Capillary-Venous Malformations

  • Paolo Tortori-Donati
  • Andrea Rossi
  • Roberta Biancheri


Vascular malformations of the central nervous system (CNS) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric age group as well as in adults. Despite recent advances in both diagnosis and treatment of these disorders, including the steadfast growth of neurointerventional procedures, vascular malformations of the CNS still account for significant clinical problems, with an incidence of approximately 0.1%–0.2% in the general child and young adult population, and a 3% risk of intracranial bleeding per year [1].


Vascular Malformation Cavernous Hemangioma Cavernous Malformation Cavernous Angioma Developmental Venous Anomaly 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Challa VR, Moody DM, Brown WR. Vascular malformations of the central nervous system. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1995; 54:609–621.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    McCormick WF. The pathology of vascular (“arteriovenous”) malformations. J Neurosurg 1966; 24:806–816.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lee RR, Becher MW, Benson ML, Rigamonti D. Brain capillary telangiectasia: MR imaging appearance and clinicohistopathologic findings. Radiology 1997; 205:797–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Castillo M, Morrison T, Shaw JA, Bouldin TW. MR imaging and histologic features of capillary telangiectasia of the basal ganglia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001; 22:1553–1555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rigamonti D, Johnson PC, Spetzler RF, Hadley MN, Drayer BP. Cavernous malformations and capillary telangiectasia: a spectrum within a single pathological entity. Neurosurgery 1991; 28:60–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Scaglione C, Salvi F, Riguzzi P, Vergelli M, Tassinari CA, Mascalchi M. Symptomatic unruptured capillary telangiectasia of the brain stem: report of three cases and review of the literature. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001; 71:390–393.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barr RM, Dillon WP, Wilson CB. Slow-flow vascular malformations of the pons: capillary telangiectasias? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1996; 17:71–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dubovsky J, Zabramski JM, Kurth J, Spetzler RF, Rich SS, Orr HT, Weber JL. A gene responsible for cavernous malformations of the brain maps to chromosome 7q. Hum Mol Genet 1995; 4:453–458.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Labauge P, Brunereau L, Laberge S, Houtteville JP. Prospective follow-up of 33 asymptomatic patients with familial cerebral cavernous malformations. Neurology 2001; 57:1825–1828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Larson JJ, Ball WS, Bove KE, Crone KR, Tew JM Jr. Formation of intracerebral cavernous malformations after radiation treatment for central nervous system neoplasia in children. J Neurosurg 1998; 88:51–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Novelli PM, Reigel DH, Langham Gleason P, Yunis E. Multiple cavernous angiomas after high-dose whole-brain radiation therapy. Pediatr Neurosurg 1997; 26:322–325.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pozzati E, Giangaspero F, Marliani F, Acciarri N. Occult cerebrovascular malformations after irradiation. Neurosurgery 1996; 39:677–682.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Detwiler PW, Porter RW, Zabramski JM, Spetzler RF. Radiation-induced cavernous malformation (letter). J Neurosurg 1998; 89:167–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rivera PP, Willinsky RA, Porter PJ. Intracranial cavernous malformations. Neuroimag Clin N Am 2003; 13:27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mottolese C, Hermier M, Stan H, Jouvet A, Saint-Pierre G, Froment JC, Bret P, Lapras C. Central nervous system cavernomas in the pediatric age group. Neurosurg Rev 2001; 24:55–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Armstrong DD. The neuropathology of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1993; 52:433–443.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abdulrauf SI, Kaynar MY, Awad IA. A comparison of the clinical profile of cavernous malformations with and without associated venous malformations. Neurosurgery 1999; 44:41–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rorke LB. Pathology of cerebral vascular disease in children and adolescents. In: Edwards MSB, Hoffman HJ (eds) Cerebral Vascular Disease in Children and Adolescents. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1989:95–138.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gomori JM, Grossman RI, Goldberg HI, Hackney DB, Zimmerman RA, Bilaniuk LT. Occult cerebral vascular malformations: high field MR imaging. Radiology 1986; 158:707–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sasaki O, Tanaka R, Koike T, Koide A, Koizumi T, Ogawa H. Excision of cavernous angioma with preservation of coexisting venous angioma. Case report. J Neurosurg 1991; 75:461–464.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bogren H, Svalander C, Wickbom I. Angiography in intracranial cavernous hemangiomas. Acta Radiol 1970; 10:81–89.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Linskey ME, Sekhar LN. Cavernous sinus hemangiomas: a series, a review, and an hypothesis. Neurosurgery 1992; 30:101–108.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Suzuki Y, Shibuya M, Baskaya MK, Takakura S, Yamamoto M, Saito K, Glazier SS, Sugita K. Extracerebral cavernous angiomas of the cavernous sinus in the middle fossa. Surg Neurol 1996; 45:123–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lasjaunias P, Burrows P, Planet C. Developmental venous anomalies (DVA): the so-called venous angioma. Neurosurg Rev 1986; 9:233–242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lasjaunias P. Vascular Diseases in Neonates, Infants and Children. Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1997.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Burrows PE, Konez O, Bisdorff A. Venous variations of the brain and cranial vault. Neuroimag Clin N Am 2003; 13:13–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wilms G, Demaerel P, Robberecht W, et al. Coincidence of developmental venous anomalies and other brain lesions: a clinical study. Eur Radiol 1995; 5:495–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sarwar M, McCormick WF. Intracerebral venous angioma. Arch Neurol 1978; 35:323–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Topper R, Jurgens E, Reul J, Thron A. Clinical significance of intracranial developmental venous anomalies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999; 67:234–238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Garner TB, Del Curling O Jr, Kelly DL Jr, Laster DW. The natural history of intracranial venous angiomas. J Neurosurg 1991; 75:715–722.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ostertun B, Solymosi L. Magnetic resonance angiography of cerebral developmental venous anomalies: its role in differential diagnosis. Neuroradiology 1993; 35:97–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hammoud D, Beauchamp N, Wityk R, Yousem D. Ischemic complication of a cerebral developmental venous anomaly: case report and review of the literature. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2002; 26:633–636.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Merten CL, Knitelius HO, Hedde JP, Assheuer J, Bewermeyer H. Intracerebral haemorrhage from a venous angioma following thrombosis of a draining vein. Neuroradiology 1998; 40:15–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wilms G, Demaerel P, Marchal G, Baert AL, Plets C. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of cerebral venous angiomas with emphasis on their drainage. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1991; 15:199–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Valavanis A, Wellauer J, Yasargil MG. The radiological diagnosis of cerebral venous angioma: cerebral angiography and computed tomography. Neuroradiology 1983; 24:193–199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Tortori-Donati
    • 1
  • Andrea Rossi
    • 1
  • Roberta Biancheri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric NeuroradiologyG. Gaslini Children’s Research HospitalGenoaItaly

Personalised recommendations