Susceptibility to Fungal Pathogens of Forests Differing in Tree Diversity

  • M. Pautasso
  • O. Holdenrieder
  • J. Stenlid
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 176)


Tree Diversity Tree Species Diversity American Chestnut Ecol Manage Chestnut Blight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anagnostakis SL (1987) Chestnut blight; the classical problem of an introduced pathogen. Mycology 79:23–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnol’bik VM, Smolyak Yu L, Fedorov VN (1990) Effect of root rot on the productivity of Norway spruce stands in Belarus. Lesovedenie i Lesnoe Khozyaistvo 25:95–100Google Scholar
  3. Ashton PS, LaFrankie JV (2000) Patterns of tree species diversity among tropical rain forests. In: Kato M (ed) The biology of biodiversity. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 161–177Google Scholar
  4. Augspurger CK (1984) Seedling survival of tropical trees: interactions of dispersal distance, light gaps, and pathogens. Ecology 65:1705–1712Google Scholar
  5. Augspurger CK (1990) Spatial patterns of damping-off disease during seedling recruitment in tropical forests. In: Burdon JJ, Leather SR (eds) Pests, pathogens, and plant communities. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 131–144Google Scholar
  6. Augspurger CK, Kelly CK (1984) Pathogen mortality of tropical tree seedlings: experimental studies of the effects of dispersal distance, seedling diversity, and light conditions. Oecologia 61:211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ayres MP, Lombardero MJ (2000) Assessing the consequences of global change for forest disturbance from herbivores and pathogens. Sci Total Environ 262:263–286CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barthod C (1994) Sylviculture et risques sanitaires dans les forêts tempérées, 1re partie. Rev For Fr 46:609–628Google Scholar
  9. Barthod Ch (1995) Sylviculture et risques sanitaires dans les forêsts tempérées, 2e partie. Rev For Fr 47:39–53Google Scholar
  10. Bengtsson J, Nilsson SG, Franc A, Menozzi P (2000) Biodiversity, disturbances, ecosystem function and management of European forests. For Ecol Manage 132:39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benitez-Malvido J, García-Guzmén G, Kossmann-Ferraz I (1999) Leaf-fungal incidence and herbivory on tree seedlings in tropical rainforest fragments: an experimental study. Biol Cons 91:143–150Google Scholar
  12. Blanchard RO, Tattar TA (1997) Field and laboratory guide to tree pathology. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  13. Blaney CS, Kotanen PM (2001) Effects of fungal pathogens on seeds of native and exotic plants: a test using congeneric pairs. J Appl Ecol 38:1104–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boudreau MA, Mundt CC (1997) Ecological approaches to disease control. In: Rechcigl J, Rechcigl N (eds) Environmentally safe approaches to disease control. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 33–62Google Scholar
  15. Brasier CM (1991) Ophiostoma-novo-ulmi sp-nov, causative agent of current Dutch elm disease pandemics. Mycopathologia 115:151–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brasier CM (2001) Rapid evolution of introduced plant pathogens via interspecific hybridization. Bioscience 51:123–133Google Scholar
  17. Burdon JJ (1987) Diseases and plant population biology. Cambridge Univ Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  18. Burdon JJ (1991) Fungal pathogens as selective forces in plant populations and communities. Aust J Ecol 16:423–432Google Scholar
  19. Burdon JJ (1993) The structure of pathogen populations in natural plant communities. Annu Rev Phytopathol 31:305–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burdon JJ (1994) The role of parasites in plant populations and communities. In: Schulze E-D, Mooney HA (eds) Biodiversity and ecosystem function. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 165–179Google Scholar
  21. Burdon JJ, Chilvers GA (1982) Host density as a factor in plant disease ecology. Annu Rev Phytopathol 20:143–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burdon JJ, Wennström A, Ericson L, Müller WJ, Morton R (1992) Density-dependent mortality in Pinus sylvestris caused by the snow blight pathogen Phacidium infestans. Oecologia 90:74–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burdon JJ, Wennström A, Müller WJ, Ericson L (1994) Spatial patterning in young stands of Pinus sylvestris in relation to mortality caused by the snow blight pathogen Phacidium infestans. Oikos 71:130–136Google Scholar
  24. Burdon RD (2001a) Genetic diversity and disease resistance: some considerations for research, breeding, and deployment. Can J For Res 31:596–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Burdon RD (2001b) Pinus radiata. In: Last FT (ed) Tree crop ecosystems. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 99–161Google Scholar
  26. Burdon RD (2002) Pinus radiata D.Don. Forestry compendium (compiled from) Pines of Silvicultural Importance. CABI, Wallingford, pp 359–379Google Scholar
  27. Burschel P, El Kateb H, Mosandl R (1992) Experiments in mixed mountain forests in Bavaria. In: Kelty MJ, Larson BC, Oliver CD (eds) The ecology and silviculture of mixed-species forests. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 183–215Google Scholar
  28. Castello JD, Leopold DJ, Smallidge PJ (1995) Pathogens, patterns, and processes in forest ecosystems. Bioscience 45:16–24Google Scholar
  29. Chave J, Muller-Landau HC, Levin SA (2002) Comparing classical community models: theoretical consequences for patterns of diversity. Am Nat 159:1–23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chou CKS (1981) Monoculture, species diversification and disease hazards in forestry. NZ J For 26:20–36Google Scholar
  31. Chou CKS (1991) Perspectives of disease threat in large-scale Pinus radiata monoculture — the New Zealand experience. Eur J For Pathol 21:71–81Google Scholar
  32. Clay K, Kover PX (1996) The red queen hypothesis and plant/pathogen interactions. Annu Rev Phytopathol 34:29–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Coakley SM, Scherm H, Chakraborty S (1999) Climate change and plant disease management. Annu Rev Phytopathol 37:399–426CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Connell JH (1978) Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302–1310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Courtecuisse R (2001) Current trends and perspectives for the global conservation of fungi. In: Moore D, Nauta MM, Evans SE, Rotheroe M (eds) Fungal conservation. Issues and solutions. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 7–18Google Scholar
  36. Dìaz S, Cabido M (2001) Vive la différence: plant functional diversity matters to ecosystem processes. Tr Ecol Evol 16:646–655Google Scholar
  37. Dickman A (1992) Plant pathogens and long-term ecosystem changes. In: Carroll GC, Wicklow DT (eds) The fungal community. Its organization and role in the ecosystem. Dekker, New York, pp 499–520Google Scholar
  38. Dinoor A, Eshed N (1984) The role and importance of pathogens in natural plant communities. Annu Rev Phytopathol 22:443–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dobson AP, Crawley M (1994) Pathogens and the structure of plant communities. Tr Ecol Evol 9:393–398Google Scholar
  40. Dobson AP, Grenfell BT (1995) Introduction. In: Grenfell BT, Dobson AP (eds) Ecology of infectious diseases in natural populations. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  41. Eble GJ (1998) The role of development in evolutionary radiations. In: McKinney ML, Drake JA (eds) Biodiversity dynamics. Turnover of populations, taxa and communities. Columbia Univ Press, New York, pp 132–161Google Scholar
  42. Edmonds RL, Agee JK, Gara RI (2000) Forest health and protection. McGraw-Hill, BostonGoogle Scholar
  43. Ehrlich PR (1994) Foreword. Biodiversity and ecosystem function: need we know more? In: Schulze E-D, Mooney HA (eds) Biodiversity and ecosystem function. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp vii–xiGoogle Scholar
  44. Enerstvedt LI, Venn K (1979) Decay in mature Picea abies (L.) Karst. stands. A study on clear-cuttings in Ovre Eiker, Norway. Rep Norw For Res Inst 35:241–264Google Scholar
  45. Engelmark O, Sjöberg K, Andersson B, Rosvall O, Ågren GI, Baker WL, Barklund P, Björkman C, Despain DG, Elfving B, Ennos RA, Karlman M, Knecht MF, Knight DH, Ledgard NJ, Lindelöw Å, Nilsson C, Peterken GF, Sörlin S, Sykes MT (2001) Ecological effects and management aspects of an exotic tree species: the case of lodgepole pine in Sweden. For Ecol Manage 141:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ennos RA (2001) The introduction of lodgepole pine as a major forest crop in Sweden: implications for host-pathogen evolution. For Ecol Manage 141:85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Evans J (1992) Plantation forestry in the tropics, 2nd edn. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  48. Finckh MR, Wolfe MS (1998) Diversification strategies. In: Jones DG (ed) The epidemiology of plant diseases. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 231–239Google Scholar
  49. Fitter AH (2001) Specificity, links and networks in the control of diversity in plant and microbial communities. In: Press MC, Huntley NJ, Levin S (eds) Ecology: achievement and challenge. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 95–114Google Scholar
  50. Florence RG (1996) Ecology and silviculture of eucalypt forests. CSIRO, Collingwood, Victoria, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  51. Flury P (1926) Über Zuwachs und Ertrag reiner und gemischter Bestände. Schweiz Z Forstwes 77:337–342Google Scholar
  52. García-Guzmén G, Dirzo R (2001) Patterns of leaf-pathogen infection in the understorey of a Mexican rain forest: incidence, spatiotemporal variation, and mechanisms of infection. Am J Bot 88:634–645Google Scholar
  53. Garrett KA, Mundt CC (1999) Epidemiology in mixed host populations. Phytopathology 89:984–990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gerlach JP, Reich PB, Puettman K, Baker T (1997) Species, diversity, and density affect tree seedling mortality from Armillaria root rot. Can J For Res 27:1509–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gibson IAS (1975) Impact and control of Dothistroma blight of Pines. Eur J For Pathol 4:89–100Google Scholar
  56. Gibson IAS, Jones T (1977) Monoculture as the origin of major forest pests and diseases. In: Cherrett JM, Sagar GR (eds) Origins of pests, parasite, disease and weed problems. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 139–161Google Scholar
  57. Gilbert GS (2002) Evolutionary ecology of plant diseases in natural ecosystems. Annu Rev Phytopathol 40:13–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gilbert GS, de Steven D (1996) A canker disease of seedlings and saplings of Tetragastris panamensis (Burseraceae) caused by Botryosphaeia dothidea in a lowland tropical forest. Plant Dis 80:684–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gilbert GS, Hubbell SP (1996) Plant diseases and the conservation of tropical forests. Bioscience 46:98–106Google Scholar
  60. Gilbert GS, Hubbell SP, Foster RB (1994) Density and distance-to-adult effects of a canker disease of trees in a moist tropical forest. Oecologia 98:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gilbert GS, Mejia-Chang N, Rojas E (2002) Fungal diversity and plant disease in mangrove forests: salt excretion as a possible defense mechanism. Oecologia 132:278–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Glatzel G (1991) The impact of historic land-use and modern forestry on nutrient relations of Central-European forest ecosystems. Fert Res 27:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Graber D (1994) Die Fichtenkernfäule in der Nordschweiz: Schadenausmass, ökologische Zusammenhänge und waldbauliche Massnahmen. Schweiz Z Forstwes 145:905–925Google Scholar
  64. Gregory SC, Rishbeth J, Shaw CG III (1991) Pathogenicity and virulence. In: Shaw CG III, Kile GA (eds) Armillaria root disease. Agriculture handbook no 691. USDA, Washington, DC, pp 76–87Google Scholar
  65. Greig BJW (1962) Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cke. and other root-rotting fungi in conifers on ex-hardwood sites. Forestry 35:164–182Google Scholar
  66. Greig BJW, Gibbs JN, Pratt JE (2001) Experiments on the susceptibility of conifers to Heterobasidion annosum in Great Britain. For Pathol 31:219–228Google Scholar
  67. Grogan RG (1987) The relation of art and science of plant pathology for disease-control. Annu Rev Phytopathol 25:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Haack RA, Byler JW (1993) Insects & pathogens — regulators of forest ecosystems. J For 91(9):32–37Google Scholar
  69. Hagle SK, Shaw CG III (1991) Avoiding and reducing losses from Armillaria root disease. In: Shaw CG III, Kile GA (eds) Armillaria root disease. Agriculture handbook no 691. USDA, Washington, DC, pp 157–173Google Scholar
  70. Hamilton WS (1980) Sex versus non-sex versus parasite. Oikos 35:282–290Google Scholar
  71. Han ZM, Yin TM, Li CD, Huang MR, Wu RL (2000) Host effect on genetic variation of Marssonina brunnea pathogenic to poplars. Theor Appl Genet 100:614–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hansen A, Rotella J (1999) Abiotic factors. In: Hunter ML Jr (ed) Maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 161–209Google Scholar
  73. Hansen EM (1999) Disease and diversity in forest ecosystems. Australas Plant Pathol 28:313–319Google Scholar
  74. Hansen EM, Goheen EM (2000) Phellinus weirii and other native root pathogens as determinants of forest structure and process in Western North America. Annu Rev Phytopathol 38:515–539CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Harper JL (1977) The population biology of plants. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  76. Harper JL (1990) Pests, pathogens, and plant communities: an introduction. In: Burdon JJ, Leather SR (eds) Pests, pathogens, and plant communities. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 3–14Google Scholar
  77. Hartley MJ (2002) Rationale and methods for conserving biodiversity in plantation forests. For Ecol Manage 155:81–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hatcher PE (1995) 3-way interactions between plant-pathogenic fungi, herbivorous insects and their host plants. Biol Rev 70:639–694Google Scholar
  79. Heil M (2001) Induced systemic resistance (ISR) against pathogens — a promising field for ecological research. Perspect Plant Ecol 4:65–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hellgren M (1995) Comparison of Gremmeniella abietina isolates from Pinus sylvestris and Pinus contorta in terms of conidial morphology and host colonization. Eur J For Pathol 25:159–168Google Scholar
  81. Hellgren M, Barklund P (1992) Studies of the life cycle of Gremmeniella abietina on Scots pine in southern Sweden. Eur J For Pathol 22:300–311Google Scholar
  82. Hellgren M, Högberg N (1995) Ecotypic variation of Gremmeniella abietina in Northern Europe: disease patterns reflected by DNA variation. Can J Bot 73:1531–1539Google Scholar
  83. Hellgren M, Stenlid J (1997) Diseases of conifers caused by Gremmeniella abietina. In: Hansen EM, Lewis K (eds) Compendium of forest pathology. APS Press, St Paul, pp 43–45Google Scholar
  84. Hemstrom MA (2001) Vegetative patterns, disturbances, and forest health in eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest Sci 75:91–109Google Scholar
  85. Hepting GH (1974) Death of the American chestnut. J For Hist 18:60–67Google Scholar
  86. Heybroek HM (1982) Monoculture versus mixture: interactions between susceptible and resistant trees in a mixed stand. In: Heybroek HM, Stephan BR, von Weissenberg K (eds) Resistance to disease and pests in forest trees. Pudoc, Wageningen, pp 326–341Google Scholar
  87. Hoff RJ, Hagle S (1990) Diseases of whitebark pine with special emphasis on white pine blister rust. In: Schmidt WC, McDonald KJ (eds) Proceedings — Symposium on Whitebark pine ecosystems: ecology and management of a high-mountain resource. INT-GTR 270. USDA FS, Ogden, UT, pp 179–190Google Scholar
  88. Hoff RJ, McDonald GI (1993) Variation of virulence of white pine blister rust. Eur J For Pathol 23:103–109Google Scholar
  89. Hogg EH, Brandt JP, Kochtubajda B (2002) Growth and dieback of aspen forests in northwestern Alberta, Canada, in relation to climate and insects. Can J For Res 32(5):823–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Holah JC, Wilson MV, Hansen EM (1997) Impacts of a native root-rotting pathogen on successional development of old-growth Douglas fir forests. Oecologia 111:429–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Holdenrieder O (1991) Der Forstschutz — Objekte, Probleme, Strategien. Schweiz Z Forstwes 142:795–807Google Scholar
  92. Holling CS, Meffe GK (1996) Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conserv Biol 10:328–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hood IA, Redfern DB, Kile GA (1991) Armillaria in planted hosts. In: Shaw CG III, Kile GA (eds) Armillaria root disease. Agriculture handbook no 691. USDA, Washington, DC, pp 88–101Google Scholar
  94. Huang HW, Dane F, Kubisiak TL (1998) Allozyme and RAPD analysis of the genetic diversity and geographic variation in wild populations of the American chestnut (Fagaceae). Am J Bot 85:1013–1021Google Scholar
  95. Hunt RS, van Sickle GA (1984) Variation in susceptibility to sweet fern rust among Pinus contorta and P. banksiana. Can J For Res 14:672–675Google Scholar
  96. Hunter T, Peacock L, Turner H, Brain P (2002) Effect of plantation design on stem-infecting form of rust in willow biomass coppice. For Pathol 32:87–97Google Scholar
  97. Huse KJ, Solheim H, Venn K (1994) Stump inventory of root and butt rots in Norway spruce cut in 1992. Rapport-fra-Skogforsk, no 23, 26 ppGoogle Scholar
  98. Ingersoll CA, Wilson MV, Thies WG (1996) Effects of Phellinus weirii gaps on early successional vegetation following timber harvest. Can J For Res 26:322–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ingram DS (1999) Biodiversity, plant pathogens and conservation. Plant Pathol 48:433–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Janzen DH (1970) Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. Am Nat 104:501–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Jarosz AM, Davelos AL (1995) Effects of disease in wild plant populations and the evolution of pathogen aggressiveness. New Phytol 129:371–387Google Scholar
  102. Jeger MJ (1999) Improved understanding of dispersal in crop pest disease management: current status and future directions. Agric For Meteorol 97:331–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Jones CG, Lawton JH, Shachak M (1997) Positive and negative effects of organisms as physical ecosystem engineers. Ecology 78:1946–1957Google Scholar
  104. Josephson Weddell B (2002) Conserving living natural resources in the context of a changing world. Cambridge Univ Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  105. Karlman M (2001) Risks associated with the introduction of Pinus contorta in northern Sweden with respect to pathogens. For Ecol Manage 141:97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kató F (1967) Auftreten und Bedeutung des Wurzelschwammes (Fomes annosus [Fr.] Cooke) in Fichtenbeständen Niedersachsens. Schr Forstl Fak Univ Göttingen 39:33–120Google Scholar
  107. Kendall KC, Keane RE (2001) Whitebark pine decline: infection,mortality, and population trends. In: Tomback DF, Arno SF, Keane RE (eds) Whitebark pine communities. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 221–242Google Scholar
  108. Kile GA (2000) Woody root rots of eucalypts. In: Keane PJ, Kile GA, Podger FD, Brown NB (eds) Diseases and pathogens of eucalypts. CSIRO, Collingwood,Victoria,Australia, pp 293–306Google Scholar
  109. Kile GA, McDonald GI, Byler JW (1991) Disease in natural forests. In: Shaw CG III, Kile GA (eds) Armillaria root disease. Agriculture handbook no 691. USDA, Washington, DC, pp 102–121Google Scholar
  110. Kimmey JW (1938) Susceptibility of Ribes to Cronartium ribicola in the West. J For 36:312–320Google Scholar
  111. Kimmins JP (1997a) Balancing act. Environmental issues in forestry, 2nd edn. UBC Press, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  112. Kimmins JP (1997b) Biodiversity and its relationship to ecosystem health and integrity. For Chron 73:229–232Google Scholar
  113. Kirchner JW, Roy BA (2000) Evolutionary implications of host-pathogen specificity: the fitness consequences of host life history traits. Evol Ecol 14:665–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Klironomos JN (2002) Feedback with soil biota contributes to plant rarity and invasiveness in communities. Nature 417:67–70CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Knops JMH, Tilman D, Haddad NM, Naeem S, Mitchell CE, Haarstad J, Ritchie ME, Howe KM, Reich PB, Siemann E, Groth J (1999) Effects of plant species richness on invasion dynamics, disease outbreaks, insect abundances and diversity. Ecol Lett 2:286–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Korhonen K, Capretti P, Karjalainen R, Stenlid J (1998a) Distribution of Heterobasidion annosum intersterility groups in Europe. In: Woodward S, Stenlid J, Karjalainen R, Hüttermann A (eds) Heterobasidion annosum. Biology, ecology, impact and control. CABI, Wallingford, pp 93–104Google Scholar
  117. Korhonen K, Delatour C, Greig BJW, Schönhar S (1998b) Silvicultural control. In: Woodward S, Stenlid J, Karjalainen R, Hüttermann A (eds) Heterobasidion annosum. Biology, ecology, impact and control. CABI, Wallingford, pp 283–313Google Scholar
  118. Korotkov GP (1978) Heterobasidion annosum infection in spruce/fir stands. Lesnoe Khozyaistvo 6:75–78Google Scholar
  119. Kowalski S (1980) FrCylindrocarpon destructans (Zins.) Scholt., sprawca zamierania samosiequ jodly (Abies alba Mill.) w niektorych drzewostanach gorskich poludniowej polski. Acta Agrar Silv Ser Silv 19:57–73Google Scholar
  120. Kranz J (1990) Fungal diseases in multispecies plant communities. New Phytol 116:383–405Google Scholar
  121. Lacy GH, Stromberg EL (2001) Susceptibility. In: Maloy OC, Murray TD (eds) Encyclopedia of plant pathology, vol II. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  122. Lambers JHR, Clark JS, Beckage B (2002) Density-dependent mortality and the latitudinal gradient in species diversity. Nature 417:732–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Lewis KJ, Lindgren BS (1999) Influence of decay fungi on species composition and size class structure in mature Picea glauca x engelmannii and Abies lasiocarpa in subboreal forests of central British Columbia. For Ecol Manage 123(2/3):135–143Google Scholar
  124. Lewis KJ, Lindgren BS (2000) A conceptual model of biotic disturbance ecology in the central interior of B.C.: how forest management can turn Dr.Jekyll into Mr.Hyde. For Chron 76:433–443Google Scholar
  125. Lindén M, Vollbrecht G (2002) Sensitivity of Picea abies to butt rot in pure stands and in mixed stands with Pinus sylvestris in southern Sweden. Silva Fenn 36:767–778Google Scholar
  126. Lively CM (2001) Parasite-host interactions. In: Fox CW, Roff DA, Fairbairn DJ (eds) Evolutionary ecology. Concepts and case studies. Oxford Univ Press, Oxford, pp 290–302Google Scholar
  127. Lonsdale D, Gibbs JN (1995) Effects of climate change on fungal diseases of trees. In: Frankland JE, Magan N, Gadd GM (eds) Fungi and environmental change. British Mycological Society Symp vol XX, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  128. Loreau M, Naeem S, Inchausti P, Bengtsson J, Grime JP, Hector A, Hooper DU, Huston MA, Raffaelli D, Schmid B, Tilman D, Wardle DA (2001) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: current knowledge and future challenges. Science 294:804–808CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lundquist JE (1995) Pest interactions and canopy gaps in Ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills, South-Dakota, USA. For Ecol Manage 74:37–48Google Scholar
  130. Lygis V, Vasiliauskas R, Stenlid J, Vasiliauskas A (2001) Preliminary evaluation of Scots pine plantations “resistant” to Heterobasidion annosum. In: Laflamme G, Bérubé JA, Bussières G (eds) Proceedings of the 10th International conference on root and butt rots of forest trees, Québec City, Canada, September 16-22,2001. Laurentian Forestry Centre, Sainte-Foy, Information Report LAU-X-126, pp 362–365Google Scholar
  131. Malmström CM, Raffa KF (2000) Biotic disturbance agents in the boreal forest: considerations for vegetation change models. Global Change Biol 6 [Suppl 1]:35–48Google Scholar
  132. Maloney PE, Rizzo DM (2002) Pathogens and insects in a pristine forest ecosystem: the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja,Mexico. Can J For Res 32:448–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Mattila U, Jalkanen R, Nikula A (2001) The effects of forest structure and site characteristics on probability of pine twisting rust damage in young Scots pine stands. For Ecol Manage 142:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. May TW, Simpson JA (1997) Fungal diversity and ecology in eucalypt ecosystems. In: Williams JE, Woinarski JCZ (eds) Eucalypt ecology. Individuals to ecosystems. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 246–277Google Scholar
  135. McCann KS (2002) The diversity-stability debate. Nature 405:228–233Google Scholar
  136. McCauley KJ, Cook SA (1980) Phellinus weirii infestation of two mountain hemlock forests in the Oregon Cascades. For Sci 26:23–29Google Scholar
  137. McCracken AR, Dawson WM (1997) Growing clonal mixtures of willow to reduce effect of Melampsora epitea var. epitea. Eur J For Pathol 27:319–329Google Scholar
  138. McCracken AR, Dawson WM (1998) Short rotation coppice willow in Northern Ireland since 1973: development of the use of mixtures in the control of foliar rust (Melampsora spp.). Eur J For Pathol 28:241–250Google Scholar
  139. McCracken AR, Dawson WM, Watson S, Allen CY (2000) Pathotype composition in Melampsora epitea populations occurring on willow (Salix) grown in mixed and monoculture plantations. Eur J Plant Pathol 106:879–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. McCracken AR, Dawson WM, Bowden G (2001) Yield responses of willow (Salix) grown in mixtures in short rotation coppice (SRC). Biomass Bioenerg 21:311–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. McDonald BA, Bellamy BK, Zhan J, Appel DN (1998) The effect of an oak wilt epidemic on the genetic structure of a Texas live oak population. Can J Bot 76:1900–1907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. McDougall KL, Hobbs RJ, Hardy GES (2002) Vegetation of Phytophthora cinnamomi-infested and adjoining sites in the northern Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest of Western Australia. Aust J Bot 50:277–288Google Scholar
  143. Mitchell CE, Tilman D, Groth JV (2002) Effects of grassland plant species diversity, abundance, and composition on foliar fungal disease. Ecology 83:1713–1726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Morrison DJ, Wallis GW, Weir LC (1988) Control of Armillaria and Phellinus root diseases: 20-year results from the Skimikin stump removal experiment. Canadian Forestry Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, Information Report BC-X-302Google Scholar
  145. Mosandl R, Aas G (1986) Vorkommen und Bedeutung von Keimlingspilzen im Bergmischwald der ostbayerischen Kalkalpen. Forst Holzwirt 41:471–475Google Scholar
  146. Mundt CC (2002) Use of multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures for disease management. Annu Rev Phytopathol 40:381–410CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Murray DIL (1987) Rhizosphere microorganisms from the Jarrah forest of Western Australia and their effect on vegetative growth and sporulation in Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. Aust J Bot 35:567–580Google Scholar
  148. Naeem S (2002a) Biodiversity equals instability? Nature 416:23–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Naeem S (2002b) Ecosystem consequences of biodiversity loss: the evolution of a paradigm. Ecology 83:1537–1552Google Scholar
  150. Naeem S, Thompson LJ, Lawler SP, Lawton JH, Woodfin RM (1995) Empirical evidence that declining species diversity may alter the performance of terrestrial ecosystems. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 347:249–262Google Scholar
  151. Naeem S, Loreau M, Inchausti P (2002) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: the emergence of a synthetic ecological framework. In: Loreau M, Naeem S, Inchausti P (eds) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning — synthesis and perspectives. Oxford Univ Press, Oxford, pp 3–11Google Scholar
  152. Newhook FJ, Podger FD (1972) The role of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Australian and New Zealand forests. Annu Rev Phytopathol 10:299–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Newman EI (2000) Applied ecology and environmental management, 2nd edn. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  154. Oak SW (2002) Native diseases and insects that impact oaks. In: McShea WJ, Healy WM (eds) Oak forest ecosystems. Ecology and management for wildlife. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 80–99Google Scholar
  155. Packer A, Clay K (2000) Soil pathogens and spatial patterns of seedling mortality in a temperate tree. Nature 404:278–281CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Peace TR (1938) Butt rot of conifers in Great Britain. Q J For 32:81–104Google Scholar
  157. Peacock L, Hunter T, Turner H, Brain P (2001) Does host genotype diversity affect the distribution of insect and disease damage in willow cropping systems? J Appl Ecol 38:1070–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Pei MH, Royle DJ, Hunter T (1996) Pathogenic specialization in Melampsora var. epitea on Salix. Plant Pathol 45:679–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Perkins TE, Matlack GR (2002) Human-generated pattern in commercial forests of southern Mississippi and consequences for the spread of pests and pathogens. For Ecol Manage 157:143–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Perry DA (1998) The scientific basis of forestry. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 29:435–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Perry DA, Amaranthus MP (1997) Disturbance, recovery, and stability. In: Kohm KA, Franklin JF (eds) Creating a forestry for the 21st century. The science of ecosystem management. Island Press, Washington,DC, pp 31–56Google Scholar
  162. Petchey OL, Gaston KJ (2002) Functional diversity (FD), species richness and community composition. Ecol Lett 5(3):402–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Pfisterer AB, Schmid B (2002) Diversity-dependent production can decrease the stability of ecosystem functioning. Nature 416:84–86CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Piri T, Korhonen K (2001) Infection of advance regeneration of Norway spruce by Heterobasidion parviporum. Can J For Res 31:937–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Piri T, Korhonen K, Sairanen A (1990) Occurrence of Heterobasidion annosum in pure and mixed spruce stands in southern Finland. Scand J For Res 5:113–125Google Scholar
  166. Pratt JE (1979a) Fomes annosus butt rot of Sitka spruce. I. Observations on the development of butt-rot in individual trees and stands. Forestry 52:11–29Google Scholar
  167. Pratt JE (1979b) Fomes annosus butt rot of Sitka spruce: III. Losses in yield and value of timber in diseased trees and stands. Forestry 52:113–127Google Scholar
  168. Prell HH, Day PR (2001) Plant-fungal pathogen interaction. A classical and molecular view. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  169. Puddu A, Luisi N, Capretti P, Santini A (2003) Environmental factors related to damage by Heterobasidion abietinum in Abies alba forests in southern Italy. For Ecol Manage 180(1-3):37–44Google Scholar
  170. Rajora OP, Mosseler A (2001) Challenges and opportunities for conservation of forest genetic resources. Euphytica 118:197–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Ramstedt M (1999) Rust disease on willows — virulence variation and resistance breeding strategies. For Ecol Manage 121:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Ramstedt M, Hurtado S, Åström B (2002) Pathotypes of Melamspora rust on Salix in short-rotation forestry plantations. Plant Pathol 51:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Rao MR, Nair PKR, Ong CK (1997) Biophysical interactions in tropical agroforestry systems. Agroforest Syst 38:3–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Redfern DB, Pratt JE, Gregory SC, MacAskill GA (2001) Natural infection of Sitka spruce thinning stumps in Britain by spores of Heterobasidion annosum and long-term survival of the fungus. Forestry 74:53–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Rennerfelt E (1946) Om rotrötan (Polyporus annosus Fr.) I Sverige. Dess utbredning och sätt att uppträda. Meddel. Statens Skogsforskningsinst 35(8), 88 ppGoogle Scholar
  176. Roll-Hansen F (1989) Phacidium infestans. A literature review. Eur J For Pathol 19:237–250Google Scholar
  177. Roy BA, Kirchner JW (2000) Evolutionary dynamics of pathogen resistance and tolerance. Evolution 54:51–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Roy BA, Kirchner JW, Christian CE, Rose LE (2000) High disease incidence and apparent disease tolerance in a North American Great Basin plant community. Evol Ecol 14:421–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Schläpfer F, Schmid B (1999) Ecosystem effects of biodiversity: a classification of hypotheses and exploration of empirical results. Ecol Appl 9:893–912Google Scholar
  180. Schmidt RA (1978) Diseases in forest ecosystems: the importance of functional diversity. In: Horsfall JG, Cowling EB (eds) Plant disease. An advanced treatise, vol II. How disease develops in populations. Academic Press, New York, pp 287–315Google Scholar
  181. Schowalter T, Hansen E, Molina R, Zhang Y (1997) Integrating the ecological roles of phytophagous insects, plant pathogens, and mycorrhizae in managed forests. In: Kohm KA, Franklin JF (eds) Creating a forestry for the 21st century. The science of ecosystem management. Island Press, Washington,DC, pp 171–189Google Scholar
  182. Schwadron PA (1995) Distribution and persistence of American chestnut sprouts, Castanea dentata [Marsh] Borkh., in northeastern Ohio woodlands. Ohio J Sci 95:281–288Google Scholar
  183. Shea SR, McCormick J, Portlock CC (1979) The effects of fires on regeneration of leguminous species in the northern Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest of Western Australia. Aust J Ecol 4:195–105Google Scholar
  184. Shearer BL, Dillon M (1995) Susceptibility of plant-species in Eucalyptus marginata forest to infection by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Aust J Bot 43:113–134Google Scholar
  185. Shearer BL, Smith IW (2000) Diseases of eucalypts caused by soilborne species of Phytophthora and Pythium. In: Keane PJ, Kile GA, Podger FD, Brown NB (eds) Diseases and pathogens of eucalypts. CSIRO, Australia, pp 259–291Google Scholar
  186. Shurtleff MC, Averre CW III (1997) Glossary of plant-pathological terms. APS Press, St PaulGoogle Scholar
  187. Siepmann R (1984) Stammfäuleanteile in Fichtenreinbeständen und in Mischbeständen. Eur J For Pathol 14:234–240Google Scholar
  188. Siitonen J (2001) Forest management, coarse woody debris and saproxylic organisms: fennoscandian boreal forests as an example. Ecol Bull 49:11–41Google Scholar
  189. Simard SW (1998) Intensive management of young mixed forests: effects on forest health. In: Slurrock R (ed) 45th Western International Forest Disease Work Conference. Canadian Forest Service, University of Northern British Columbia, pp 48–54Google Scholar
  190. Simard SW, Hannam KD (2000) Effects of thinning overstory paper birch on survival and growth of interior spruce in British Columbia: implications for reforestation policy and biodiversity. For Ecol Manage 129:237–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Singh JS (2002) The biodiversity crisis: a multifaceted review. Curr Sci 82:638–647Google Scholar
  192. Smith DM (2000) American chestnut: ill-fated monarch of the eastern hardwood forest. J For 98:12–15Google Scholar
  193. Spies TA, Turner MG (1999) Dynamic forest mosaics. In: Hunter ML Jr (ed) Maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 95–160Google Scholar
  194. Stanosz GR, Patton RF (1987a) Armillaria root rot in Wisconsin aspen sucker stands. Can J For Res 17:995–1000Google Scholar
  195. Stanosz GR, Patton RF (1987b) Armillaria root rot in aspen stands after repeated short rotations. Can J For Res 17:1001–1005Google Scholar
  196. Stephenson SL (1986) Changes in a former chestnut-dominated forest after a half century of succession. Am Midl Nat 116:173–179Google Scholar
  197. Stiell WM, Berry AB (1986) Productivity of short-rotation aspen stands. For Chron 62:10–15Google Scholar
  198. Strong DR Jr, Levin DA (1975) Species richness of the parasitic fungi of British trees. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:2116–2119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Tainter FH, Baker FA (1996) Principles of forest pathology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  200. Thrall PH, Burdon JJ (2002) Evolution of gene-for-gene systems in metapopulations: the effect of spatial scale of host and pathogen dispersal. Plant Pathol 51:169–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Tokeshi M (1999) Species coexistence. Ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  202. Tomita M, Hirabuki Y, Seiwa K (2002) Post-dispersal changes in the spatial distribution of Fagus crenata seeds. Ecology 83:1560–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Turner IM (2001) The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forest. Cambridge Univ Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  204. Twery MJ, Gottschalk KW (1996) Forest health: another fuzzy concept. J For 94(8):20Google Scholar
  205. Van der Kamp BJ (1991) Pathogens as agents of diversity in forested landscapes. For Chron 67:353–354Google Scholar
  206. Van der Maarel E (1993) Some remarks on disturbance and its relations to diversity and stability. J Veg Sci 4:733–736Google Scholar
  207. Van der Pas JB (1981) A statistical appraisal of Armillaria root-rot in New Zealand plantations of Pinus radiata. NZ J For Sci 11:23–36Google Scholar
  208. Van der Putten WH (2000) Pathogen-driven forest diversity. Nature 404:232–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Van der Putten WH (2001) Interactions of plants, soil pathogens and their antagonists in natural ecosystems. In: Jeger MJ, Spence NJ (eds) Biotic interactions in plant pathogen associations. CABI, New York, pp 285–305Google Scholar
  210. Walchhütter T, Weste G, Guest D (2000) Regeneration after dieback due to Phytophthora cinnamomi — are suppressive soils involved? In: Hansen E, Sutton W (eds) Phytophthora diseases of forest trees. IUFRO Working Party. Oregon State University, Corvallis, pp 40–43Google Scholar
  211. Wargo PM, Harrington TC (1991) Host stress and susceptibility. In: Shaw CG III, Kile GA (eds) Armillaria root disease. Agriculture handbook no 691. USDA, Washington,DC, pp 88–101Google Scholar
  212. Webb CO, Peart DR (1999) Seedling density dependence promotes coexistence of Bornean rain forest trees. Ecology 80:2006–2017Google Scholar
  213. Weste G, Brown K, Kennedy J, Walshe T (2002) Phytophthora cinnamomi infestation — a 24 year study of vegetation change in forests and woodlands of the Grampians,Western Victoria. Aust J Bot 50:247–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Whittaker RJ, Willis KJ, Field R (2001) Scale and species richness: towards a general, hierarchical theory of species diversity. J Biogeogr 28:453–470Google Scholar
  215. Wiens JA (2000) Ecological heterogeneity: an ontogeny of concepts and approaches. In: Hutchings MJ, John EA, Stewart AJA (eds) The ecological consequences of environmental heterogeneity. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 9–31Google Scholar
  216. Wills C, Condit R, Foster RB, Hubbell SP (1997) Strong density-and diversity-related effects help to maintain tree species diversity in a neotropical forest. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:1252–1257CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Wilson BA, Aberton J, Cahill DM (2000) Relationships between site factors and distribution of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the Eastern Otway Ranges, Victoria. Aust J Bot 48:247–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Wingfield MJ, Slippers B, Roux J, Wingfield BD (2001) Worldwide movement of exotic forest fungi, especially in the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. Bioscience 51:134–140Google Scholar
  219. Witzell J, Karlman M (2000) Importance of site type and tree species on disease incidence of Gremmeniella abietina in areas with a harsh climate in North Sweden. Scand J For Res 15:202–209Google Scholar
  220. Wohlgemuth T, Bürgi M, Scheidegger C, Schütz M (2002) Dominance reduction of species through disturbance — a proposed management principle for central European forests. For Ecol Manage 166:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Wolfe MS (2000) Crop strength through diversity. Nature 406:681–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Wright SJ (2002) Plant diversity in tropical forests: a review of mechanisms of species coexistence. Oecologia 130:1–14Google Scholar
  223. Yachi S, Loreau M (1999) Biodiversity and ecosystem productivity in a fluctuating environment: the insurance hypothesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Zeglen S (2002) Whitebark pine and white pine blister rust in British Columbia, Canada. Can J For Res 32:1265–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Zentmyer GA (1980) Phytophthora cinnamomi and the diseases it causes. St Paul, APSGoogle Scholar
  226. Zhu Y, Chen H, Fan J, Wang Y, Li Y, Chen J, Fan JX, Yang S, Hu L, Leungk H, Mewk TW, Tengk PS, Wang Z, Mundtk CC (2000) Genetic diversity and disease control in rice. Nature 406:718–722CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Pautasso
  • O. Holdenrieder
  • J. Stenlid

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations