Cerebrovascular Disease in Infants and Children

  • Robert A. Zimmerman
  • Larissa T. Bilaniuk


The nature of cerebrovascular disease affecting the pediatric patient is different from that in the adult. Atherosclerotic sources of thrombotic occlusion and thrombotic or plaque emboli are not usually an issue in infants and children. The nature of cerebrovascular injury in infants and children is dependent on the age at which the insult occurs and the mechanism of the insult. Insults in the premature infant, which consist of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and germinal matrix hemorrhages (GMH) (see Chapter 5), are quite different and distinct from injuries in term infants, who sustain deep gray matter infarctions, parasagittal watershed infarctions and middle cerebral artery infarctions (see Chapter 6). The term infant injuries are somewhat, but not that different from those that occur in children beyond infancy. Complicating the large number of different etiologies for the primary cerebrovascular pediatric diseases that result in injuries, such as infarctions and bleeds, there are the secondary cerebrovascular disease processes that have arisen due to various recent therapeutic methods and innovations in dealing with neoplastic diseases.


Internal Carotid Artery Middle Cerebral Artery Sickle Cell Disease Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Vasogenic Edema 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Zimmerman
    • 1
  • Larissa T. Bilaniuk
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Neuroradiology Division/MRIChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.University of PennsylvaniaUSA
  3. 3.Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA

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