Forest Defoliation Risks in Birch Forest by Insects Under Different Climate and Land Use Scenarios in Northern Europe

  • S. Neuvonen
  • H. Bylund
  • H. Tømmervik
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 180)


Normalise Difference Vegetation Index Natural Enemy Birch Forest Mountain Birch Insect Outbreak 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Neuvonen
    • 1
  • H. Bylund
    • 2
  • H. Tømmervik
    • 3
  1. 1.Kevo Subarctic Research InstituteUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Department of EntomologySwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  3. 3.Norwegian Institute for Nature ResearchTromsøNorway

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