Advanced Measurement Methods in Time Domain Reflectometry for Soil Moisture Determination

  • Christof Huebner
  • Stefan Schlaeger
  • Rolf Becker
  • Alexander Scheuermann
  • Alexander Brandelik
  • Wolfram Schaedel
  • Rainer Schuhmann


Transmission Line Volumetric Water Content Time Domain Reflectometry Delta Modulator Equivalent Circuit Parameter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Topp GC (2001) Electromagnetic wave measurements of soil water content: a state-of-the-art. In: Kupfer K, Hübner C (eds) Proceedings of the fourth international conference on electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances, Weimar, Germany, May 13–16, pp 327–335Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Topp GC, Davis JL, Annan AP (1980) Electromagnetic determination of soil water content: measurement in coaxial transmission lines. Water Resour Res 16:574–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Birchak JR, Gardner CG, Hipp JE, Vicor JM (1974) High dielectric constant microwave probe for sensing soil moisture. Proc IEEE 62:93–98Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dobson MC, Ulaby FT, Hallikainen MT, El-Rayes MA (1985) Microwave dielectric behaviour of wet soil, II Dielectric mixing models. IEEE Trans. Geosci, Remote Sensing 23:35–46Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Heimovaara TJ, Bouten W, Verstraten JM (1994) Frequency domain analysis of time domain reflectometry waveforms: 2. A four-component complex dielectric mixing model for soils. Water Resour Res 30:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Heimovaara TJ (1994) Frequency domain analysis of time domain reflectometry waveforms: 1. Measurement of the complex permittivity of soils. Water Resour Res 30:189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dalton FN, van Genuchten MTh (1986) The time domain reflectometry method for measuring soil water content and salinity. Geoderma 38:237–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huebner C, Brandelik A (2000) Distinguished problems in soil and snow aquametry. In: Baltes H, Goepel W, Hesse J (eds) Sensors update, vol 7, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 317–340Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huebner C, Brandelik A (2000) Near subsurface moisture sensing. In: Nguyen C (ed) Subsurface sensing technologies and applications, Proc SPIE 4129:88–96Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nyfors E, Vainikainen P (1989) Industrial microwave sensors. Artech House, Norwood, MAGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hook WR, Livingston NJ, Sun ZJ, Hook PB (1992) Remote diode shorting improves measurement of soil water by time domain reflectometry. Soil Sci Soc Am J 56:1384–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schlaeger S (2002) Inversion von TDR-Messungen zur Rekonstruktion räumlich verteilter bodenphy sikalischer Parameter. PhD thesis, University of Karlsruhe, Institute of Rock Mechanics and Soil MechanicsGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    He S, Romanov VG., Stroem S (1994) Analysis of the Green function approach to one-dimensional inverse problems. Part II: Simultaneous reconstruction of two parameters. J Math Phys 35:2315–2335MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fletcher R, Reeves CM (1964) Function minimization by conjugate gradients. Comput J 7:163–168MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heimovaara TJ, Bouten W (1990) A computer-controlled 36-channel time domain reflectometry system for monitoring soil water content. Water Resour Res 26:2311–2316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Monett MR (2004) Feb 12Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Steele R (1975) Delta modulation systems. Pentech Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mulvey J (1970) Sampling oscilloscope circuits. Tektronix, Beaverton, ORGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Laug OB, Souders TM, Flach DR (1992) A custom integrated circuit comparator for high-performance sampling applications. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 41:850–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Souders TM, Hetrick PS (1988) Accurate RF voltage measurements using a sampling voltage tracker. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 38:451–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    DeJaeger F (1952) Delta modulation — a new method of transmission using the 1 unit code. Philips Res Rep 8:442–446Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Steele R (1980) SNR formula for linear delta modulation with band-limited flat and RC-shaped Gaussian signals. IEEE Trans Commun 28:1977–1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pohlmann KC (1995) Principles of digital audio. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Scheuermann A, Schlaeger S, Hübner C, Brandelik A, Brauns J (2001) Monitoring of spatial soil water distribution on a full-scale dike model. In: Kupfer K, Hübner C (eds) Proceedings of the fourth international conference on electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances, Weimar, Germany, May 13–16, pp 343–350Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Scheuermann A, Brauns J (2002) Die Durchfeuchtung von Deichen — Modellversuche und Analyse. In: DGGT 12, Donau-Europaische-Konferenz, Proceedings, Passau, 197–200Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christof Huebner
    • 1
  • Stefan Schlaeger
    • 2
  • Rolf Becker
    • 3
  • Alexander Scheuermann
    • 4
  • Alexander Brandelik
    • 5
  • Wolfram Schaedel
    • 3
  • Rainer Schuhmann
    • 5
  1. 1.Fachhochschule MannheimUniversity of Applied SciencesGermany
  2. 2.Research Center KarlsruheInstitute of Technical Chemistry, Water and Geotechnology SectionGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Water Resources Management, Hydraulic and Rural EngineeringUniversity of KarlsruheGermany
  4. 4.Institute of Rock Mechanics and Soil MechanicsUniversity of KarlsruheGermany
  5. 5.Research Center KarlsruheInstitute of Meteorology and Climate ResearchGermany

Personalised recommendations