Long-Term Influence of Herbivores on Northern Birch Forests

  • O. Tenow
  • H. Bylund
  • A. C. Nilssen
  • P. S. Karlsson
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 180)


Birch Forest Short Shoot Mountain Birch Severe Outbreak Forest Limit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Tenow
    • 1
  • H. Bylund
    • 1
  • A. C. Nilssen
    • 2
  • P. S. Karlsson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of EntomologySwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Tromsø MuseumUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway
  3. 3.Department of Plant EcologyEvolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

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