• Peter Y. Yu
  • Manuel Cardona
Part of the Graduate Texts in Physics book series (GTP)


In this chapter we have introduced the wide class of materials referred to as semiconductors and we have mentioned the large range of structural and physical properties they can have. Most of the semiconductors used in science and modern technology are single crystals, with a very high degree of perfection and purity. They are grown as bulk three-dimensional crystals or as thin, two-dimensional epitaxial layers on bulk crystals which serve as substrates. Among the techniques for growing bulk crystals that we have briefly discussed are the Czochralski and Bridgman methods. Epitaxial techniques for growing two-dimensional samples introduced in this chapter include chemical vapor deposition, molecular beam epitaxy, and liquid phase epitaxy. Self-organized two-dimensional lattices of quantum dots can also be grown with epitaxial techniques.


Molecular Beam Epitaxy GaAs Substrate Liquid Phase Epitaxy Growth Technique Bulk Single Crystal 
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Chapter 1

  1. 1.1
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  3. 1.3
    R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus and M.S. Dresselhaus: Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes (Imperial College Press, London 1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    J. Shinan, Z. Vardeny and Z. Kapati (ed.): Optical and Electronic Properties of Fullerenes and Fullerene-Band Materials (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999)Google Scholar
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    C.N.R. Rao and B. Raveau (ed.): Colossal Magnetoresistance, Charge Ordering and Related Properties of Manganese Oxides (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998)Google Scholar
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    T. Ruf, R.W. Henn, M. Asen-Palmer, E. Gmelin, M. Cardona, H.-J. Pohl, G.G. Devyatych, P.G. Sennikov: Thermal conductivity of isotopically enriched silicon. Solid State Commun. 115, 243 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    W.C. Dash: Growth of silicon crystals free of dislocations. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 459 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  11. 1.11
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    F.C. Frank and J.H. van der Merwe: One-dimensional dislocations I. Static theory, Proc. Royal Society A198, 205–216 (1949); One-dimensional dislocations II. Misfitting monolayers and oriented overgrowth, Proc. Royal Society A198, 216–225 (1949); One-dimensional dislocations III. Influence of the second harmonic term in the potential representation on the properties of the model, Proc. Royal Society A200, 125–134 (1949)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    See, for example, D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N.N. Lebentsov: Growth, Spectroscopy, and Laser Application of Self-ordered III–V Quantum Dots. Bulletin of the Materials Research Society, 23, 31 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    J. Bohm, A. Lüdge, W. Schröder: Crystal Growth by Floating Zone Melting, in Handbook of Crystal Growth, Vol. 2 ed. by D.T.H. Hurle (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1994) p. 213–258Google Scholar

General Reading

  1. Bernard, J.C., M. Sugawara (ed.): Self-Assembled in GaAs/GaAs Quantum Dots. Volume 60 of Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic Press, New York, 1999)Google Scholar
  2. Bimberg, D., M. Grundmann and N. Ledentsov: Quantum Dot Heterostructures (John Wiley & Son, New York, 1999)Google Scholar
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  4. Gilman J.J. (ed.): The Art and Science of Growing Crystals (Wiley, New York 1963)Google Scholar
  5. Hermann M.A., H. Sitter: Molecular Beam Epitaxy, 2nd edn., Springer Ser. Mater. Sci., Vol. 7 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1996)Google Scholar
  6. Kittel C.: Introduction to Solid State Physics, 7th edn. (Wiley, New York 1995)Google Scholar
  7. Laudies R.A.: The Growth of Single Crystals (Prentice-Hall, New York 1970)Google Scholar
  8. Matthews J.W. (ed.): Epitaxial Growth, Pts. a & b (Academic, New York 1975)Google Scholar
  9. Panish M.B., H. Temkin: Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Springer Ser. Mater. Sci., Vol. 26 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1993)Google Scholar
  10. Williams, J.O.: Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) for the preparation of semiconductor materials and devices, in Growth and Characterization of Semiconductors, ed. by R.A. Stradling, P.C. Klipstein (Hilger, Bristol 1990) p. 17Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Y. Yu
    • 1
  • Manuel Cardona
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Max-Planck-Institut für FestkörperforschungStuttgartGermany

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