The Role of T Cells and Adhesion Molecules in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus

  • Filippa Nyberg
  • Eija Stephansson


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Purify Protein Deri Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Normal Human Skin Human Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alaibac M, Morris J, Yu R, Chu A (1992) T lymphocytes bearing the gamma-delta T-cell receptor: a study in normal human skin and pathological skin conditions. Br J Dermatol 127: 458–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews B, Schenk A, Barr R, Frious G, Mirick G, Ross P (1986) Immunopathology of cutaneous human lupus erythematosus defined by murine monoclonal antibodies. J Am Acad Dermatol 15:474–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baadsgard O, Fox D, Cooper K (1988) Human epidermal cells from ultraviolet light-exposed skin preferentially activate autoreactive CD4+2H4+ suppressor-inducer lymphocytes and CD8+ suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes. J Immunol 140:1738–1744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Behrendt A, Simmons D, Tansey J, Newbold C, Marsh K (1989) Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 is an endothelial cell receptor for plasmodium falciparum. Nature 341:57–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Belmont H, Abramson S (1997) Mechanisms of acute inflammation and vascular injury in systemic lupus erythematosus. In: Pine J (ed) Dubois’ lupus erythematosus. Baltimore, pp 263–278Google Scholar
  6. Belmont M, Buyon J, Giorno R, Abramson S (1994) Up-regulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules characterizes disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. The Shwartzman phenomenon revisited. Arthritis Rheum 37:376–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bennion S, Norris D (1997) Ultraviolet light modulation of autoantigens, epidermal cytokines and adhesion molecules as contributing factors of the pathogenesis of cutaneous LE. Lupus 6:181–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bennion S, Middleton M, David-Bajar K, Brice S, Norris DA (1995) In three types of interface dermatitis, different patterns of expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 indicate different triggers of disease. J Invest Dermatol 105:71S–79SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blakemore A, Tarlow Y, Cork M, Gordon C, Emery P, Duff G (1994) Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism as a disease severity factor of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 37:1380–1385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bos J, Teunissen M, Cairo I, Krieg S, Kapsenberg M, Das P, Borst J (1990) T-cell receptor gamma-delta bearing cells in normal human skin. J Invest Dermatol 94:37–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brey R, Amato A, Kagan-Hallet K, Rhine C, Stallworth C (1997) Anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) antibody treatment prevents central and peripheral nervous system disease in autoimmune-prone mice. Lupus 6:645–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Butcher E (1991) Leukocyte-endothelial cell recognition: three (or more) steps to specificity and diversity. Cell 67:1033–1036CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Butcher E, Lewinsohn D, Duijvestijn A, Bargatze R, Wu N, Jalkanen S (1986) Interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes. J Cell Biochem 30:121–131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Callen JP, Klein J (1988) Subacutecut aneous lupus erythematosus. Clinical, serologic, immunogenetic, and therapeutic considerations in seventy-two patients. Arthritis Rheum 31:1007–1013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Casciola-Rosen L, Rosen A (1997) Ultraviolet light-induced keratinocyte apoptosis: a potential mechanism for the induction of skin lesions and autoantibody production in LE. Lupus 6:175–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chan O, Paliwal V, McNiff J, Park S, Bendelac A, Shlomchik M (2001) Deficiency in beta(2)-microglobulin, but not CD1, accelerates spontaneous lupus skin disease while inhibiting nephritis in MRL-Fas(lpr) nice: an example of disease regulationat the organ level. J Immunol 167:2985–2990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chapman P, Haskard DO (1995) Leukocyte adhesion molecules. Br Med Bull 51:296–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cornelius L, Taylor J, Degitz K, Li L, Lawley T, Caughman S (1993) A 5′ portion of the ICAM-1 gene confers tissue-specific differential expression levels and cytokine responsiveness. J Invest Dermatol 100:753–758CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cornelius L, Sepp N, Li L, Degitz K, Swerlick R, Lawley T, Caughman S (1994) Selective upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) by ultraviolet B in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. J Invest Dermatol 103:23–28CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Denfeld R, Kind P, Sontheimer R, Schopf E, Simon J (1997) In situ expression of B7 and CD28 receptor families in skin lesions of patients with lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 40:814–821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Di Nuzzo S, Sylva-Steenland R, De Rie M, Das P, Bos J, Teunissen M (1998) UVB radiation preferentially induces recruitment of memory CD4+ cells in normal human skin: long term effect after a single exposure. J Invest Dermatol 110:978–981CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dustin M, Rothlein R, Bhan A, Dinarello C, Springer T (1986) Induction of IL-1 and interferon-gamma: tissue distribution, biochemistry, and function of a natural adherence molecule (ICAM-1). J Immunol 137:245–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Farkas L, Beiske K, Lund-Johansen F, Brandtzaeg P, Jahnsen F (2001) Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (natural interferon-alpha/beta-producing cells) accumulate in cutaneous lupus erythematosus lesions. Am J Pathol 159:237–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fivensson D, Rheins L, Nordlund J, Pomaranski M, Douglass M, Krull E (1991) Thy-1 and T-cell receptor antigen expression in mycosis fungoides and benign inflammatory dermatoses. J Natl Cancer Inst 83:1088–1092PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Flier J, Boorsma D, van Beek P, Nieboer C, Stoof T, Willemze R, Tensen C (2001) Differential expression of CXCR3 targeting chemokines CXCL10, CX CL9 and CXCL11 in different types of skin inflammation. J Pathol 194:398–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Frenette PS, Wagner D (1996) Adhesion molecules — Parts I and II. N Engl J Med 334:1526–1529, 335:43–45CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Furukawa F, Tokura Y, Matsushita K, Iwaskai-Inuzuka K, Onagi-Suzuki K, Yagi H, Wakita H, Takigawa M (1996) Selective expansions of T cells expressing Vβ8 and Vβ13 in skin lesions of patients with chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus. J Dermatol 23:670–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Gearing AJ, Newman W (1993) Circulating adhesion molecules in disease. Immunol Today 14:506–512CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Grether-Beck S, Olaziola-Horn S, Schmitt H, Grewe M, Jahnke A, Johnson J, Briviba K, Sies H, Krutmann J (1996) Activation of transcription factor AP-2 mediates UVA radiation and singlet oxygen-induced expression of the human intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:14586–14591CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Greve J, Favis G, Meyer A, Forte C, Yost S, Marlow C, Kamarck M, McClelland A (1989) The major human rhinovirus receptor is ICAM-1. Cell 56:839–847CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hasan T, Nyberg F, Stephansson E, Puska P, Häkkinen M, Sarna S, Ros AM, Ranki A (1997) Photosensitivity in lupus erythematosus, UV photoprovocation results compared with history of photosensitivity and clinical findings. Br J Dermatol 136:699–675CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hasan T, Pasanen P, Jansen C (1999) Epidermal urocanic acid in discoid lupus erythematosus. Acta Derm Venereol 79:411–412CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hasan T, Stephansson E, Ranki A (1999) Distribution of naive and memory T-cells in photoprovoked and spontaneous skin lesions of discoid lupus erythematosus and polymorphous light eruption. Acta Derm Venereol 79:437–442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Heckmann M, Eberlein-Konig B, Wollenberg A, Przybilla B, Plewig G (1994) Ultraviolet-A radiation induces adhesion molecule expression on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Br J Dermatol 131:311–318Google Scholar
  35. Janeway C, Travers P (1994) Immunobiology, the immune system in health and disease. Current Biology/Garland Publishing, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Jerdan MS, Hood AF, Moore GW, Callen JP (1990) Histopathologic comparison of the subsets of lupus erythematosus. Arch Dermatol 126:52–55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Johansson-Stephansson E, Partanen J, Kariniemi A (1989) Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematous: genetic markers and clinical and immunological findings in patients. Arch Dermatol 125:791–796CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Jones S, Mathew C, Dixey J, Lovell C, McHugh N (1996) VCAM-1 expression on endothelium in lesions from cutaneous lupus erythematosus is increased compared with systemic and localized scleroderma. Br J Dermatol 135:678–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. June C, Bluestone L, Thompson C (1994) The B7 and CD28 receptor families. Immunol Today 15:321–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kalish R, Askenase P (1999) Molecular mechanisms of CD8+ T cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity: implications for allergies, asthma and autoimmunity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 103:192–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kita Y, Kuroda K, Mimori T (1998) T cell receptor clonotypes in skin lesions from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Invest Dermatol 110:41–46CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Koide M, Furukawa F, Wakita H, Tokura Y, Muso E, Takigawa M (1996) Soluble form of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in systemic lupus erythematosus and discoid lupus erythematosus. J Dermatol Science 12:73–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kristensson K, Borrebaeck C, Carlsson R (1992) Human CD4+ T cells expressing CD45RA acquire the lymphokine gene expression of CD45RO+-helper cells after activation in vitro. Immunology 76:103–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Krutmann J, Kock A, Schauer E, Parlow F, Moller A, Kapp A, Forster E, Schopf E, Luger T (1990) Tumor necrosis factor beta and ultraviolet radiation are potent regulators of human keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression. J Invest Dermatol 95:127–131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Krutmann J, Parlow F, Schopf E, Elmets C (1991) Posttranscriptional modification of ICAM-1 expression on human antigen presenting cells by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Clin Res 39:1029Google Scholar
  46. Krutmann J, Bohnert E, Jung G (1994) Evidence that DNA damage is a mediate in ultraviolet B radiation induced inhibition of human gene expression: ultraviolet B radiation effects on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. 102:428–432Google Scholar
  47. Kuhn A, Fehsel K, Lehmann P, Krutmann J, Ruzicka T, Kolb-Bachofen V (1998) Aberrant timing in epidermal expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase after UV irradiation in cutaneous lupus erythematosus. J Invest Dermatol 111:149–153CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Lai K, Leung J, Lai K, Wong K, Lai C (1996 ) Upregulation of adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells by anti-DNA autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 81:229–238CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lee L, Roberts C, Frank B, McCubbin V, Rice D, Reichlin M (1993) Autoantibody markers of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. J Invest Dermatol 100:573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Leeuwenberg JF, Neefjes JJ, Shaffer MA, Cinek T, Jenhomme TM, Hern TJ, Buurman WA (1992) E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 are released by activated human endothelial cells in vitro. Immunology 77:543–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. McMurray R (1996) Adhesion molecules in autoimmune disease. Semin Arthritis Rheum 25:215–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Meunier L, Bata-Csorgo Z, Cooper K (1995) In human dermis, ultraviolet radiation induces expansion of a CD36+ CD11b+ CD1 macrophage subset by infiltration and proliferation, CD1+ Langerhans-like dendritic antigen-presenting cells are concomitantly depleted. J Invest Dermatol 105:782–788CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Mommaas A, Mulder A, Vermeer M, Boom B, Tseng C, Taylor J, Streilein J (1993) Ultrastructural studies bearing on the mechanism of UVB-impaired induction of the hypersensitivity to DNCB in man. Clin Exp Immunol 92:487–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Mori M, Pimpinelli N, Romagnoli P, Bernacchi E, Fabbri P, Gianotti B (1994) Dendritic cells in cutaneous lupus erythematosus: a clue to the pathogenesisof lesions. Hist opathology 24:311–321Google Scholar
  55. Morimoto C, Letvin N, Boyd A, Hagan M, Brown H, Kornacki M, Schlossman S (1985a) The isolation and characterization of the human helper inducer T cell subset. J Immunol 134:3762–3769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Morimoto C, Letvin N, Distaso J, Aldrich W, Schlossman S (1985b) The isolation and characterization of the human suppressor inducer T-cell subset. J Immunol 134:1508–1515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Morimoto C, Schlossman S (1993) Human naive and memory T cells revisitetd: new markers (CD31 and CD27) that help define CD4+ subsets. Clin Exp Rheumatol 11:241–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Morita A, Werfel T, Stege H, Ahrens C, Karmann K, Grewe M, Grether-Beck S, Ruzicka T, Kapp A, Klotz L, Sies H, Krutmann J (1997) Evidence that singlet-oxygen-induced human T-helper cell apoptosis is the basic mechanism of ultraviolet-A radiation phototherapy. J Exp Med 186:1763–1768CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Mrowka C, Sieberth HG (1994) Circulating adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-Selectin in systemic vasculitis: marked differences between Wegener’s granulomatosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Investig 72:762–768CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Mrowka C, Sieberth HG (1995) Detection of circulating adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-Selectin in Wegener’s granulomatosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and chronic renal failure. Clin Nephrol 43:288–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Muller S, Kammerbauer C, Simons U, Shibagaki N, Li L-J, Caughman S, Degitz K (1995) Transcriptional regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1: PMA-Induction is mediated by NFKB. J Invest Dermatol 104:970–975CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Norris D (1993) Pathomechanisms of photosensitive lupus erythematosus. J Invest Dermatol 100:58S–68SCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Norris D (1995) Photoimmunology of lupus erythematosus. In: Krutmann J, Elmets CA (eds) Photoimmunology. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 209–227Google Scholar
  64. Norris D, Bennion S, David-Bajar K (1997) Pathomechanisms of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. In: Wallace D, Hahn H (eds) Dubois’ lupus erythematosus. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 549–567Google Scholar
  65. Norris P, Barker J, Allen M (1992) Adhesion molecule expression in polymorphic light eruption. J Invest Dermatol 99:504–508CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Norris P, Poston RN, Thomas S, Thornhill M, Hawk J, Haskard O (1991) The expression of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) in experimental cutaneous inflammation: a comparison of ultraviolet B erythema and delayed hypersensitivity. J Invest Dermatol 96:763–770CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Nyberg F, Acevedo F, Stephansson E (1997 ) Different patterns of soluble adhesion molecules in systemic and cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Exp Dermatol 6:230–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Nyberg F, Hasan T, Puska P, Stephansson E, Hakkinen M, Ranki A, Ros AM (1997) Occurrence of polymorphous light eruption in lupus erythematosus. Br J Dermatol 136:217–221CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Nyberg F, Hasan T, Skoglund C, Stephansson E (1999) Early events in ultraviolet light-induced skin lesions in lupus erythematosus: expression patterns of adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin. Acta Derm Venereol 79:431–436CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Nyberg F, Stephansson E (1999) Elevated soluble E-selectin in cutaneous lupus erythematosus. In: Mallia C, Uitto J (eds) Rheumaderm, current issues in rheumatology_and dermatology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 153–159Google Scholar
  71. Orteu C, Sontheimer R, Dutz J (2001) The pathophysiology of photosensitivity in lupus erythematosus. Photoderm Photoimmunol Photomed 17:95–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Picker L, Kishimoto T, Smith C, Warnock R, Butcher E (1991) ELAM-1 is an adhesion molecule for skin-homing T Cells. Nature 349:796–799CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Prinz J, Meurer M, Reiter C, Rieber E, Plewig G, Riethmuller G (1996) Treatment of severe cutaneous lupus erythematosus with a chimeric CD4 monoclonal antibody, cM-T412. J Am Acad Dermatol 34:244–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Rhodes L, Joyce M, West D, Strickland I, Friedmann P (1996) Comparison of changes in endothelial adhesion molecule expression following UVB irradiation of skin and a human microvascular cell line (HMEC-1). Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 12:114–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Robak E, Niewiadomska H, Robak T, Bartkowiak J, Blonski J, Wozniacka A, Pomorski L, Sysa-Jedrzejowska A (2001) Lymphocytes T-gamma-delta in clinically normal skin and peripheral blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and their correlation with disease activity. Mediators Inflamm 10:179–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Rohde D, Schluter-Wigger W, Mielke V, von den Driesch P, von Gaudecker B, Sterry W (1992) Infiltration of both T cells and neutrophils in the skin is accompanied by the expression of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1): an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. J Invest Dermatol 98:794–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Seth R, Raymond F, Makgoba M (1991) Circulating ICAM-1 isoforms: diagnostic prospects for inflammatory and immune disorders. Lancet 338:83–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Shimizu Y, Newman W, Tanaka, Shaw S (1992) Lymphocyte interactions with endothelial cells. Immunol Today 13:106–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Shiohara T, Moriya N, Nagashima M (1992) Induction and control of lichenoid tissue reactions. Springer Semin Immunopathol 13:369–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Simon MM, Aragane Y, Schwarz A, Luger TA, Schwarz T (1994) UVB light induces nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B) activity independently from chromosomal DNA damage in cell-free cytosolic extracts. J Invest Dermatol 102:422–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Sontheimer RD (1996) Photoimmunology of lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis: a speculativereview. Photochem Photobiol 63:583–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Sontheimer RD, Bergstresser PR (1982) Epidermal Langerhans cell involvement in cutaneous lupus erythematosus. J Invest Dermatol 79:237–243CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Sontheimer RD, Maddison PJ, Reichlin M, Jordon RE, Stastny P, Gilliam JN (1982) Serologic and HLA associations of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, a clinical subset of lupus erythematosus. Ann Intern Med 97:664–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Springer TA (1990) Adhesion receptors of the immune system. Nature 346:425–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Spronk P, Ootsma H, Huitema M, Limburg P, Kallenberg M (1994) Levels of soluble VCAM-1, soluble ICAM-1 and soluble E-Selectin during disease exacerbations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): a long time prospective study. Clin Exp Immunol 97:439–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Staunton D, Merluzzi V, Rothlein R, Barton R, Marlin S, Springer T (1989) A cell adhesion molecule, ICAM-1, is the major surface receptor for rhinoviruses. Cell 56:849–853CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Stein L, Saed G, Fivensson D (1997) T-Cell cytokine network in cutaneous lupus erythematosus. J Am Acad Dermatol 37:191–196Google Scholar
  88. Stephansson E, Ros AM (1993) Expression of ICAM-1 and OKM-5 in patients with LE and PMLE. Arch Dermatol Res 285:328–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Stevens G, Bergstresser P (1998) Photoimmunology. In: Hawk J (ed) Photodermatology. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 53–67Google Scholar
  90. Sugerman P, Bigby M (2000) Preliminary functional analysis of human epidermal T cells. Arch Dermatol Res 292:9–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Tebbe B, Mazur L, Stadler R, Orfanos C (1994) Immunohistochemical analysis of chronic discoid and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus — relation to immunopathological mechanisms. Br J Dermatol 132:25–31Google Scholar
  92. Torimoto Y, Rothstein DM, Dang NH, Schlossman SF, Morimoto C (1992) CD31, a novel cell surface marker for CD4 cells of suppressor lineage, unaltered by state of activation. J Immunol 148:388–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Trefzer U, Krutmann J (1995) Adhesion molecules as molecular targets in ultraviolet B radiation (290–315 nm)-induced immunomodulation: UVB radiation effects on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human cells. In: Krutmann J, Elmets C (eds) Photoimmunology. Blackwell Science, Berlin, pp 77–89Google Scholar
  94. Treina G, Scaletta C, Fourtainer A, Seité S, Frenk E, Applegate L (1996) Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in UVA-irradiated human skin cells in vitro and in vivo. Br J Dermatol 135:241–247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Tsokos G (1996) Lymphocytes, cytokines, inflammation and immune trafficking. Curr Opin Rheumatol 8:395–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Tsokos G, Liossis S (1998) Lymphocytes, cytokines, inflammation, and immune trafficking. Curr Opin Rheumatol 10:417–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Walsh LJ, Lavker RM, Murphy GF (1990) Determinants of immune cell trafficking in the skin. Lab Investig 63:592–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Wangel A, Johansson E, Ranki A (1984) Polyclonal B-cell activationand increased lymphocyte helper-suppressor ratios in discoid lupus erythematosus. Br J Dermatol 110:665–669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Velthuis PJ, van Weelden H, van Wichen D, Baart de la Faille H (1990) Immunohistopathology of light-induced skin lesions in lupus erythematosus. Acta Derm Venereol 70:93–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Viljaranta S, Ranki A, Kariniemi A, Nieminen P, Johansson E (1987) Distribution of natural killer cells and lymphocytesubc lasses in Jessner’s lymphocytic infiltration of the skin and in cutaneous lesions of discoid and systemic lupus erythematosus. Br J Dermatol 116:831–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Volc-Platzer B, Anegg B, Milota S, Pickl W, Fischer G (1993) Accumulation of gamma-delta T cells in chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus. J Invest Dermatol 100:84S–91SCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Werth V, Dutz J, Sontheimer R (1997) Pathogenetic mechanisms and treatment of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Curr Opin Rheumatol 9:400–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Wilson A, de Vries N, Pociot F, di Giovine F, van der Putte L, Duff G (1993) An allelic polymorphism within the human tumor necrosis factor alpha promoter region is strongly associated with HLA A1, 8 and DR3 alleles. J Exp Med 177:557–560CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Wilson A, Duff G (1995) Malaria or systemic lupus erythematosus? BMJ 310:1482–1483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Zimmerman G, Prescott S, McIntyre T (1992) Endothelial cell interactions with granulocytes: tethering and signaling molecules. Immunol Today 13:93–99CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Filippa Nyberg
  • Eija Stephansson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations