Experimental Therapies in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus

  • Stefan W. Schneider
  • Thomas A. Luger


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Atopic Dermatitis Lupus Nephritis Mycophenolate Mofetil Cefuroxime Axetil 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alarcon-Segovia D, Tumlin J, Furie R, McKay J, Cardiel M, Linnik M, Hepburn B (2000) SLE trial shows fewer renal flares in LJP 394 treated patients with high-affinity antibodies to LJP 394: 90-05 trial results. Arthritis Rheum 43:S272Google Scholar
  2. Anolik J, Campbell D, Ritchlin C, Holyst M, Rosenfeld S, Sanz I, Young F, Felgar R, Kunkel L, Benyunes M, Grillo-Lopez A, Rosenblatt J, Looney RJ (2000) PhaseI/II open-label, dose-escalation trial of rituximab (Rituxan) in patients with SLE. Arthritis Rheum 43:2860Google Scholar
  3. Austin HA, Vaughan EM, Balow JE (2000) Lupus membranous nephropathy: randomized, controlled trial of prednisone, cyclosporine and cyclophosphamide. J Am Soc Nephrol 11:81ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ballow M(1997) Mechanisms of action of intravenous immune serum globulin in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 100:151–157Google Scholar
  5. Beissert S, Luger TA (1999) Future developments of antipsoriatic therapy. Dermatol Therapy 11:104–117Google Scholar
  6. Berner B, Scheel AK, Schettler V, Hummel KM, Reuss-Borst MA, Muller GA, Oestmann E, Leinenbach HP, Hepper M (2001) Rapid improvement of SLE-specific cutaneous lesions by C1q immunoadsorption. Ann Rheum Dis 60:898–899PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Boehm IB, Boehm GA, Bauer R (1998) Management of cutaneous lupus erythematosus with low-dose methotrexate: indication for modulation of inflammatory mechanisms. Rheumatol Int 18:59–62CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Caccavo D, Lagana B, Mitterhofer AP, Ferri GM, Afeltra A, Amoroso A, Bonomo L (1997) Long-term treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with cyclosporin A. Arthritis Rheum 40:27–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Callen JP (1982) Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Clinical, laboratory, therapeutic, and prognostic examination of 62 patients. Arch Dermatol 118:412–416CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Callen JP (2002) Management of skin disease in patients with lupus erythematosus. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 16:245–264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Carneiro JR, Sato EI (1999) Double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial of methotrexate in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 26:1275–1279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chan TM, Li FK, Tang CS, Wong RW, Fang GX, Ji YL, Lau CS, Wong AK, Tong MK, Chan KW, Lai KN (2000) Efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil in patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis. Hong Kong-Guangzhou Nephrology Study Group. N Engl J Med 343:1156–1162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chandraratna RA (1997) Tazarotene: the first receptor-selective topical retinoid for the treatment of psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 37:S12–S17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang DM, Lan JL, Lin HY, Taipei LSF, Taiwan T (2000) GL 701 (prasterone, dehydroepiandrosterone) significantly reduces flares in female patients with mild to moderate systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Arthritis Rheum 43:S241Google Scholar
  15. Charles PJ, Smeenk RJT, de Jong J, Feldmann M, Maini RN (2000) Assessment of antibodies to double-stranded DNA induced in rheumatoid arthritis patients following treatment with infliximab, a monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor alpha: Findings in open-label and randomized placebo-controlled trials. Arthritis Rheum 43:2283–2390CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Conti F, Priori R, Alessandri C, Spinelli FR, Medda E, Valesini G (2000) Safety profile and causes of withdrawal due to adverse events in systemic lupus erythematosus patients treated long-term with cyclosporine A. Lupus 9:676–680CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dammacco F, Della Casa AO, Ferraccioli G, Racanelli V, Casatta L, Bartoli E (2000) Cyclosporine-A plus steroids versus steroids alone in the 12-month treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. Int J Clin Lab Res 30:67–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Daynes RA, Dudley DJ, Areano BA (1990) Regulation of murine lymphokine production in vivo. Dehydroepiandrosterone is a natural enhancer of interleukin 2 synthesis by helper T cells. Eur J Immunol 20:793–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Delaporte E, Catteau B, Sabbagh N, Gosselin P, Breuillard F, Doutre MS, Broly F, Piette F, Bergoend H (1997) Treatment of discoid lupus erythematosus with sulfasalazine: 11 cases. Ann Dermatol Venereol 124:151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dequet CR, Wallace, DJ (2001) Novel therapies in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2:1045–1053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Diamond B, Bluestone J, Wofsy D (2001) The immune tolerance network and rheumatic disease: immune tolerance comes to the clinic. Arthritis Rheum 44:1730–1735CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Duddridge M, Powell RJ (1997) Treatment of severe and difficult cases of systemic lupus erythematosus with tacrolimus. A report of three cases. Ann Rheum Dis 56:690–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dumont FJ (2002) IDEC-131. IDEC/Eisai. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 3:725–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Edwards KR, Burke WA (1999) Treatment of localized discoid lupus erythematosus with tazarotene. J Am Acad Dermatol 41:1049–1050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Entani C, Izumino K, Iida H, Fujita M, Asaka M, Takata M, Sasayama S (1993) Effect of a novel immunosuppressant, FK506, on spontaneous lupus nephritis in MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice. Nephron 64:471–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Fautrel B, Foltz V, Frances C, Bourgeois P, Rozenberg S (2002) Regression of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with a biologic tumor necrosis factor alpha-blocking agent: comment on the article by Pisetsky and the letter from Aringer et al. Arthritis Rheum 46:1408–1409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ferrario L, Bellone M, Bozzolo E, Baldissera E, Sabbadini MG (2000) Remission from lupus nephritis resistant to cyclophosphamide after additional treatment with cyclosporin A. Rheumatology (Oxford) 39:218–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Finck BK, Linsley PS, Wofsy D (1994) Treatment of murine lupus with CTLA4Ig. Science 265:1225–1227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fleischmann M, Celerier P, Bernard P, Litoux P, Dreno B (1996) Long-term interferon-alpha therapy induces autoantibodies against epidermis. Dermatology 192:50–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Frieling U, Luger TA (2002) Mycophenolate mofetile and leflunomide: promising compounds for the treatment of skin diseases. Clin Exp Dermatol 27:562–570CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Furie RA, Cash JM, Cronin ME, Katz RS, Weisman MH, Aranow C, Liebling MR, Hudson NP, Berner CM, Coutts S, de Haan HA (2001) Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with LJP 394. J Rheumatol 28:257–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gaubitz M, Schorat A, Schotte H, Kern P, Domschke W (1999) Mycophenolate mofetil for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: an open pilot trial. Lupus 8:731–736CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gaubitz M, Seidel M, Kummer S, Schotte H, Perniok A, Domschke W, Schneider, M (1998) Prospective randomized trial of two different immunoadsorbers in severesy stemic lupus erythematosus. J Autoimmun 11:495–501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Geilen CC, Orfanos-Boeckel H, Offermann G, Orfanos CE (2000) Mycophenolate mofetil: a new immunosuppressive drug in dermatology and its possible uses. Hautarzt 51:63–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Genereau T, Chosidow O, Danel C, Cherin P, Herson S (1999) High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Arch Dermatol 135:1124–1125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Goyal S, Nousari HC (2001) Treatment of resistant discoid lupus erythematosus of the palms and soles with mycophenolate mofetil. J Am Acad Dermatol 45:142–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Graninger M, Schmaldienst S, Derfler K, Graninger WB (2002) Immunoadsorption therapy (therasorb) in patients with severe lupus erythematosus. Acta Med Austriaca 29:26–29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hallegua D, Wallace DJ, Metzger AL, Rinaldi RZ, Klinenberg JR (2000) Cyclosporine for lupus membranous nephritis: experience with ten patients and review of the literature. Lupus 9:241–251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Haseley L, Wisnieski J, Denburg M, Michael-Grossman, AR, Ginzler EM, Gourley MF, Hoffman JH, Kimberly RP, Salmon JE (1997) Antibodies to C1q in systemic lupus erythematosus: Characteristics and relation to Fc-gamma RIIA alleles. Kidney Int 52:1375–1380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hiepe F, Pfuller B, Wolbart K, Bruns A, Leinenbach HP, Hepper M, Schossler W, Otto V, (1999) C1q: a multifunctional ligand for a new immunoadsorption treatment. Ther Apher 3:246–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hsieh SC, Tsai CY, Sun KH, Tsai YY, Tsai ST, Han SH, Yu HS, Yu CL (1995) Defective spontaneous and bacterial lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist by polymorphonuclear neutrophils of patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Br J Rheumatol 34:107–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Huddlestone JR, Merigan TC Jr, Oldstone MB (1979) Induction and kinetics of natural killer cells in humans following interferon therapy. Nature 282:417–419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Jungers P, Nahoul K, Pelissier C, Dougados M, Tron F, Bach JF (1982) Low plasma androgens in women with active or quiescent systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 25:454–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kitchin JE, Pomeranz MK, Pak G, Washenik K, Shupack JL (1997) Rediscovering mycophenolic acid: a review of its mechanism, side effects, and potential uses. J Am Acad Dermatol 37:445–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kuhn A, Specker C, Ruzicka T, Lehmann P (2002) Methotrexate treatment for refractory subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. J Am Acad Dermatol 46:600–603CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Lafferty TE, Smith JB, Schuster SJ, DeHoratius RJ (1997) Treatment of acquired factor VIII inhibitor using intravenous immunoglobulin in two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 40:775–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lagrange S, Piette JC, Becherel PA, Cacoub P, Frances C (1998) Sulfasalazine in the treatment of cutaneous lupus erythematosus: open trial in six cases. Lupus 7:21Google Scholar
  48. Levy Y, Sherer Y, George J, Rovensky J, Lukac J, Rauova L, Poprac P, Langevitz P, Fabbrizzi F, Shoenfeld Y (2000) Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of lupus nephritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 29:321–327CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Lan SP, Rohde RD, Lachin JM (1992) A controlled trial of plasmapheresis therapy in severe lupus nephritis. The Lupus Nephritis Collaborative Study Group. N Engl J Med 326:1373–1379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Linker-Israeli M, Deans RJ, Wallace DJ, Prehn J, Ozeri-Chen T, Klinenberg JR (1991) Elevated levels of endogenous IL-6 in systemic lupus erythematosus. A putativerole in pathogenesis. J Immunol 147:117–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Llorente L, Richaud-Patin Y, Garcia-Padilla C, Claret E, Jakez-Ocampo J, Cardiel MH, Alcocer-Varela J, Grangeot-Keros L, Alarcon-Segovia D, Wijdenes J, Galanaud P, Emilie D (2000) Clinical and biologic effects of anti-interleukin-10 monoclonal antibody administration in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 43:1790–1800CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Luger T (2001) Treatment of immune-mediated skin diseases: future perspectives. Eur J Dermatol 11:343-347Google Scholar
  53. Manger K, Kalden JR, Manger B (1996) Cyclosporin A in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: results of an open clinical study. Br J R heumatol 35:669–675Google Scholar
  54. Matis LA, Rollins SA (1995) Complement-specific antibodies: designing novel anti-inflammatories. Nat Med 1:839–842CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. McMurray RW (2001) Nonstandard and adjunctive medical therapies for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 45:86–100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. McNeely PA, Iverson GM, Furie RA, Cash JM, Cronin ME, Katz RS, Weisman MH, Aranow C, Linnik MD (2001) Pre-treatmentaffinity for LIP 394 influences pharmacodynamic response in lupus patients. Lupus 10:526–532CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Mease PJ, Ginzler EM, Gluck OS, Schiff MH, Schmeer P, Gurwith M, Schwarz KE (2000) Improvementin bone mineral density in steroid-treated patients during treatment with GL 701 (prasterone, DHEA). Arthritis Rheum 43(Suppl):206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Melez KA, Boegel WA, Steinberg AD (1980) Therapeutic studies in New Zealand mice. VII. Successful androgen treatment of NZB/NZW F1 females of different ages. Arthritis Rheum 23:41–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Morton SJ, Powell RJ (2000) An audit of cyclosporin for systemic lupus erythematosus and related overlap syndromes: limitations of its use. Ann Rheum Dis 59:487–489CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Moxley G, Ruddy S (1997) Immune complexes and complement. In: Kelley WN, Harris ED, Ruddy S, Sledge CB (eds) Textbook of rheumatology, 5th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 232–235Google Scholar
  61. Neuwelt CM, Al-Baude HA, Webb RL (1995) Role of intravenous cyclophosphamide in the treatment of severe neuropsychiatric systemic lupus. Am J Med 98:32–41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Nicolas JF, Thivolet J, Kanitakis J, Lyonnet S (1990) Response of discoid and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus torecombinant interferon alpha 2a. J Invest Dermatol 95:142S–145SCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Paller A, Eichenfield LF, Leung DY, Stewart D, Appell M (2001) A 12-week study of tacrolimus ointment for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in pediatric patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 44:S47–S57CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Petera P, Manger B, Manger K, Rosenburg R, Smolen JS, Kalden JR (2000) A pilot study of leflunomide in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Arthritis Rheum 43:S241Google Scholar
  65. Petri M (2001) High dose Arava in lupus (HAIL). Arthritis Rheum 44:S280Google Scholar
  66. Pfuller B, Wolbart K, Claunitzer A et al. (1998) Successful treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus by C1q-immunoadsorption. Arthritis Rheum 41:S110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pisetsky DS (2000) Tumor necrosis factor alpha blockers and the induction of anti-DNA autoantibodies. Arthritis Rheum 43:2381–2382CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Prinz JC, Meurer M, Reiter C, Rieber EP, Plewig G, Riethmuller G (1996) Treatment of severe cutaneous lupus erythematosus with a chimeric CD4 monoclonal antibody, cM-T412. J Am Acad Dermatol 34:244–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Ramanujam M, Wang X, Ghosh SS, Huang W, Akkerman A, Roy-Chowdhury I, Davidson A (2002) Treatment of murine SLE using a double expressing CTLA4-Ig/ICOS-Ig adenovirus. Arthritis Rheum 46:S226Google Scholar
  70. Rappersberger LE, Komar M, Ebelin ME, Scott G, Bueche M, Burtin P, Wolff K (2000) Oral SDZ ASM981: Safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy in patients with moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol 114:776Google Scholar
  71. Remer CF, Weisman MH, Wallace DJ (2001) Benefits of leflunomide in systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot observational study. Lupus 10:480–483CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Riethmuller G, Rieber EP, Kiefersauer S, Prinz J, van der LP Meiser B, Breedveld F, Eisenburg J, Kruger K, Deusch K (1992) From antilymphocyte serum to therapeutic monoclonal antibodies: first experiences with a chimeric CD4 antibody in the treatment of autoimmune disease. Immunol Rev 129:81–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Rodriguez-Castellanos MA, Rubio JB, Gómez JFB, Mendoza AG (1995) Phenytoin in the Treatment of Discoid Lupus Erythematosus. Arch Dermatol 131:620–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ronnblom LE, Alm G, Vberg KE (1990) Possible induction of systemic lupus erythematosus by interferon-alpha treatment in a patient with a malignant carcinoid tumour. J Intern Med 227:207–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Rudnicka L, Szymanska E, Walecka I, Slowinska M (2000) Long-term cefuroxime axetil in subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. A report of three cases. Dermatology 200:29–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rutter A, Luger TA (2002) Intravenous immunoglobulin: An emerging treatment for immunemediated skin diseases. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 3:713–719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Sauder DN, Wong D, Laskin C (1993) Epidermal cytokines in murine lupus. J Invest Dermatol 100:42S–46SCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Schanz S, Ulmer A, Rassner G, Fierlbeck G (2002) Successful treatment of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus with mycophenolate mofetil. Br J Dermatol 147:174–178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Schattner A (1988) Interferons and autoimmunity. Am J Med Sci 295:532–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Schopf RE (2001) IDEC-114 (IDEC). Curr Opin Ivestig Drugs 2:635–638Google Scholar
  81. Shou-Nee S, Fang FS, Yumei W (1987) Serum interferon in systemic lupus erythematosus. Br J Dermatol 117:155–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Solsky MA, Wallace DJ (2002) New therapies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 16:293–312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Strand V (2000) New therapies for systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 26:389–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Sturgess AD, Evans DT, Mackay IR, Riglar A (1984) Effects of the oestrogen antagonist tamoxifen on disease indices in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Lab Immunol 13:11–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Tebbe B, Lauy M, Gollnick H (1992) Therapy of cutaneous lupus erythematosus with recombinant interferon alpha-2a. Eur J Dermatol 2:253–255Google Scholar
  86. Terman DS, Buffaloe G, Mattioli C, Cook G, Tillquist R, Sullivan M, Ayus JC (1979) Extracorporeal immunoadsorption: initial experience in human systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet 2:824–827CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Theofilopoulos AN, Drummer W, Kono DH (2001) T cell homeostasis and systemic autoimmunity. J Clin Invest 108:335–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Tomi NS, Luger TA (2003) The treatment of atopic dermatitis with topical immunomodulators. Clinics Dermatol 21:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Traynor AE, Schroeder J, Rosa RM, Cheng D, Stefka J, Mujais S, Baker S, Burt RK (2000) Treatment of severe systemic lupus erythematosus with high-dose chemotherapy and haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation: a phase I study. Lancet 356:701–707CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Viertel A, Weidmann E, Wigand R, Geiger H, Mondorf UF (2000) Treatment of severe systemic lupus erythematosus with immunoadsorption and intravenous immunoglobulins. Intensive Care Med 26:823–824CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Vigano G, Gotti E, Casiraghi F, Noris M, Taddei I, Dionisio P, Remuzzi G (1995) Bindarit reduces urinary albumin excretion (UAB) and urinary interleukin 6 (IL-6) in patients with proliferative lupus nephritis. J Am Soc Nephrol 6:434Google Scholar
  92. Walker SL, Kirby B, Chalmers RJ (2002) The effect of topical tacrolimus on severe recalcitrant chronic discoid lupus erythematosus. Br J Dermatol 147:405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Wallace DJ (2001a) Apheresis for lupus erythematosus: state of the art. Lupus 10:193–196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Wallace DJ (2001b) Clinical and pharmacological experience with LJP-394. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 10:111–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Walport MJ, Davies KA, Botto M (1998) C1q and systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunobiology 199:265–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Wu WM, Suen JL, Lin BF, Chiang BL (2000) Tamoxifen alleviates disease severity and decreases double negative T cells in autoimmune MRL-lpr/lpr mice. Immunology 100:110–118CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Yin Z, Bahtiyar G, Lanzhen L (2000) IL-10 down-modulates murine lupus. Arthritis Rheum 43:S438Google Scholar
  98. Yoshimasu T, Ohtani T, Sakamoto T, Oshima A, Furukawa F (2002) Topical FK506 (tacrolimus) therapy for facial erythematous lesions of cutaneous lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. Eur J Dermatol 12:50–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Zoja C, Corna D, Benedetti G, Morigi M, Donadelli R, Guglielmotti A, Pinza M, Bertani T, Remuzzi G (1998) Bindarit retards renal disease and prolongs survival in murine lupus autoimmune disease. Kidney Int 53:726–734CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan W. Schneider
  • Thomas A. Luger

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations