Biomass and Production on a Landscape Level in the Mountain Birch Forests

  • H. Tømmervik
  • F. E. Wielgolaski
  • S. Neuvonen
  • B. Solberg
  • K. A. Høgda
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 180)


Normalize Difference Vegetation Index Leaf Area Index Landscape Level Birch Forest Normalize Difference Vegetation Index Data 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aradottir AL, Arnolds O (2001) Ecosystem degradation and restoration of birch woodlands in Iceland. In: Wielgolaski FE (ed) Nordic mountain birch ecosystems. UNESCO, Paris and Parthenon New York, pp 293–306Google Scholar
  2. Bakkestuen V, Stabbetorp OE, Eilertsen O, Often A, Brattbakk I (2000) Terrestrisk naturovervåking. Vegetasjonsøkologiske undersøkelser av boreal bjørkeskog i Øvre Dividal og Gutulia nasjonalparker-reanalyser 1998 (in Norwegian). (Monitoring terrestrial ecosystems: ecological investigations of vegetation in the boreal forest of Dividalen and Gutulia National Parks-reanalysis 1998.) NINA Oppdragsmelding 612:1–58Google Scholar
  3. Bylund H, Nordell O (2001) Biomass proportion, production and leaf nitrogen distribution in a polycormic mountain birch stand (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) in northern Sweden. In: Wielgolaski FE (ed) Nordic mountain birch ecosystems. UNESCO, Paris and Parthenon New-York, pp 115–126Google Scholar
  4. Chapin FS, Shaver GR (1996) Physiological and growth responses of arctic plants to a field experiment simulating climatic change. Ecology 77:822–840Google Scholar
  5. Colpaert AJ, Kumpula J, Nieminen M (1995) Remote sensing, a tool for reindeer range land management. Polar Rec 31:235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dahlberg U (2001) Quantification and classification of Scandinavian mountain vegetation based on field data and optical satellite images. Report 12-2001. Dep For Res Manag Geomat, Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Umeä, Sweden. ISBN 91-576-5581-2Google Scholar
  7. Elkington TT, Jones MG (1974) Biomass and primary production of birch Betula pubescens s. lat.) in south-west Greenland. J Ecol 62:821–830Google Scholar
  8. Fylkesmannen i Finnmark (2002) Årsmelding for skogbruket i Finnmark 2001 (in Norwegian), 24 ppGoogle Scholar
  9. Gaare E, Tømmervik H (2000) Monitoring of lichen grazing areas in Finnmark. NINA Oppdragsmelding 638:1–33Google Scholar
  10. Grace J, Berninger F, Nagy L (2002) Impacts of climate change on the tree line. Ann Bot 90:537–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hagner O (1990) Computer aided forest stand delineation and inventory based on satellite remote sensing, SNS/TUFRO workshop. The usability of remote sensing for forest inventory and planning, Umea, Sweden, pp 94–105Google Scholar
  12. Hanssen-Bauer I, Førland E (2000) Temperature and precipitation variations in Norway 1900–1994 and their links to atmospheric circulation. Int J Climatol 20:1693–1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Helland A (1912) Traegraendser og sommervarmen (in Norwegian). Tidsskr Skogbr 20:131–146, 169-175, 303-313Google Scholar
  14. Høgda KA, Karlsen SR, Tømmervik H (2001) Onset of spring in Fennoscandia studied by a time series of NOAA AVHRR NDVI data. Poster:“The times they are a-changin’” — International Phenological Conference — Climate change, phenological responses and their consequences for biodiversity, agriculture, forestry, and human health, 5–7 Dec 2001,Wageningen University, the NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  15. Johansen B, Tømmervik H (1990) Mapping winter grazing areas for reindeer in Finnmark county,northern Norway, using LANDSAT 5-TM data. IGARSS-90 Proceedings, Washington DC, 4 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Johansen B, Karlsen SR (1996) Reingjerder i Finnmark — virkning på flora, vegetasjon og endringer av vegetasjonsdekket (in Norwegian). Sluttrapport — NORUT IT, Tromsö, Norway, 123 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Johansen B, Karlsen SR (2000) Finnmarksvidda — kartlegging og overvåking av reinbeiter — status 1998 (in Norwegian). NORUT IT 546/1-00, 68 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Johansson T (1999) Biomass equations for determining fractions of pendula and pubescent birches growing on abandoned farmland and some practical applications. Biomass Bioenergy 16:223–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jonasson S, Lee JA, Callaghan TV, Havstrom M, Parsons AN (1996) Direct and indirect effects of increasing temperatures on subarctic ecosystems. Ecol Bull 45:180–191Google Scholar
  20. Juntunen V, Neuvonen S, Norokorpi Y, Tasanen T (2002) Potential for timberline advance in northern Finland, as revealed by monitoring during 1983-1999. Arctic 55:348–361Google Scholar
  21. Kallio P, Lehtonen J (1973) Birch forest damage caused by Oporinia autumnata (Bkh.) in 1965–1966 in Utsjoki, N-Finland. Rep Kevo Subarctic Res Stat 10:55–69Google Scholar
  22. Kallio P, Lehtonen J (1975) On the ecocatastrophe of birch forests caused by Oporinia autumnata (Bkh.) and the problem of reforestation. In: Wielgolaski FE (ed) Fennoscandian tundra ecosystems, part 2. Animals and systems analysis. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 174–180Google Scholar
  23. Keeling CD, Chin FS, Whorf TP (1996) Increased activity of northern vegetation inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements. Nature 382:146–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kjelvik S, Kärenlampi L (1975) Plant biomass and primary production of Fennscandian subarctic and subalpine forests and of alpine willow and heath ecosystems. In:Wielgolaski FE (ed) Fennoscandian tundra ecosystems, part 1. Plants and microorganisms. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 111–120Google Scholar
  25. Korsmo H (1995) Weight equations for determining biomass fractions of young hardwoods from natural regenerated stands. Scand J For Res 10:333–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kukkonen T (2002) Tunturikoivikoiden elpyminen tunturimittarin aiheuttamista tuhoista Kevon luonnonpuistossa (in Finnish). MS Thesis, Turun yliopisto, Finland. Maantiteen laitos, 131 pp + 3 AppGoogle Scholar
  27. Lipson DA, Bowman WD, Monson RK (1996) Luxury uptake and storage of nitrogen in the rhizomatous alpine herb, Bistorta bistortoides. Ecology 77:1277–1285Google Scholar
  28. Lucht W, Prentice IC, Myneni RB, Sitch S, Friedlingstein P, Cramer W, Bousquet P, Buermann W, Smith B (2002) Climatic control of the high-latitude vegetation greening trend and Pinatubo effect. Science 296:1687–1689CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lyftingsmo E (1965) Norske fjellbeite Bind XV Oversyn over Fjellbeite i Finnmark (in Norwegian). Kgl Selsk Norges Vel, Oslo, Norway, 367 ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Marklund LG (1988) Biomassafunktioner för tall, gran och björk i Sverige (in Swedish). Work Rep 45. Dept For Res Manag Geomatics, Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Umeä, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  31. Mattsson J (1987) Ihmisen vaikutus Utsjoen metsärajametsiin (in Finnish). MS Thesis, Turun yliopisto, Finland.Maantiteen laitos, 123 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Menzel A, Fabian P (1999) Growing season extended in Europe. Nature 397:659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Myneni RB, Keeling, CD, Tucker CJ, Asrar G, Nemani RR (1997) Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981 to 1991. Nature 386:698–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Myneni RB, Dong J, Tucker CJ, Kaufmann RK, Kauppi PE, Liski, J, Zhou L, Alexeyev V, Hughes MK (2001) A large carbon sink in the woody biomass of Northern forests. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:14784–14789CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Nordin A, Nasholm T, Ericson L (1998) Effects of simulated N deposition on understorey vegetation of a boreal coniferous forest. Funct Ecol 12:691–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Odland A (1996) Differences in the vertical distribution pattern of Betula pubescens in Norway and its ecological significance. In: Frenzel B (ed) Holocene treeline oscillations, dendrochronology and paleoclimate. Fisher, Stuttgart, pp 43–59Google Scholar
  37. Post E, Stenseth NC (1999) Climatic variability, plant phenology, and northern ungulates. Ecology 80:1322–1339Google Scholar
  38. Raitio H, Paukkonen K, Kauppi A (1994) Effects of defoliation, nitrogen, and temperature on leafing and root carbohydrates of birch seedlings. Can J For Res 24:1914–1920Google Scholar
  39. Reese H, Nilsson M (1999) Using Landsat TM and NF data to estimate wood volume, tree biomass and stand age in Dalarna. Work Rep 53. Dept For Res Manag Geomatics, Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Umeå, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  40. Riksskogstaxeringen (2001) Forest inventory statistics for Norrbotten län (Tabular data in Excel format)Google Scholar
  41. Robinson CH, Wookey PA, Lee JA, Callaghan TV, Press MC (1998) Plant community responses to simulated environmental change at a high arctic polar semi-desert. Ecology 79:856–866Google Scholar
  42. Salmi O (1988) Tunturikoivun polttopuukäytön lisäämismahdollisuudet Enontekiön ja Utsjoen kunnissa. Maataloushallinnon aikakauskirja. Maatilahallituksne julkaisu 2:12–16. Valtion painatuskeskus/Helsingin paino Oy, Finland (in Finnish)Google Scholar
  43. Senn J, Haukioja E (1994) Reactions of the mountain birch to bud removal — effects of severity and timing, and implications for herbivores. Funct Ecol 8:494–501Google Scholar
  44. Senn J, Hanhimaki S, Haukioja E (1992) Among tree variation in leaf phenology and morphology and its correlation with insect performance in the mountain birch. Oikos 63:215–222Google Scholar
  45. Sihvo J (2002) Ylä-Lapin luonnonhoitoalueen ja Urho Kekkosen kansallispuiston luontokartoitus. Loppuraportti osa 2: Ylä-Lapin luontotyypit. Metsähallituksen luonnonsuojelujulkaisuja. Sarja A137, 175 pp, Helsinki (in Finnish)Google Scholar
  46. Ståhl G, Walheim M, Lofgren P (1999) Fjällinventering-En utredning av innehall och design (in Swedish). Work Rep 50. Dept Res Manage Geomatics, Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Umeå, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  47. Starr M, Hartman M, Kinnunen T (1998) Biomass functions for mountain birch in the Vuoskojarvi integrated monitoring area. Boreal Environ Res 3:297–303Google Scholar
  48. Statistics of Norway (1979) Landbrukstelling 1979 Skogbruk, Finnmark and Troms (in Norwegian). Census of agriculture and forestry, vol VII. ForestryGoogle Scholar
  49. Steininger MK (2000) Satellite estimation of tropical secondary forest above-ground biomass: data from Brazil and Bolivia. J Remote Sensing 21:1139–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sturm M, Racine C, Tape K (2001) Climate change: increasing shrub abundance in the Arctic. Nature 411:546–547CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Sveinbjörnsson B (1987) Biomass proportioning as related to plant size in juvenile mountain birch near Abisko, Swedish Lapland. Rep Kevo Subarctic Res Stat 20:1–8Google Scholar
  52. Sveinbjörnsson B, Hofgaard A, Loyd A (2002) Natural causes of the Tundra-Taiga boundary. Ambio Spec Rep 12: 23–29Google Scholar
  53. Tømmervik H (2000) Reinbeitekartlegging Mauken-Blåtind-Fagerfjell (in Norwegian). NINA Assignment Rep 641:1–34Google Scholar
  54. Tømmervik H, Lauknes I (1987) Mapping of reindeer ranges in the Kautokeino area, northern Norway, by use of Landsat 5/TM data. Rangifer 2:2–14Google Scholar
  55. Tømmervik H, Johansen B, Lauknes I (1997) Use of airborne CASI spatial mode data for mapping of Sub-Arctic mountain heaths in Pasvik, northern Norway. Can J Remote Sensing 23:230–242Google Scholar
  56. Tømmervik H, Johansen ME, Pedersen JP, Guneriussen T (1998) Integration of remote sensed and in-situ data in an analysis of the air pollution effects on terrestrial ecosystems in border areas between Norway and Russia. Environ Monit Assess 49:51–85Google Scholar
  57. Tømmervik H, Høgda KA, Karlsen SR (2001) Using remote sensing for detection of caterpillar outbreaks in mountain birch forests, a new interesting approach. In: Wielgolaski FE (ed) Nordic mountain birch ecosystems. UNESCO, Paris and Parthenon, New York, pp 185–194Google Scholar
  58. Tømmervik H, Høgda KA, Solheim I (2003) Monitoring vegetation changes in Pasvik (Norway) and Pechenga in Kola Peninsula (Russia) using multi-temporal Landsat MSS/TM data. Remote Sensing Environ 85:370–388Google Scholar
  59. Tømmervik H, Johansen B, Tombre I, Thannheiser D, Høgda KA, Gaare E, Wielgolaski FE (2004) Vegetation changes in the Nordic mountain birch forest: the influence of grazing and climate change. Arct Antarct Alpine Res 36:322–331Google Scholar
  60. Väre H (2001). Mountain birch taxonomy and floristics of mountain birch woodlands. In: Wielgolaski FE (ed) Nordic mountain birch ecosystems. UNESCO, Paris and Parthenon, New York, London, pp 35–46Google Scholar
  61. Vaarama A, Valanne T (1973) On the taxonomy, biology and origin of Betula tortuosa Lebeb. Rep Kevo Subarctic Res Stat 10:70–84Google Scholar
  62. Wang TL, Tigerstedt PMA (1996) Growth rates and phenology of fast-and slow-growing families over an entire growth period in Betula pendula Roth. Silvae Genet 45:124–129Google Scholar
  63. Wang JR, Zhong AL, Simard SW, Kimmins JP (1996) Aboveground biomass and nutrient accumulation in an age sequence of paper birch (Betula x pyrifera) in the Interior Cedar Hemlock zone, British Colombia. For Ecol Manage 83:27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wielgolaski FE (2001) Field-and bottom layer vegetation mat transplantation.A method to simulate possible effects of climate change. Skogræktarritid 1:167–170Google Scholar
  65. Wielgolaski FE, Bliss, LC, Svoboda I, Doyle G (1981) Primary production of tundra. In: Bliss LC, Heal OW, Moore JJ (eds) Tundra ecosystems: a comparative analysis. IBP 25. Cambridge Univ Press Cambridge, pp 187–225Google Scholar
  66. Zhou L, Tucker CJ, Kaufmann RK, Slayback D, Shabanov NV, Myneni RB (2001) Variations in northern vegetation activity inferred from satellite data of vegetation index during 1981 to 1999. J Geophys Res 106(D17):2006920083CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Tømmervik
    • 1
  • F. E. Wielgolaski
    • 2
  • S. Neuvonen
    • 3
  • B. Solberg
    • 4
  • K. A. Høgda
    • 5
  1. 1.Norwegain Institute for Nature ResearchTromsøNorway
  2. 2.Derpartment of BiologyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.Kevo Subaratic Research InstituteUniversity of TurkuturkenFinland
  4. 4.Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, AgriculturalUniversity of NorwayÅsNorway
  5. 5.Norut Information TechonologyEarth Observation GroupTromsøNorway

Personalised recommendations