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Forest Defoliation Risks in Birch Forest by Insects Under Different Climate and Land Use Scenarios in Northern Europe

  • S. Neuvonen
  • H. Bylund
  • H. Tømmervik
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 180)

Keywords

Normalise Difference Vegetation Index Natural Enemy Birch Forest Mountain Birch Insect Outbreak 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Neuvonen
    • 1
  • H. Bylund
    • 2
  • H. Tømmervik
    • 3
  1. 1.Kevo Subarctic Research InstituteUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Department of EntomologySwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  3. 3.Norwegian Institute for Nature ResearchTromsøNorway

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