventional chemotherapy: report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group. Med Pediatr Oncol 20:307–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Frappaz D, Michon J, Coze C et al. (2000) LMCE3 treatment strategy: results in 99 consecutively diagnosed stage 4 neuroblastomas in children older than 1 year at diagnosis. J Clin Oncol 18:468–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Frei E III, Teicher BA, Holden SA, Cathcart KN, Wang YY (1988) Preclinical studies and clinical correlation of the effect of alkylating dose. Cancer Res 48:6417–6423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Frost JD, Hank JA, Reaman GH et al. (1997) A phase I/IB trial of murine monoclonal anti-GD2 antibody 14.G2a plus interleukin-2 in children with refractory neuroblastoma: a report of the Children's Cancer Group. Cancer 80:317–333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Garaventa A, Rondelli R, Lanino E et al. (1996) Myeloablative therapy and bone marrow rescue in advanced neuroblastoma. Report from the Italian Bone Marrow Transplant Registry. Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, BMT Group. Bone Marrow Transplant 18:125–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Garaventa A, Luksch R, Piccolo MS et al. (2003) Phase I trial and pharmacokinetics of fenretinide in children with neuroblastoma. Clin Cancer Res 9:2032–2039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. George R, London WB, Maris JM, Cohn SL, Diller L, Look AT (2003) Age as a continuous variable in predicting outcome for neuroblastoma patients with metastatic disease: impact of tumor biological features. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 22:799Google Scholar
  35. Graham-Pole J, Casper J, Elfenbein G et al. (1991) High-dose chemoradiotherapy supported by marrow infusions for advanced neuroblastoma: A Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 9:152–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Grupp SA, Stern JW, Bunin N et al. (2000) Tandem high-dose therapy in rapid sequence for children with high-risk neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 18:2567–2575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Haase GM, Meagher DP Jr, McNeely LK et al. (1994) Electron beam intraoperative radiation therapy for pediatric neoplasms. Cancer 74:740–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Haas-Kogan DA, Fisch BM, Wara WM et al. (2000) Intraoperative radiation therapy for high-risk pediatric neuroblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 47:985–992CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Haas-Kogan DA, Swift PS, Selch M et al. (2003) Impact of radiotherapy for high-risk neuroblastoma: a Children's Cancer Group study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56:28–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Handgretinger R, Baader P, Dopfer R et al. (1992) A phase I study of neuroblastoma with the anti-ganglioside GD2 antibody 14.G2a. Cancer Immunol Immunother 35:199–204CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hartmann O, Benhamou E, Beaujean F et al. (1987) Repeated high-dose chemotherapy followed by purged autologous bone marrow transplantation as consolidation therapy in metastatic neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 5:1205–1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hartmann O, Valteau-Couanet D, Vassal G et al. (1999) Prognostic factors in metastatic neuroblastoma in patients over 1 year of age treated with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation: a multivariate analysis in 218 patients treated in a single institution. Bone Marrow Transplant 23:789–795CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hero B, Kremens B, Klingebiel T et al. (1997) Does megatherapy contribute to survival in metastatic neuroblastoma? A retrospective analysis. German Cooperative Neuroblastoma Study Group. Klin Padiatr 209:196–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Huang Y, Tan M, Gosink M, Wang KK, Sun Y (2002) Histone deacetylase 5 is not a p53 target gene, but its overexpression inhibits tumor cell growth and induces apoptosis. Cancer Res 62:2913–2922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ikeda H, August CS, Goldwein JW, Ross AJ, D'Angio GJ, Evans AE (1992) Sites of relapse in patients with neuroblastoma following bone marrow transplantation in relation to preparatory “debulking” treatments. J Pediatr Surg 27:1438–1441CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kamani N, August CS, Bunin N et al. (1996) A study of thiotepa, etoposide and fractionated total body irradiation as a preparative regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation for poor prognosis patients with neuroblastoma. Bone Marrow Transplant 17:911–916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kaneko M, Tsuchida Y, Uchino J et al. (1999) Treatment results of advanced neuroblastoma with the first Japanese study group protocol. Study Group of Japan for Treatment of Advanced Neuroblastoma (see comments). J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 21:190–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kemshead JT, Heath L, Gibson FM et al. (1986) Magnetic microspheres and monoclonal antibodies for the depletion of neuroblastoma cells from bone marrow: experiences, improvements and observations. Br J Cancer 54:771–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Keshelava N, Seeger RC, Groshen S, Reynolds CP (1998) Drug resistance patterns in human neuroblastoma cell lines derived from patients at different phases of therapy. Cancer Res 58:5396–5405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kletzel M, Abella EM, Sandler ES et al. (1998) Thiotepa and cyclophosphamide with stem cell rescue for consolidation therapy for children with high-risk neuroblastoma: a phase I/II study of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 20:49–54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kletzel M, Katzenstein HM, Haut PR et al. (2002) Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with triple-tandem high-dose therapy and stem cell rescue: results of the Chicago Pilot II Study. J Clin Oncol 20:2284–2292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kohler JA, Imeson J, Ellershaw C, Lie SO (2000) A randomized trial of 13-Cis retinoic acid in children with advanced neuroblastoma after high-dose therapy. Br J Cancer 83:1124–1127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kreissman S, Seeger R, Sender L et al. (2000) Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) support for multiple cycles of dose intensive chemotherapy for stage IV neuroblastoma (NB) is feasible with little risk of tumor contamination: a Children's Cancer Group report. Proc Am Soc Clin OncolGoogle Scholar
  54. Kremens B, Klingebiel T, Herrmann F et al. (1994) High-dose consolidation with local radiation and bone marrow rescue in patients with advanced neuroblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 23:470–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kretschmar CS, Kletzel K, Murray K, Smith EI, Marcus R, Castleberry R (1995) Phase II therapy with taxol and topotecan in untreated children (>365 days) with disseminated (INSS stage 4) neuroblastoma (NB). A POG study. Med Pediatr Oncol 24:243Google Scholar
  56. Kushner BH, O'Reilly RJ, Mandell LR, Gulati SC, La Quaglia MP, Cheung NK (1991) Myeloablative combination chemotherapy without total body irradiation for neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 9:274–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kushner BH, Yeh SD, Kramer K, Larson SM, Cheung NK (2003) Impact of metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy on assessing response of high-risk neuroblastoma to dose-intensive induction chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 21:1082–1086CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. La Quaglia MP, Kushner BH, Heller G, Bonilla MA, Lindsley KL, Cheung NK (1994) Stage 4 neuroblastoma diagnosed at more than 1 year of age: gross total resection and clinical outcome. J Pediatr Surg 29:1162–1166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ladenstein R, Lasset C, Hartmann O et al. (1994) Comparison of auto versus allografting as consolidation of primary treatments in advanced neuroblastoma over one year of age at diagnosis: report from the European Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 14:37–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Ladenstein R, Philip T, Lasset C et al. (1998) Multivariate analysis of risk factors in stage 4 neuroblastoma patients over the age of one year treated with megatherapy and stem cell transplantation: a report from the European Bone Marrow Transplantation Solid Tumor Registry. J Clin Oncol 16:953–965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Le Deley MC, Leblanc T, Shamsaldin A et al. (2003) Risk of secondary leukemia after a solid tumor in childhood according to the dose of epipodophyllotoxins and anthracyclines: a case-control study by the Societe Francaise d'Oncologie Pediatrique. J Clin Oncol 21:1074–1081CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lode HN, Xiang R, Varki NM, Dolman CS, Gillies SD, Reisfeld RA (1997) Targeted interleukin-2 therapy for spontaneous neuroblastoma metastases to bone marrow. J Natl Cancer Inst 89:1586–1594CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Mastrangelo S, Tornesello A, Diociaiuti L et al. (2001) Treatment of advanced neuroblastoma: feasibility and therapeutic potential of a novel approach combining 131-I-MIBG and multiple drug chemotherapy. Br J Cancer 84:460–464CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Matsumura M, Atkinson JB, Hays DM et al. (1988) An evaluation of the role of surgery in metastatic neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 23:448–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Matthay KK (1997) Neuroblastoma: biology and therapy. Oncology 11:1857–1866; discussion 1869–1872, 1875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Matthay KK, Yamashiro D (2000) Neuroblastoma. In: Bast RC, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Holland JF, Frei E (eds) Cancer medicine. Decker, London, pp 2185–2197Google Scholar
  67. Matthay KK, Atkinson JB, Stram DO, Selch M, Reynolds CP, Seeger RC (1993) Patterns of relapse after autologous purged bone marrow transplantation for neuroblastoma: a Childrens Cancer Group pilot study. J Clin Oncol 11:2226–2233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Matthay KK, Seeger RC, Reynolds CP et al. (1994) Allogeneic versus autologous purged bone marrow transplantation for neuroblastoma: a report from the Childrens Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 12:2382–2389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Matthay KK, Villablanca JG, Seeger RC et al. (1999) Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and 13-cis-retinoic acid. Children's Cancer Group. N Engl J Med 341:1165–1173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Matthay KK, Edeline V, Lumbroso J et al. (2003) Correlation of early metastatic response by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy with overall response and event-free survival in stage IV neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 21:2486–2491CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Maurer BJ, Metelitsa LS, Seeger RC, Cabot MC, Reynolds CP (1999) Fenretinide (4-HPR) induces ceramide in neuroblastoma and 4-HPR cytotoxicity is increased by modulators of ceramide metabolism. Med Pediatr Oncol 33:227Google Scholar
  72. Melino G, Thiele CJ, Knight RA, Piacentini M (1997) Retinoids and the control of growth/death decisions in human neuroblastoma cell lines. J Neurooncol 31:65–83CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Ohnuma N, Takahashi H, Kaneko M et al. (1995) Treatment combined with bone marrow transplantation for advanced neuroblastoma: an analysis of patients who were pretreated intensively with the protocol of the Study Group of Japan. Med Pediatr Oncol 24:181–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Ozkaynak MF, Sondel PM, Krailo MD et al. (2000) Phase I study of chimeric human/murine anti-ganglioside G(D2) monoclonal antibody (ch14.18) with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in children with neuroblastoma immediately after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a Children's Cancer Group Study. J Clin Oncol 18:4077–4085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Philip T, Bernard JL, Zucker JM et al. (1987) High-dose chemoradiotherapy with bone marrow transplantation as consolidation treatment in neuroblastoma: an unselected group of stage IV patients over 1 year of age. J Clin Oncol 5:266–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Philip T, Zucker JM, Bernard JL et al. (1991) Improved survival at 2 and 5 years in the LMCE1 unselected group of 72 children with stage IV neuroblastoma older than 1 year of age at diagnosis: is cure possible in a small subgroup? J Clin Oncol 9:1037–1044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Philip T, Ladenstein R, Zucker JM et al. (1993) Double megatherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for advanced neuroblastoma: the LMCE2 study. Br J Cancer 67:119–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Pinkerton CR (1991) ENSG 1-randomised study of high-dose melphalan in neuroblastoma. Bone Marrow Transplant 7 (Suppl 3):112–113Google Scholar
  79. Pinkerton CR, Blanc Vincent MP, Bergeron C, Fervers B, Philip T (2000) Induction chemotherapy in metastatic neuroblastoma: Does dose influence response? A critical review of published data standards, options and recommendations (SOR) project of the National Federation of French Cancer Centres (FNCLCC). Eur J Cancer 36:1808–1815CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Pole JG, Casper J, Elfenbein G et al. (1991) High-dose chemoradiotherapy supported by marrow infusions for advanced neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study (published erratum appears in J Clin Oncol 1991, 9:1094). J Clin Oncol 9:152–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Reynolds CP, Seeger RC, Vo DD, Black AT, Wells J, Ugelstad J (1986) Model system for removing neuroblastoma cells from bone marrow using monoclonal antibodies and magnetic immunobeads. Cancer Res 46:5882–5886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Reynolds CP, Kane DJ, Einhorn PA et al. (1991) Response of neuroblastoma to retinoic acid in vitro and in vivo. Prog Clin Biol Res 366:203–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Reynolds CP, Villablanca JG, Gerbing RB, Stram DO, Seeger RC, Matthay KK (2002) 13-cis-retinoic acid improves overall survival following myeloablative therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma: a randomized Children's Cancer Group (CCG) study. ASCO Annual Meeting, abstract #1564Google Scholar
  84. Schmidt ML, Lal A, Seeger RC et al. (2003) Favorable prognosis for patients ages 12–18 months with stage 4 MYCN-nonamplified neuroblastoma: a Children's Cancer Group Study. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 22:800Google Scholar
  85. Seeger RC, Reynolds CP, Gallego R, Stram DO, Gerbing RB, Matthay KK (2000) Quantitative tumor cell content of bone marrow and blood as a predictor of outcome in stage IV neuroblastoma: a Children's Cancer Group Study. J Clin Oncol 18:4067–4076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Seeger RC, Villablanca JG, Matthay KK et al. (1991) Intensive chemoradiotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for poor prognosis neuroblastoma. Prog Clin Biol Res 366:527–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Seeger RC, Reynolds CP (1991) Treatment of high-risk solid tumors of childhood with intensive therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Pediatr Clin North Am 38:393–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Shorter NA, Davidoff AM, Evans AE, Ross A Jr, Zeigler MM, O'Neill JA Jr (1995) The role of surgery in the management of stage IV neuroblastoma: a single institution study. Med Pediatr Oncol 24:287–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Shuster JJ, Cantor AB, McWilliams N et al. (1991) The prognostic significance of autologous bone marrow transplant in advanced neuroblastoma (see comments). J Clin Oncol 9:1045–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Smith BD, Levis M, Beran M et al. (2004) Single agent CEP-701, a novel FLT3 inhibitor, shows biologic and clinical activity in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 63:5559–5563Google Scholar
  91. Stern JW, Fang J, Shusterman S et al. (2001) Angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470 during bone marrow transplant: safety in a preclinical model. Clin Cancer Res 7:1026–1032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Stram DO, Matthay KK, O'Leary M et al. (1996) Consolidation chemoradiotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation versus continued chemotherapy for metastatic neuroblastoma: a report of two concurrent Children's Cancer Group studies (see comments). J Clin Oncol 14:2417–2426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Tweddle DA, Pinkerton CR, Lewis IJ, Ellershaw C, Cole M, Pearson AD (2001) OPEC/OJEC for stage 4 neuroblastoma in children over 1 year of age. Med Pediatr Oncol 36:239–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Villablanca JG, Khan AA, Avramis VI et al. (1995) Phase I trial of 13-cis-retinoic acid in children with neuroblastoma following bone marrow transplantation. J Clin Oncol 13:894–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Villablanca JG, Reynolds CP, Swift PS et al. (1998) Phase I trial of carboplatin, etoposide, melphalan and local irradiation (CEM-LI) with purged autologous marrow transplantation for children with high risk neuroblastoma. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 17:533aGoogle Scholar
  96. Villablanca JG, Matthay KK, Swift PS et al. (1999) Phase I trial of carboplatin, etoposide, melphalan and local irradiation (CEM-LI) with purged autologous bone marrow transplantation for children with high risk neuroblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 33:170Google Scholar
  97. Wheatley JM, Rosenfield NS, Heller G, Feldstein D, La Quaglia MP (1995) Validation of a technique of computer-aided tumor volume determination. J Surg Res 59:621–626CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Wolden SL, Gollamudi SV, Kushner BH et al. (2000) Local control with multimodality therapy for stage 4 neuroblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46:969–974CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Yu AL, Uttenreuther-Fischer MM, Huang CS et al. (1998) Phase I trial of a human-mouse chimeric anti-disialoganglioside monoclonal antibody ch14.18 in patients with refractory neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. J Clin Oncol 16:2169–2180PubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. Bernardi B de, Conte M, Mancini A et al. (1995) Localized resectable neuroblastoma: results of the second study of the Italian Cooperative Group for Neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 13:884–893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Berthold F, Trechow R, Utsch S et al. (1992) Prognostic factors in metastatic neuroblastoma. A multivariate analysis of 182 cases. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 14:207–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bowman LC, Castleberry RP, Cantor A et al. (1997) Genetic staging of unresectable or metastatic neuroblastoma in infants: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Natl Cancer Inst 89:373–380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brodeur GM, Seeger RC, Barrett A et al. (1988) International criteria for diagnosis, staging, and response to treatment in patients with neuroblastoma (see comments). J Clin Oncol 6:1874–1881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brodeur GM, Pritchard J, Berthold F et al. (1993) Revisions of the international criteria for neuroblastoma diagnosis, staging, and response to treatment. J Clin Oncol 11:1466–1477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Carlsen NL, Christensen IJ, Schroeder H et al. (1986) Prognostic factors in neuroblastomas treated in Denmark from 1943 to 1980. A statistical estimate of prognosis based on 253 cases. Cancer 58:2726–2735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Castel V, Tovar JA, Costa E et al. (2002) The role of surgery in stage IV neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 37:1574–1578CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Catalano PW, Newton WA Jr, Williams TE Jr et al. (1978) Reasonable surgery for thoracic neuroblastoma in infants and children. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 76:459–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chamberlain RS, Quinones R, Dinndorf P et al. (1995) Complete surgical resection combined with aggressive adjuvant chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in children with advanced neuroblastoma (see comments). Ann Surg Oncol 2:93–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheung NK, Kushner BH, La Quaglia MP et al. (1997) Survival from non-stage 4 neuroblastoma without cytotoxic therapy: an analysis of clinical and biological markers. Eur J Cancer 33:2117–2120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cruccetti A, Kiely EM, Spitz L et al. (2000) Pelvic neuroblastoma: low mortality and high morbidity. J Pediatr Surg 35:724–728CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. D'Angio GJ, Evans AE, Koop CE (1971) Special pattern of widespread neuroblastoma with a favourable prognosis. Lancet 1:1046–1049CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. DeCou JM, Bowman LC, Rao BN et al. (1995) Infants with metastatic neuroblastoma have improved survival with resection of the primary tumor. J Pediatr Surg 30:937–941CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Duckett JW, Koop CE (1977) Neuroblastoma. Urol Clin North Am 4:285–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Evans AE, Albo V, D'Angio GJ et al. (1976a) Factors influencing survival of children with nonmetastatic neuroblastoma. Cancer 38:661–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Evans AE, D'Angio GJ, Koop CE (1976b) Diagnosis and treatment of neuroblastoma. Pediatr Clin North Am 23:161–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Evans AE, D'Angio GJ, Koop CE (1984) The role of multimodal therapy in patients with local and regional neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 19:77–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Evans AE, D'Angio GJ, Sather HN et al. (1990) A comparison of four staging systems for localized and regional neuroblastoma: a report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group (see comments). J Clin Oncol 8:678–688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Evans AE, Silber JH, Shpilsky A et al. (1996) Successful management of low-stage neuroblastoma without adjuvant therapies: a comparison of two decades, 1972 through 1981 and 1982 through 1992, in a single institution. J Clin Oncol 14:2504–2510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Frappaz D, Perol D, Michon J et al. (2002) The LMCE5 unselected cohort of 25 children consecutively diagnosed with untreated stage 4 neuroblastoma over 1 year at diagnosis. Br J Cancer 87:1197–1203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gross RE (1953) Neuroblastoma sympatheticum, the surgery of infancy and childhood. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 606–625Google Scholar
  22. Haase GM, Wong KY, deLorimier AA et al. (1989) Improvement in survival after excision of primary tumor in stage III neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 24:194–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Haase GM, O'Leary MC, Ramsay NK et al. (1991) Aggressive surgery combined with intensive chemotherapy improves survival in poor-risk neuroblastoma (see comments). J Pediatr Surg 26:1119–1124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Haas-Kogan DA, Swift PS, Selch M et al. (2003) Impact of radiotherapy for high-risk neuroblastoma: a Children's Cancer Group study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56:28–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Harrison J, Myers M, Rowen M et al. (1974) Results of combination chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy in children with neuroblastoma. Cancer 34:485–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hata Y, Naito H, Sasaki F et al. (1990) Fifteen years' experience of neuroblastoma: a prognostic evaluation according to the Evans and UICC staging systems. J Pediatr Surg 25:326–329CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hollmann G, Lampert F (1975) Carcinochemotherapy in pediatric surgery (author's translation). Langenbecks Arch Chir 339:95–98CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Horn RC Jr, Koop CE, Kiesewetter WB (1956) Neuroblastoma in childhood; clinicopathologic study of forty-four cases. Lab Invest 5:106–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ikeda H, Suzuki N, Takahashi A et al. (1998) Surgical treatment of neuroblastomas in infants under 12 months of age. J Pediatr Surg 33:1246–1250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. James DH, Hustu O, Wrenn EL et al. (1965) Combination chemotherapy in childhood neuroblastoma. J Am Med Assoc 194:123–126Google Scholar
  31. Joshi VV, Cantor AB, Altshuler G et al. (1992) Recommendations for modification of terminology of neuroblastic tumors and prognostic significance of Shimada classification. A clinicopathologic study of 213 cases from the Pediatric Oncology Group. Cancer 69:2183–2196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Joshi VV, Rao PV, Cantor AB et al. (1996) Modified histologic grading of neuroblastomas by replacement of mitotic rate with mitosis karyorrhexis index. A clinicopathologic study of 223 cases from the Pediatric Oncology Group. Cancer 77:1582–1588CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kaneko M, Ohakawa H, Iwakawa M (1997) Is extensive surgery required for treatment of advanced neuroblastoma? J Pediatr Surg 32:1616–1619CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kaneko M, Iwakawa M, Ikebukuro K et al. (1998) Complete resection is not required in patients with neuroblastoma under 1 year of age. J Pediatr Surg 33:1690–1694CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kaneko M, Tsuchida Y, Uchino J et al. (1999) Treatment results of advanced neuroblastoma with the first Japanese study group protocol. Study Group of Japan for Treatment of Advanced Neuroblastoma (see comments). J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 21:190–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kasai M, Watanabe I (1968) Surgery of malignant tumors in infants and children. Gan No Rinsho 14:719–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kawa K, Ohnuma N, Kaneko M et al. (1999) Long-term survivors of advanced neuroblastoma with MYCN amplification: a report of 19 patients surviving disease-free for more than 66 months. J Clin Oncol 17:3216–3220 (record as supplied by publisher)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kiely EM (1993) Radical surgery for abdominal neuroblastoma. Semin Surg Oncol 9:489–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Koop CE (1964) Current management of nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma. Am J Surg 107:497–501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Koop CE (1968a) The role of surgery in resectable, nonresectable, and metastatic neuroblastoma. J Am Med Assoc 205:157–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Koop CE (1968b) Neuroblastoma: two year survival and treatment correlations. J Pediatr Surg 3:178–179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Koop CE (1968c) Factors affecting survival in neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 3:113–114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Koop CE (1972) The neuroblastoma. Prog Pediatr Surg 4:1–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Koop CE, Johnson DG (1971) Neuroblastoma: an assessment of therapy in reference to staging. J Pediatr Surg 6:595–600CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Koop CE, Robertohernandez J (1964) Neuroblastoma: experience with 100 cases in children. Surgery 56:726–733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Koop CE, Schnaufer L (1975) The management of abdominal neuroblastoma. Cancer 35:905–909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Koop CE, Kiesewetter WB, Horn RC (1955a) Neuroblastoma in childhood: an evaluation of surgical management. Pediatrics 16:652–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Koop CE, Kiesewetter WB, Horn RC (1955b) Neuroblastoma in childhood; survival after major surgical insult to the tumor. Surgery 38:272–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Koop CE, Hope JW, Abir E (1964) Management of nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor) and abdominal neuroblastoma. CA Cancer J Clin 14:178–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kuroda T, Saeki M, Nakano M et al. (2000) Surgical treatment of neuroblastoma with micrometastasis. J Pediatr Surg 35:1638–1642CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kuroda T, Saeki M, Honna T et al. (2003) Clinical significance of intensive surgery with intraoperative radiation for advanced neuroblastoma: Does it really make sense? J Pediatr Surg 38:1735–1738CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kushner BH, Cheung NK, La Quaglia MP et al. (1996a) Survival from locally invasive or widespread neuroblastoma without cytotoxic therapy. J Clin Oncol 14:373–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kushner BH, Cheung NK, La Quaglia MP et al. (1996b) International neuroblastoma staging system stage 1 neuroblastoma: a prospective study and literature review. J Clin Oncol 14:2174–2180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kushner BH, Wolden S, La Quaglia MP et al. (2001) Hyperfractionated low-dose radiotherapy for high-risk neuroblastoma after intensive chemotherapy and surgery. J Clin Oncol 19:2821–2828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. La Quaglia MP (2001) Surgical management of neuroblastoma. Semin Pediatr Surg 10:132–139CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. La Quaglia MP, Kushner BH, Heller G et al. (1994) Stage 4 neuroblastoma diagnosed at more than 1 year of age: gross total resection and clinical outcome. J Pediatr Surg 29:1162–1165CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. La Quaglia MP, Kushner B, Su W et al. (2004) The impact of gross total resection on local control and survival in high-risk neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 39:412–417CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Le Tourneau JN, Bernard JL, Hendren WH et al. (1985) Evaluation of the role of surgery in 130 patients with neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 20:244–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Losty P, Quinn F, Breatnach F et al. (1993) Neuroblastoma: a surgical perspective. Eur J Surg Oncol 19:33–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Matsumura M, Atkinson JB, Hays DM et al. (1988) An evaluation of the role of surgery in metastatic neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 23:448–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Matthay KK, Perez C, Seeger RC et al. (1998) Successful treatment of stage III neuroblastoma based on prospective biologic staging: a Children's Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol 16:1256–1264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Medary I, Aronson D, Cheung NK et al. (1996) Kinetics of primary tumor regression with chemotherapy: implications for the timing of surgery. Ann Surg Oncol 3:521–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Menjyo M (1968) Surgery of mediastinal tumors. Geka Chiryo 19:851–859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Moss TJ, Fonkalsrud EW, Feig SA et al. (1987) Delayed surgery and bone marrow transplantation for widespread neuroblastoma. Ann Surg 206:514–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Mugishima H, Harada K, Suzuki T et al. (1995) Comprehensive treatment of advanced neuroblastoma involving autologous bone marrow transplant. Acta Paediatr Jpn 37:493–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Nakadate H, Kishino T, Ogawa Y et al. (1990) Evaluation of the role of surgery in 25 patients with metastatic neuroblastoma. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 17:1315–1320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Nitschke R, Smith EI, Shochat S et al. (1988) Localized neuroblastoma treated by surgery: a Pediatric Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 6:1271–1279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Olgun N, Kansoy S, Aksoylar S et al. (2003) Experience of the Izmir Pediatric Oncology Group on Neuroblastoma: IPOG-NBL-92 Protocol. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 20:211–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. O'Neill JA, Littman P, Blitzer P et al. (1985) The role of surgery in localized neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 20:708–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Philip T, Zucker JM, Bernard JL et al. (1991) Improved survival at 2 and 5 years in the LMCE1 unselected group of 72 children with stage IV neuroblastoma older than 1 year of age at diagnosis: Is cure possible in a small subgroup? J Clin Oncol 9:1037–1044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Powis MR, Imeson JD, Holmes SJ (1996) The effect of complete excision on stage III neuroblastoma: a report of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group. J Pediatr Surg 31:516–519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Rosen EM, Cassady JR, Frantz CN et al. (1984) Improved survival in neuroblastoma using multimodality therapy. Radiother Oncol 2:189–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Schega W (1969) Surgery of adrenal medulla. Chirurg 40:304–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Schnaufer L, Koop CE (1975) Silastic abdominal patch for temporary hepatomegaly in stage IV-S neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 10:73–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Shamberger RC, Allarde-Segundo A, Kozakewich HP et al. (1991) Surgical management of stage III and IV neuroblastoma: resection before or after chemotherapy? J Pediatr Surg 26:1113–1118CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Shamberger RC, Smith EI, Joshi VV et al. (1998) The risk of nephrectomy during local control in abdominal neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 33:161–164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Shimada H, Chatten J, Newton WA Jr et al. (1984) Histopathologic prognostic factors in neuroblastic tumors: definition of subtypes of ganglioneuroblastoma and an age-linked classification of neuroblastomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 73:405–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Shimada Y, Sato K, Abe E et al. (1995) Congenital dumbbell neuroblastoma. Spine 20:1295–1300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Shorter NA, Davidoff AM, Evans AE et al. (1995) The role of surgery in the management of stage IV neuroblastoma: a single institution study. Med Pediatr Oncol 24:287–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Sitarz A, Finklestein J, Grosfeld J et al. (1983) An evaluation of the role of surgery in disseminated neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Cancer Study Group. J Pediatr Surg 18:147–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Stephen CR (1977) Anesthesia for adrenal surgery. Urol Clin North Am 4:319–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Strother D, Shuster JJ, McWilliams N et al. (1995) Results of pediatric oncology group protocol 8104 for infants with stages D and DS neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 17:254–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Tokiwa K, Fumino S, Ono S et al. (2003) Results of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in the treatment of abdominal neuroblastoma. Arch Surg 138:711–715CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Tsuchida Y, Yokoyama J, Kaneko M et al. (1992) Therapeutic significance of surgery in advanced neuroblastoma: a report from the study group of Japan. J Pediatr Surg 27:616–622CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Tsuchida Y, Kaneko M (2002) Surgery in pediatric solid tumors with special reference to advanced neuroblastoma. Acta Paediatr Taiwan 43:67–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Tsunooka H (1972) Progress in diagnostic methods in pediatric surgery. Geka Chiryo 26:140–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Von Schweinitz D, Hero B, Berthold F (2002) The impact of surgical radicality on outcome in childhood neuroblastoma. Eur J Pediatr Surg 12:402–409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Weiser AC, Lindgren BW, Ritchey ML et al. (2003) Chylous ascites following surgical treatment for wilms tumor. J Urol 170:1667–1669CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Wolden SL, Gollamudi SV, Kushner BH et al. (2000) Local control with multimodality therapy for stage 4 neuroblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46:969–974CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Yokoyama J, Ikawa H, Endow M et al. (1995) The role of surgery in advanced neuroblastoma. Eur J Pediatr Surg 5:23–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ziegler MM, Vega A, Koop CE (1980) Electrocoagulation induced immunity: an explanation for regression of neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 15:34–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Ziegler MM, Vega A, Cooper A et al. (1981) The liver and immunoregulation of neuroblastoma growth. J Pediatr Surg 16:578–582CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Zittel RX, Wuttke U (1969) Urgent surgery of early childhood thoracic diseases. Thoraxchir Vask Chir 17:325–333PubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. Abe M, Shibamoto Y (1996) The usefulness of intraoperative radiation therapy in the treatment of pelvic recurrence of cervical cancer (editorial). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 34:513–514CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abe M, Takahashi M (1981) Intraoperative radiotherapy: the Japanese experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 7:863–868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aitken DR, Hopkins GA, Archambeau JO et al. (1995) Intraoperative radiotherapy in the treatment of neuroblastoma: report of a pilot study. Ann Surg Oncol 2:343–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Castleberry RP, Kun LE, Shuster JJ et al. (1991) Radiotherapy improves the outlook for patients older than 1 year with Pediatric Oncology Group stage C neuroblastoma (see comments). J Clin Oncol 9:789–795PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. De Bernardi B, Rogers D, Carli M et al. (1987) Localized neuroblastoma. Surgical and pathologic staging. Cancer 60:1066–1072PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. DeWitt KD, Matthay KK, Weinberg V et al. (2003) Intraoperative radiation therapy for high-risk pediatric neuroblastoma. International Society of Intraoperative Radiation Therapy, Aachen, Germany, Nov 2002; abstractGoogle Scholar
  7. Donaldson SS (1993) Lessons from our children. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 26:739–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Evans AE (1980) Staging and treatment of neuroblastoma. Cancer 45(Suppl 7):1799–1802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Evans AE, Albo V, D'Angio GJ et al. (1976) Cyclophoshamide treatment of patients with localized and regional neuroblastoma: a randomized study. Cancer 38:655–660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Evans AE, Chatten J, D'Angio GJ et al. (1980) A review of 17 IV-S neuroblastoma patients at the children's hospital of philadelphia. Cancer 45:833–839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Evans AR, Brand W, Lorimier A de et al. (1984) Results in children with local and regional neuroblastoma managed with and without vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and imidazolecarboxamide. A report from the Children's Cancer Study Group. Am J Clin Oncol 7:3–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Haase GM, Meagher DP, Jr, McNeely LK et al. (1994) Electron beam intraoperative radiation therapy for pediatric neoplasms. Cancer 74:740–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Haas-Kogan DA, Swift PS, Selch M et al. (2003) Impact of radiotherapy for high-risk neuroblastoma: a Children's Cancer Group study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56:28–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hall EJ (2000) Radiobiology for the radiologist. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  15. Halperin EC (1996) Long-term results of therapy for stage C neuroblastoma. J Surg Oncol 63:172–178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hanks GE, Lanciano RM (1996) Intraoperative radiation therapy: cut bait or keep on fishing? (Editorial.) Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 34:515–517CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hawkins MM (1990) Second primary tumors following radiotherapy for childhood cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 19:1297–1301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hevezi JM (2003) Emerging technology in cancer treatment: radiotherapy modalities. Oncology (Huntingt) 17:1445–1456; discussions 1460–1462, 1464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ikeda H, August CS, Goldwein JW et al. (1992) Sites of relapse in patients with neuroblastoma following bone marrow transplantation in relation to preparatory “debulking” treatments. J Pediatr Surg 27:1438–1441CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Jacobson GM, Sause WT, O'Brien RT (1984) Dose response analysis of pediatric neuroblastoma to megavoltage radiation. Am J Clin Oncol 7:693–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Jacobson HM, Marcus RB Jr, Thar TL et al. (1983) Pediatric neuroblastoma: postoperative radiation therapy using less than 2000 rad. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 9:501–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kim HK, Jessup JM, Beard CJ et al. (1997) Locally advanced rectal carcinoma: pelvic control and morbidity following preoperative radiation therapy, resection, and intraoperative radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 38:777–783CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Koop CE, Johnson DG (1971) Neuroblastoma: an assessment of therapy in reference to staging. J Pediatr Surg 6:595–600CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Krasin MJ, Hudson MM, Kaste SC (2004) Positron emission tomography in pediatric radiation oncology: integration in the treatment-planning process. Pediatr Radiol 34:214–221CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kremens B, Klingebiel T, Herrmann F et al. (1994) High-dose consolidation with local radiation and bone marrow rescue in patients with advanced neuroblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 23:470–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kushner BH, Wolden S, La Quaglia MP et al. (2001) Hyperfractionated low-dose radiotherapy for high-risk neuroblastoma after intensive chemothrapy and surgery. J Clin Oncol 19:2821–2828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Leavey PJ, Odom LF, Poole M et al. (1997) Intra-operative radiation therapy in pediatric neuroblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 28:424–428CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Matsumoto K, Kakizoe T, Mikuriya S et al. (1981) Clinical evaluation of intraoperative radiotherapy for carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Cancer 47:509–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Matthay KK, Sather HN, Seeger RC et al. (1989) Excellent outcome of stage II neuroblastoma is independent of residual disease and radiation therapy. J Clin Oncol 7:236–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Matthay KK, Perez C, Seeger RC, Brodeur GM, Shimada H, Atkinson JB, Black CT, Gerbing R, Haase GM, Stram DO, Swift P, Lukens JN (1998) Successful treatment of stage III neuroblastoma based on prospective biologic staging: a Children's Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol 16:1256–1264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Matthay KK, Villablanca JG, Seeger RC et al. (1999) Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and 13-cis-retinoic acid. Children's Cancer Group. N Engl J Med 341:1165–1173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. McGuire WA, Simmons D, Grosfeld JL et al. (1985) Stage II neuroblastoma: Does adjuvant irradiation contribute to cure? Med Pediatr Oncol 13:117–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Meadows AT (1989) Second malignant neoplasms in childhood cancer survivors. J Assoc Pediatr Oncol Nurses 6:7–11Google Scholar
  34. Merchant TE, Zelefsky MJ, Sheldon JM et al. (1998) High-dose rate intraoperative radiation therapy for pediatric solid tumors. Med Pediatr Oncol 30:34–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Nag S, Retter E, Martinez-Monge R et al. (1999) Feasibility of intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy in the treatment of locally advanced pediatric malignancies. Med Pediatr Oncol 32:382–384CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Paulino AC, Mayr NA, Simon JH et al. (2002) Locoregional control in infants with neuroblastoma: role of radiation therapy and late toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52:1025–1031CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Perez CA, Matthay KK, Atkinson JB et al. (2000) Biologic variables in the outcome of stages I and II neuroblastoma treated with surgery as primary therapy: a children's cancer group study. J Clin Oncol 18:18–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Roebuck DJ (1999) Skeletal complications in pediatric oncology patients. Radiographics 19:873–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Rosen EM, Cassady JR, Frantz CN et al. (1984) Neuroblastoma: the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Children's Hospital experience. J Clin Oncol 2:719–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sibley GS, Mundt AJ, Goldman S et al. (1995) Patterns of failure following total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation with or without a radiotherapy boost for advanced neuroblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 32:1127–1135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Swift P (2002) Novel techniques in the delivery of radiation in pediatric oncology. Pediatr Clin North Am 49:1107–1129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Villablanca JR, Matthay KK, Swift P et al. (1999) Phase I trial of carboplatin, etoposide, melphalan and local irradiation (CEM-L1) with purged autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) for high risk neuroblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol SIOP 33:170 (abstract)Google Scholar
  43. West DC, Shamberger RC, Macklis RM et al. (1993) Stage III neuroblastoma over 1 year of age at diagnosis: improved survival with intensive multimodality therapy including multiple alkylating agents (see comments). J Clin Oncol 11:84–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Wolden SL, Lamborn KR, Cleary SF et al. (1998) Second cancers following pediatric Hodgkin's disease. J Clin Oncol 16:536–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Wolden SL, Gollamudi SV, Kushner BH et al. (2000) Local control with multimodality therapy for stage 4 neuroblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46:969–974CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. Atarian H, Feng Z, Buckner CD, MacLeod B, Rowley SD (1996) Long-term cryopreservation of bone marrow for autologous transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 17:425–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beelen DW, Peceny R, Elmaagacli A, Ottinger H, Kummer G, Opalka B, Seeber S, Schaefer UW (2000) Transplantation of highly purified HLA-identical sibling donor peripheral blood CD34+ cells without prophylactic post-transplant immunosuppression in adult patients with first chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia: results of a phase II study. Bone Marrow Transplant 26:823–829CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheung IY, Lo Piccolo MS, Collins N, Kushner BH, Cheung NK (2002) Quantitation of GD2 synthase mRNA by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction: utility in bone marrow purging of neuroblastoma by anti-GD2 antibody 3F8. Cancer 94:3042–3048CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chow KM, Szeto CC, Leung CB, Wong TY, Li PK (2001) Cuffedtunneled femoral catheter for long-term hemodialysis. Int J Artif Organs 24:443–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Civin CI, Strauss LC, Fackler MJ, Trischmann TM, Wiley JM, Loken MR (1990) Positive stem cell selection: basic science. Prog Clin Biol Res 333:387–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Donovan J, Temel J, Zuckerman A, Gribben J, Fang J, Pierson G, Ross A, Diller L, Grupp SA (2000) CD34 selection as a stem cell purging strategy for neuroblastoma: pre-clinical and clinical studies. Med Pediatr Oncol 35:677–682CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Faulkner LB, Tintori V, Tamburini A, Paoli A, Garaventa A, Viscardi E, Tucci F, Lippi AA, de Bernardi B, Bernini G (1998) High-sensitivity immunocytologic analysis of neuroblastoma cells in paired blood and marrow samples. J Hematother 7:361–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Faulkner LB, Garaventa A, Paoli A, Tintori V, Tamburini A, Lacitignola L, Veltroni M, Lo Piccolo MS, Viscardi E, Milanaccio C, Tondo A, Spinelli S, Bernini G, de Bernardi B (2000) In vivo cytoreduction studies and cell sorting — enhanced tumor-cell detection in high-risk neuroblastoma patients: implications for leukapheresis strategies. J Clin Oncol 18:3829–3836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fehse B, Goldmann M, Frerk O, Bulduk M, Zander AR (2000) Depletion of alloreactive donor T cells using immunomagnetic cell selection. Bone Marrow Transplant 25(Suppl 2):S39–S42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Freedman AS, Neuberg D, Mauch P, Soiffer RJ, Anderson KC, Fisher DC, Schlossman R, Alyea EP, Takvorian T, Jallow H et al. (1999) Long-term follow-up of autologous bone marrow transplantation in patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma. Blood 94:3325–3333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gazitt Y (2001) Recent developments in the regulation of peripheral blood stem cell mobilization and engraftment by cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. J Hematother Stem Cell Res 10:229–236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gazitt Y (2002) Comparison between granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells. Curr Opin Hematol 9:190–198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Goodell MA, Rosenzweig M, Kim H, Marks DF, DeMaria M, Paradis G, Grupp SA, Sieff CA, Mulligan RC, Johnson RP (1997) Dye efflux studies suggest that hematopoietic stem cells expressing low or undetectable levels of CD34 antigen exist in multiple species. Nat Med 3:1337–1345CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Grupp SA, Stern JW, Bunin N, Nancarrow C, Ross AA, Mogul M, Adams R, Grier HE, Gorlin JB, Shamberger R et al. (2000b) Tandem high-dose therapy in rapid sequence for children with high-risk neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 18:2567–2575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hafer R, Voigt A, Gruhn B, Zintl F (1999) Neuroblastoma cells can express the hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 as detected at surface protein and mRNA level. J Neuroimmunol 96:201–206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ho VT, Soiffer RJ (2002) The history and future of T cell depletion as a graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood 98:3192–3204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jerjis S, Croockewit S, Preijers F, Schaap N, de Witte T (2000) Impact of chemotherapy on the mobilisation, harvest and economic costs of autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma. Leuk Lymph 37:551–560Google Scholar
  18. Kanold J, Yakouben K, Tchirkov A, Carret AS, Vannier JP, LeGall E, Bordigoni P, Demeocq F (2000) Long-term results of CD34(+) cell transplantation in children with neuroblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 35:1–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kessinger A, Armitage JO, Landmark JD, Weisenburger DD (1986) Reconstitution of human hematopoietic function with autologous cryopreserved circulating stem cells. Exp Hematol 14:192–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Klein JL, Hamm C, Dansey RD, Karanes C, Abella E, Cassells L, Peters WP, Baynes RD (2001) High-dose chemotherapy and CD34-selected peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation for patients with breast cancer metastatic to bone and/or bone marrow. Bone Marrow Transplant 28:1023–1029CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kletzel M, Katzenstein HM, Haut PR, Yu AL, Morgan E, Reynolds M, Geissler G, Marymount MH, Liu D, Kalapurakal JA et al. (2002) Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with triple-tandem high-dose therapy and stem cell rescue: results of the Chicago Pilot II Study. J Clin Oncol 20:2284–2292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Klingebiel T, Bader P, Bares R, Beck J, Hero B, Jurgens H, Lang P, Niethammer D, Rath B, Handgretinger R (1998) Treatment of neuroblastoma stage 4 with 131I-meta-iodo-benzylguanidine, high-dose chemotherapy and immunotherapy. A pilot study. Eur J Cancer 34:1398–1402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Knudsen LM, Gaarsdal E, Jensen L, Nielsen KJ, Nikolaisen K, Johnsen HE (1996) Improved priming for mobilization of and optimal timing for harvest of peripheral blood stem cells. J Hematother 5:399–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kollmannsberger C, Beyer J, Droz JP, Harstrick A, Hartmann JT, Biron P, Flechon A, Schoffski P, Kuczyk M, Schmoll HJ et al. (1998) Secondary leukemia following high cumulative doses of etoposide in patients treated for advanced germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol 16:3386–3391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kreissman SG, Rackoff W, Lee M, Breitfeld PP (1997) High dose cyclophosphamide with carboplatin: a tolerable regimen suitable for dose intensification in children with solid tumors. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 19:309–312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Krishnan A, Bhatia S, Slovak ML, Arber DA, Niland JC, Nademanee A, Fung H, Bhatia R, Kashyap A, Molina A et al. (2000) Predictors of therapy-related leukemia and myelodysplasia following autologous transplantation for lymphoma: an assessment of risk factors. Blood 95:1588–1593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ladetto M, Sametti S, Donovan JW, Ferrero D, Astolfi M, Mitterer M, Ricca I, Drandi D, Corradini P, Coser P et al. (2001) A validated real-time quantitative PCR approach shows a correlation between tumor burden and successful ex vivo purging in follicular lymphoma patients. Exp Hematol 29:183–193CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ladetto M, Omede P, Sametti S, Donovan JW, Astolfi M, Drandi D, Volpato F, Giaccone L, Giaretta F, Palumbo A et al. (2002) Real-time polymerase chain reaction in multiple myeloma. Quantitative analysis of tumor contamination of stem cell harvests. Exp Hematol 30:529–536CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lazarus HM, Loberiza FR Jr, Zhang MJ, Armitage JO, Ballen KK, Bashey A, Bolwell BJ, Burns LJ, Freytes CO, Gale RP et al. (2001) Autotransplants for Hodgkin's disease in first relapse or second remission: a report from the autologous blood and marrow transplant registry (ABMTR). Bone Marrow Transplant 27:387–396CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Levine JE, Boxer LA (2002) Clinical applications of hematopoietic growth factors in pediatric oncology. Curr Opin Hematol 9:222–227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Matthay KK, Seeger RC, Reynolds CP, Stram DO, O'Leary MC, Harris RE, Selch M, Atkinson JB, Haase GM, Ramsay NK (1994) Allogeneic versus autologous purged bone marrow transplantation for neuroblastoma: a report from the Childrens Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 12:2382–2389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Matthay KK, Harris R, Reynolds CP, Shimada H, Black T, Stram DO, Seeger RC (1998) Improved event-free survival for autologous bone marrow transplantation vs chemotherapy in neuroblastoma: a Childrens Cancer Group study. Med Pediatr Oncol 31:191–207Google Scholar
  33. Matthay KK, Villablanca JG, Seeger RC, Stram DO, Harris RE, Ramsay NK, Swift P, Shimada H, Black CT, Brodeur GM et al. (1999) Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and 13-cis-retinoic acid. N Engl J Med 341:1165–1173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Merrer J, De Jonghe B, Golliot F, Lefrant JY, Raffy B, Barre E, Rigaud JP, Casciani D, Misset B, Bosquet C et al. (2001) Complications of femoral and subclavian venous catheterization in critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 286:700–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mohr M, Dalmis F, Hilgenfeld E, Oelmann E, Zuhlsdorf M, Kratz-Albers K, Nolte A, Schmitmann C, Onaldi-Mohr D, Cassens U et al. (2001) Simultaneous immunomagnetic CD34+ cell selection and B-cell depletion in peripheral blood progenitor cell samples of patients suffering from B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res 7:51–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Moss TJ, Sanders DG, Lasky LC, Bostrom B (1990) Contamination of peripheral blood stem cell harvests by circulating neuroblastoma cells. Blood 76:1879–1883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Narayanasami U, Kanteti R, Morelli J, Klekar A, Al-Olama A, Keating C, O'Connor C, Berkman E, Erban JK, Sprague KA et al. (2001) Randomized trial of filgrastim versus chemotherapy and filgrastim mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells for rescue in autologous transplantation. Blood 98:2059–2064CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Philip T, Ladenstein R, Zucker JM, Pinkerton R, Bouffet E, Louis D, Siegert W, Bernard JL, Frappaz D, Coze C (1993) Double megatherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for advanced neuroblastoma: the LMCE2 Study. Br J Cancer 67:119–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Philip T, Ladenstein R, Lasset C, Hartmann O, Zucker JM, Pinkerton R, Pearson AD, Klingebiel T, Garaventa A, Kremens B et al. (1997) 1070 myeloablative megatherapy procedures followed by stem cell rescue for neuroblastoma: 17y ears of European experience and conclusions. European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplant Registry Solid Tumour Working Party. Eur J Cancer 33:2130–2135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Powell JL, Bunin NJ, Callahan C, Aplenc R, Griffin G, Grupp SA (2004) An unexpectedly high incidence of Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative disease after CD34+ selected autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant in neuroblastoma. Bone Marrow Transplant 33:651–657CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Reisner Y, Kapoor N, Kirkpatrick D, Pollack MS, Dupont B, Good RA, O'Reilly RJ (1981) Transplantation for acute leukaemia with HLA-A and B nonidentical parental marrow cells fractionated with soybean agglutinin and sheep red blood cells. Lancet 2:327–331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Reynolds CP, Seeger RC, Vo DD, Black AT, Wells J, Ugelstad J (1986) Model system for removing neuroblastoma cells from bone marrow using monoclonal antibodies and magnetic immunobeads. Cancer Res 46:5882–5886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Rill DR, Santana VM, Roberts WM, Nilson T, Bowman LC, Krance RA, Heslop HE, Moen RC, Ihle JN, Brenner MK (1994) Direct demonstration that autologous bone marrow transplantation for solid tumors can return a multiplicity of tumorigenic cells. Blood 84:380–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Rowley SD (2002) Regulation of hematopoietic stem cell processing and transplantation. Int J Hematol 75:237–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Rowley SD, Anderson GL (1993) Effect of DMSO exposure without cryopreservation on hematopoietic progenitor cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 11:389–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Rowley SD, Davis JM, Piantadosi S, Jones RJ, Yeager AM, Santos GW (1990) Density-gradient separation of autologous bone marrow grafts before ex vivo purging with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide. Bone Marrow Transplant 6:321–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Rowley SD, Donaldson G, Lilleby K, Bensinger WI, Appelbaum FR (2001) Experiences of donors enrolled in a randomized study of allogeneic bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Blood 97:2541–2548CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Schumm M, Lang P, Taylor G, Kuci S, Klingebiel T, Buhring HJ, Geiselhart A, Niethammer D, Handgretinger R (1999) Isolation of highly purified autologous and allogeneic peripheral CD34+ cells using the CliniMACS device. J Hematother 8:209–218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Shpall EJ, Champlin R, Glaspy JA (1998) Effect of CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cell dose on hematopoietic recovery. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 4:84–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Sloand EM, Kim S, Maciejewski JP, van Rhee F, Chaudhuri A, Barrett J, Young NS (2000) Pharmacologic doses of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor affect cytokine production by lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Blood 95:2269–2274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Somlo G, Sniecinski I, ter Veer A, Longmate J, Knutson G, Vuk-Pavlovic S, Bhatia R, Chow W, Leong L, Morgan R et al. (1999) Recombinant human thrombopoietin in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhances mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells, increases peripheral blood platelet concentration, and accelerates hematopoietic recovery following high-dose chemotherapy. Blood 93:2798–2806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Srinivasan R, Barrett J, Childs R (2004) Allogeneic stem cell transplantation as immunotherapy for nonhematological cancers. Semin Oncol 31:47–55Google Scholar
  53. Stein J, Strandjord S, Saarinen U, Warkentin P, Gerson S, Lazarus H, von Hoff D, Coccia P, Cheung NK (1988) In vitro treatment of autologous bone marrow for neuroblastoma patients with anti GD2 monoclonal antibody and human complement: a pilot study. Prog Clin Biol Res 271:237–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Stiff PJ (1999) Management strategies for the hard-to-mobilize patient. Bone Marrow Transplant 23(Suppl 2):S29–S33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Strauss LC, Trischmann TM, Rowley SD, Wiley JM, Civin CI (1991) Selection of normal human hematopoietic stem cells for bone marrow transplantation using immunomagnetic microspheres and CD34 antibody. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 13:217–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Sutherland DR, Anderson L, Keeney M, Nayar R, Chin-Yee I (1996) The ISHAGE guidelines for CD34+ cell determination by flow cytometry. International Society of Hematotherapy and Graft Engineering. J Hematother 5:213–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Takaue Y, Kawano Y, Abe T, Okamoto Y, Suzue T, Shimuzu T, Saito S, Sato J, Makimoto A, Nakagawa R et al. (1995) Collection and transplant of peripheral blood stem cells in very small children weighing 20 kg or less. Blood 85:372–380Google Scholar
  58. Trischmann TM, Schepers KG, Civin CI (1993) Measurement of CD34+ cells in bone marrow by flow cytometry. J Hematother 2:305–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Voigt A, Hafer R, Gruhn B, Zintl F (1997) Expression of CD34 and other haematopoietic antigens on neuroblastoma cells: consequences for autologous bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. J Neuroimmunol 78:117–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Wagner JE, Santos GW, Noga SJ, Rowley SD, Davis J, Vogelsang GB, Farmer ER, Zehnbauer BA, Saral R, Donnenberg AD (1990) Bone marrow graft engineering by counterflow centrifugal elutriation: results of a phase I–II clinical trial. Blood 75:1370–1377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Weaver CH, Potz J, Redmond J, Tauer K, Schwartzberg LS, Kaywin P, Drapkin R, Grant B, Unger P, Allen C et al. (1997) Engraftment and outcomes of patients receiving myeloablative therapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cells with a low CD34+ cell content. Bone Marrow Transplant 19:1103–1110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Weaver CH, Schulman KA, Buckner CD (2001) Mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells following myelosuppressive chemotherapy: a randomized comparison of filgrastim, sargramostim, or sequential sargramostim and filgrastim. Bone Marrow Transplant 27(Suppl 2):S23–S29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Welch RH, Gravenstein N, Blackshear RH (1997) Multilumen central venous catheters in children: relative potential to perforate vessels. An in vitro study. J Clin Monit 13:75–79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Yanik GA, Levine JE, Matthay KK, Sisson JC, Shulkin BL, Shapiro B, Hubers D, Spalding S, Braun T, Ferrara JL, Hutchinson RJ (2002) Pilot study of iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine in combination with myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem cell support for the treatment of neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 20:2142–2149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Yu J, Leisenring W, Bensinger WI, Holmberg LA, Rowley SD (1999) The predictive value of white cell or CD34+ cell count in the peripheral blood for timing apheresis and maximizing yield. Transfusion 39:442–450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. Ambros PF, Ambros IM (2001) Pathology and biology guidelines for resectable and unresectable neuroblastic tumors and bone marrow examination guidelines. Med Pediatr Oncol 37:492–504CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambros PF, Mehes G (2003) Combined immunofluorescence and FISH: New prospects for tumor cell detection/identification. In: Robinson JP, Darzynkiewicz Z, Hyun W, Orfao A, Rabinovitch P (eds) Current protocols in cytometry. Wiley, New York, pp 8.13.1–8.13.10Google Scholar
  3. Ambros PF, Mehes G, Hattinger C et al. (2001) Unequivocal identification of disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow by combining immunological and genetic approaches: functional and prognostic information. Leukemia 15:275–277CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aronica PA, Pirrotta VT, Yunis EJ et al. (1998) Detection of neuroblastoma in the bone marrow: biopsy versus aspiration. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 20:330–334CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brodeur G, Pritchard J, Berthold F et al. (1993) Revisions of the international criteria for neuroblastoma diagnosis, staging and response to treatment. J Clin Oncol 11:1466–1477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Burchill SA, Bradbury FM, Smith B et al. (1994) Neuroblastoma cell detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA. Int J Cancer 57:671–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Burchill SA, Lewis IJ, Abrams KR et al. (2001) Circulating neuroblastoma cells detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA are an independent poor prognostic indicator in stage 4 neuroblastoma in children over 1 year. J Clin Oncol 19:1795–1801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheung IY, Cheung NK (1997) Molecular detection of GAGE expression in peripheral blood and bone marrow: utility as a tumor marker for neuroblastoma. Clin Cancer Res 3:821–826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheung IY, Cheung NK (2001) Quantitation of marrow disease in neuroblastoma by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Clin Cancer Res 7:1698–1705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheung IY, Barber D, Cheung NK (1998) Detection of microscopic neuroblastoma in marrow by histology, immunocytology, and reverse transcription-PCR of multiple molecular markers. Clin Cancer Res 4:2801–2805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheung IY, Cheung NKV, Ghossein RA et al. (1999) Association between molecular detection of GAGE and survival in patients with malignant melanoma: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Cancer Res 5:2042–2047PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheung IY, Chi SN, Cheung NKV (2000) Prognostic significance of GAGE detection in bone marrows on survival of patients with metastatic neuroblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 35:632–634CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheung IY, Lo Piccolo MS, Collins N et al. (2002) Quantitation of GD2 synthase mRNA by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction: utility in bone marrow purging of neuroblastoma by anti-GD2 antibody 3F8. Cancer 94:3042–3048CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheung IY, Lo Piccolo MS, Kushner BH et al. (2003a) Quantitation of GD2 synthase mRNA by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction: clinical utility in evaluating adjuvant therapy in neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 21:1087–1093CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cheung IY, Lo Piccolo MS, Kushner BH et al. (2003b) Early molecular response of marrow disease to biologic therapy is highly prognostic in neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 21:3853–3858CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheung NK, Heller G, Kushner BH et al. (1997) Detection of metastatic neuroblastoma in bone marrow: When is routine marrow histology insensitive? J Clin Oncol 15:2807–2817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cheung NK, Kushner BH, Yeh SD et al. (1998) 3F8 monoclonal antibody treatment of patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma: a phase II study. Int J Oncol 12:1299–1306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. De Backer O, Arden KC, Boretti M et al. (1999) Characterization of the GAGE genes that are expressed in various human cancers and in normal testis. Cancer Res 59:3157–3165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Faulkner LB, Tintori V, Tamburini A et al. (1998) High-sensitivity immunocytologic analysis of neuroblastoma cells in paired blood and marrow samples. J Hematother 7:361–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Faulkner LB, Garaventa A, Paoli A et al. (2000) In vivo cytoreduction studies and cell sorting-enhanced tumor-cell detection in high-risk neuroblastoma patients: implications for leukapheresis strategies. J Clin Oncol 18:3829–3836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Fukuda M, Miyajima Y, Miyashita Y et al. (2001) Disease outcome may be predicted by molecular detection of minimal residual disease in bone marrow in advanced neuroblastoma: a pilot study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 23:10–13CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Furukawa K, Soejima H, Niikawa N et al. (1996) Genomic organization and chromosomal assignment of the human β1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase gene. J Biol Chem 271:20836–20844CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gibson UE, Heid CA, Williams PM (1996) A novel method for real time quantitative RT-PCR. Genome Res 6:995–1001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Handgretinger R, Leung W, Ihm K et al. (2003) Tumour cell contamination of autologous stem cells grafts in high-risk neuroblastoma: the good news? Br J Cancer 88:1874–1877CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Heid CA, Stevens J, Livak KJ et al. (1996) Real time quantitative PCR. Genome Res 6:986–994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kushner BH, Kramer K, Cheung NKV (2001) Phase II trial of the anti-G(D2) monoclonal antibody 3F8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 19:4189–4194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ladenstein R, Philip T, Lasset C et al. (1998) Multivariate analysis of risk factors in stage 4 neuroblastoma patients over the age of one year treated with megatherapy and stem cell transplantation: a report from the European Bone Marrow Transplantation Solid Tumor Registry. J Clin Oncol 16:953–965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lo Piccolo MS, Cheung NK, Cheung IY (2001) GD2 synthase: a new molecular marker for detecting neuroblastoma. Cancer 92:924–931CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lode HN, Handgretinger R, Schuermann U et al. (1997) Detection of neuroblastoma cells in CD34+ selected peripheral peripheral stem cells using a combination of tyrosine hydroxylase nested RT-PCR and anti-ganglioside GD2 immunocytochemistry. Eur J Cancer 33:2024–2030CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Matthay KK, Villablanca JG, Seeger RC et al. (1999) Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and 13-cis-retinoic acid. Children's Cancer Group. N Engl J Med 341:1165–1173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Mehes G, Luegmayr A, Ambros IM et al. (2001a) Combined automatic immunological and molecular cytogenetic analysis allows exact identification and quantification of tumor cells in the bone marrow. Clin Cancer Res 7:1969–1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Mehes G, Witt A, Kubista E et al. (2001b) Circulating breast cancer cells are frequently apoptotic. Am J Pathol 159:17–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Mehes G, Luegmayr A, Kornmuller R et al. (2003) Detection of disseminated tumor cells in neuroblastoma: 3 log improvement in sensitivity by automatic immunofluorescence plus FISH (AIPF) analysis compared with classical bone marrow cytology. Am J Pathol 163:393–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Moss TJ, Reynolds CP, Sather HN et al. (1991) Prognostic value of immunocytologic detection of bone marrow metastases in neuroblastoma. N Engl J Med 324:219–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Moss TJ, Cairo M, Santana VM et al. (1994) Clonogenicity of circulating neuroblastoma cells: implications regarding peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Blood 83:3085–3089PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Naito H, Kuzumaki N, Uchino J et al. (1991) Detection of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and minimal neuroblastoma cells by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Eur J Cancer 27:762–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Perez CA, Matthay KK, Atkinson JB et al. (2000) Biologic variables in the outcome of stages I and II neuroblastoma treated with surgery as primary therapy: a Children's Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol 18:18–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Pole JG, Casper J, Elfenbein G et al. (1991) High-dose chemoradiotherapy supported by marrow infusions for advanced neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 9:152–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Saarinen U, Wikstrom S, Makipernaa A et al. (1996) In vivo purging of bone marrow in children with poor-risk neuroblastoma for marrow collection and autologous bone marrow transplantation. J Clin Oncol 14:2791–2802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Seeger RC, Reynolds CP, Gallego R et al. (2000) Quantitative tumor cell content of bone marrow and blood as a predictor of outcome in stage IV neuroblastoma: a Children's Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol 18:4067–4076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Smith RG, Reynolds P (1987) Monoclonal antibody recognizing a human neuroblastoma-associated antigen. Diagn Clin Immunol 5:209–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Tchirkov A, Paillard C, Halle P et al. (2003) Significance of molecular quantification of minimal residual disease in metastatic neuroblastoma. J Hematother Stem Cell Res 12:435–442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Träger C, Kogner P, Lindskog M et al. (2003) Quantitative analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA for sensitive detection of neuroblastoma cells in blood and bone marrow. Clin Chem 49:104–112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Van den Eynde B, Peeters O, De Backer O et al. (1995) A new family of genes coding for an antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human melanoma. J Exp Med 182:689–698CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Wu Z, Schwartz E, Seeger RC et al. (1986) Expression of GD2 ganglioside by untreated primary human neuroblastomas. Cancer Res 46:440–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Yu A, Uttenreuther-Fischer M, Huang C-S et al. (1998) Phase I trial of a human-mouse chimeric anti-disialoganglioside monoclonal antibody ch14.18 in patients with refractory neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. J Clin Oncol 16:2169–2180PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian H. Kushner
  • Susan L. Cohn
  • Katherine K. Matthay
  • Nai-Kong V. Cheung
  • Michael P. La Quaglia
  • Daphne A. Haas-Kogan
  • Suzanne L. Wolden
  • Stephan A. Grupp
  • Irene Y. Cheung
  • Peter F. Ambros

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations