Advertisement

Tumors of the Spine and Spinal Cord

  • Paolo Tortori-Donati
  • Andrea Rossi
  • Roberta Biancheri
  • Maria Luisa Garrè
  • Armando Cama

Abstract

Spinal and spinal cord tumors are much rarer than intracranial tumors in the pediatric age group; it is estimated that the ratio of spinal to intracranial tumor in the pediatric population is 1:10. Their classification is based on anatomic criteria into intramedullary, intradural-extramedullary, and extradural tumors (Fig. 40.1). In our experience, approximately 25% of primitive spinal tumors in the pediatric age group have been intramedullary, 12% intradural-extramedullary, and 63% extradural.

Keywords

Pilocytic Astrocytoma Osteoid Osteoma Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Cavernous Hemangioma Leptomeningeal Metastasis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Koeller KK, Rosenblum RS, Morrison AL. Neoplasms of the spinal cord and filum terminale: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 2000; 20:1721–1749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aysun S, Cinbis M, Ozcan OE. Intramedullary astrocytoma presenting as spinal muscular atrophy. J Child Neurol 1993; 8:354–356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Felice KJ, DiMario FJ. Cervicomedullary astrocytoma simulating a neuromuscular disorder. Pediatr Neurol 1999; 20:78–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Prasad VS, Basha A, Prasad BC, Reddy DR. Intraspinal tumour presenting as hydrocephalus in childhood. Childs Nerv Syst 1994; 10:156–157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kahan H, Sklar EM, Post MJ, Bruce JH. MR characteristics of histopathologic subtypes of spinal ependymoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1996; 17:143–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yagi T, Ohata K, Haque M, Hakuba A. Intramedullary spinal cord tumour associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1997; 139:1055–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Merchant TE, Nguyen D, Thompson SJ, Reardon DA, Kun LE, Sanford RA. High-grade pediatric spinal cord tumors. Pediatr Neurosurg 1999; 30:1–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tihan T, Fisher PG, Kepner JL, Godfraind C, McComb RD, Goldthwaite PT, Burger PC. Pediatric astrocytomas with monomorphous pilomyxoid features and a less favorable outcome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1999; 58:1061–1068.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tortori-Donati P, Rossi A. Patologia pediatrica neoplastica cranio-spinale. In: Dal Pozzo G (ed) Compendio di Risonanza Magnetica. Cranio e Rachide. Turin: UTET, 2001:1223–1277.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pagni CA, Canavero S, Gaidolfi E. Intramedullary “holocord” oligodendroglioma: case report. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1991; 113:96–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang KC, Chi JG, Cho BK. Oligodendroglioma in childhood. J Korean Med Sci 1993; 8:110–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nam DH, Cho BK, Kim YM, Chi JG, Wang KC. Intramedullary anaplastic oligodendroglioma in a child. Childs Nerv Syst 1998; 14:127–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Houten JK, Weiner HL. Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors: special considerations. J Neurooncol 2000; 47:225–230.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Patel U, Pinto RS, Miller DC, Handler MS, Rorke LB, Epstein FJ, Kricheff II. MR of spinal cord ganglioglioma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1998; 19:879–887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Castillo M. Gangliogliomas: ubiquitous or not? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1998; 19:807–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Quinn B. Synaptophysin staining for ganglioglioma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1999; 20:526–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hamburger C, Buttner A, Weis S. Ganglioglioma of the spinal cord: report of two rare cases and review of the literature. Neurosurgery 1997; 41:1410–1416.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lefton DR, Pinto RS, Martin SW. MRI features of intracranial and spinal ependymomas. Pediatr Neurosurg 1998; 28:97–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kleihues P, Cavenee WK. Pathology and genetics, tumors of the nervous system. Lyon, France: IARC Press, 1997:207–214.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nemoto Y, Inoue Y, Tashiro T, Mochizuki K, Oda J, Kogame S, Katsuyama J, Hakuba A, Onoyama Y. Intramedullary spinal cord tumors: significance of associated hemorrhage at MR imaging. Radiology 1992; 182:793–796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baker KB, Moran CJ, Wippold II FJ, Smirniotopoulos JG, Rodriguez FJ, Meyers SP, Siegal TL. MR imaging of spinal hemangioblastoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000; 174:377–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Deutsch H, Shrivistava R, Epstein F, Jallo GI. Pediatric intramedullary spinal cavernous malformations. Spine 2001; 26:E427–431.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tortori-Donati P, Fondelli MP, Rossi A, Rolando S, Andreussi L, Brisigotti M. La neuromielite ottica. Una ulteriore sfida nella diagnosi differenziale con le neoplasie intramidollari. Rivista di Neuroradiologia 1993; 6:53–59.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meyers SP, Wildenhain SL, Chang JK, Bourekas EC, Beattie PF, Korones DN, Davis D, Pollack IF, Zimmerman RA. Postoperative evaluation for disseminated medulloblastoma involving the spine: contrast-enhanced MR findings, CSF cytologic analysis, timing of disease occurrence, and patient outcomes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2000; 21:1757–1765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harrison SK, Ditchfield MR, Waters K. Correlation of MRI and CSF cytology in the diagnosis of medulloblastoma spinal metastases. Pediatr Radiol 1998; 28:571–574.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rossi A, Fondelli MP, Mattei R, Leone D, Tortori-Donati P. Le metastasi spinali in età pediatrica. Rivista di Neuroradiologia 1995; 8:223–234.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Huang T, Zimmerman RA, Perilongo G, Kaufman BA, Holden KR, Carollo C, Chong WK. An unusual cystic appearance of disseminated low-grade gliomas. Neuroradiology 2001; 43:868–874.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rossi A, Biancheri R, Lanino E, Faraci M, Haupt R, Micalizzi C, Tortori-Donati P. Neuroradiology of pediatric hemolymphoproliferative disease. Rivista di Neuroradiologia 2003; 16:221–250Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fouladi M, Heideman R, Langston JW, Kun LE, Thompson SJ, Gajjar A. Infectious meningitis mimicking recurrent medulloblastoma on magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg 1999; 91:499–502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wiener MD, Boyko OB, Friedman HS, Hockenberger B, Oakes WJ. False-positive spinal MR imaging findings for subarachnoid spread of primary CNS tumor in postoperative pediatric patients. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1990; 11:1100–1103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wippold FJ II, Smirniotopoulos JG, Moran CJ, Suojanen JN, Vollmer DG. MR imaging of myxopapillary ependymoma: findings and value to determine extent of tumor and its relations to intraspinal structures. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995; 165:1263–1267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cihangiroglu M, Hartker FW, Lee M, Sehgal V, Ramsey RG. Intraosseous sacral myxopapillary ependymoma and the differential diagnosis of sacral tumors. J Neuroimaging 2001; 11:330–332.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Alameda F, Lloreta J, Ferrer MD, Corominas JM, Galito E, Serrano S. Clear-cell meningioma of the lumbosacral spine with choroid features. Ultrastruct Pathol 1999; 23:51–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lee W, Chang KH, Choe G, Chi JG, Chung CK, Kim IH, Han MH, Park SW, Shin SJ, Koh YH. MR imaging features of clear-cell meningioma with diffuse leptomeningeal seeding. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2000; 21:130–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yu KB, Lim MK, Kim HJ, Suh CH, Park HC, Kim EY, Han HS. Clear-cell meningioma: CT and MR imaging findings in two cases involving the spinal canal and cerebellopontine angle. Korean J Radiol 2002; 3:125–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zorludemir S, Scheithauer BW, Hirose T, Van Houten C, Miller G, Meyer FB. Clear cell meningioma. A clinicopathologic study of a potentially aggressive variant of meningioma. Am J Surg Pathol 1995; 19:493–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tamiya T, Nakashima H, Ono Y, Kawada S, Hamazaki S, Furuta T, Matsumoto K, Ohmoto T. Spinal atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in an infant. Pediatr Neurosurg 2000; 32:145–149.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tortori-Donati P, Fondelli MP, Rossi A, Colosimo C, Garré ML, Bellagamba O, Brisigotti M, Piatelli G, Andreussi L. Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system in infancy. Neuroradiologic findings. Int J Neuroradiol 1997; 3:327–338.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Albrecht CF, Weiss E, Schulz-Schaeffer WJ, Albrecht T, Fauser S, Wickboldt J, Hess CF. Primary intraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor: report of two cases and review of the literature. J Neurooncol 2003; 61:113–120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Deme S, Ang LC, Skaf G, Rowed DW. Primary intramedullary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the spinal cord: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery 1997; 41:1417–1420.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yavuz AA, Yaris N, Yavuz MN, Sari A, Reis AK, Aydin F. Primary intraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor: case report of a tumor arising from the sacral spinal nerve root and review of the literature. Am J Clin Oncol 2002; 25:135–139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tortori-Donati P, Rossi A, Cama A. Spinal dysraphism: a review of neuroradiological features with embryological correlations and proposal for a new classification. Neuroradiology 2000; 42:471–491.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tortori-Donati P, Fondelli MP, Rossi A, Andreussi L, Brisigotti M, Garré ML. MRI in an unusual case of congenital spinal mesenchymal proliferation. Neuroradiology 1996; 38:S196–S199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tortori-Donati P, Danieli D, Meli S, Fondelli MP, Rossi A, Curri D, Garré ML, Gullotta F. Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as a lumbosacral intradural-extramedullary mass. Pediatr Radiol 1996; 26:731–733.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chung C, Yu JS, Resnick D, Vaughan LM, Haghighi P. Gorham syndrome of the thorax and cervical spine: CT and MRI findings. Skeletal Radiol 1997; 26:55–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hayes CW, Conway WF, Sundaram M. Misleading aggressive MR imaging appearance of some benign musculoskeletal lesions. Radiographics 1992; 12:1119–1134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Woods ER, Martel W, Mandell SH, Crabbe JP. Reactive soft-tissue mass associated with osteoid osteoma: correlation of MR imaging features with pathologic findings. Radiology 1993; 186:221–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Davies M, Cassar-Pullicino VN, Davies AM, McCall IW, Tyrrell PN. The diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging in osteoid osteoma. Skeletal Radiol 2002; 31:559–569.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Liu PT, Chivers FS, Roberts CC, Schultz CJ, Beauchamp CP. Imaging of osteoid osteoma with dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology 2003; 227:691–700.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jackson RP, Reckling FW, Mantz FA. Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma. Clin Orthop 1977; 128:303–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Albrecht S, Crutchfield JS, Segall GK. On spinal osteochondroma. J Neurosurg 1992; 77:247–252.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Beltran J, Simon DC, Levy M, Herman L, Weis L, Mueller CF. Aneurysmal bone cysts: MR imaging at 1.5 T. Radiology 1986; 158:689–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Munk PL, Helms CA, Holt RG, Johnston J, Steinbach L, Neumann C. MR imaging of aneurysmal bone cysts. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1989; 153:99–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tsai JC, Dalinka MK, Fallon MD, Zlatkin MB, Kressel HY. Fluid-fluid level: a nonspecific finding in tumors of bone and soft tissue. Radiology 1990; 175:779–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Oda Y, Tsuneyoshi M, Shinohara N. “Solid” variant of aneurysmal bone cyst (extragnathic giant cell reparative granuloma) in the axial skeleton and long bones. A study of its morphologic spectrum and distinction from allied giant cell lesions. Cancer 1992; 70:2642–2649.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Papagelopoulos PJ, Currier BL, Shaughnessy WJ, Sim FH, Ebsersold MJ, Bond Jr, Unni KK. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the spine. Management and outcome. Spine 1998; 23:621–628.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ladisch S, Jaffe ES: The histiocytoses. In: Pizzo PA, Poplack DG (eds) Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1989:491–504.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ippolito E, Farsetti P, Tudisco C. Vertebra plana: long term follow-up in 5 patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1984; 66-A:1364–1368.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Garg S, Mehta S, Dormans JP. An atypical presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the cervical spine in a child. Spine 2003; 28:E445–E448.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Emir S, Akyuz C, Yazici M, Buyukpamukcu M. Vertebra plana as a manifestation of Ewing sarcoma in a child. Med Pediatr Oncol 1999; 33:594–595.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Baghaie M, Gillet P, Dondelinger RF, Flandroy P. Vertebra plana: benign or malignant lesion? Pediatr Radiol 1996; 26:431–433.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Papagelopoulos PJ, Currier BL, Galanis EC, Sim FH. Vertebra plana of the lumbar spine caused by an aneurysmal bone cyst: a case report. Am J Orthop 1999; 28:119–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dautenhahn L, Blaser SI, Weitzman S, Crysdale WS. Infantile myofibromatosis: a cause of vertebra plana. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1995; 16(4 Suppl):828–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hill SC, Parker CC, Brady RO, Barton NW. MRI of multiple platyspondyly in Gaucher disease: response to enzyme replacement therapy. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1993; 17:806–809.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Anderson SE, Heini P, Sauvain MJ, Stauffer E, Geiger L, Johnston JO, Roggo A, Kalbermatten D, Steinbach LS. Imaging of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis of childhood first presenting with isolated primary spinal involvement. Skeletal Radiol 2003; 32:328–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Shinmura Y, Miura K, Yajima S, Tsutsui Y. Sacrococcygeal chordoma in infancy showing an aggressive clinical course: An autopsy case report. Pathol Int 2003; 53:473–477.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Colli B, Al-Mefty O. Chordomas of the craniocervical junction: follow-up review and prognostic factors. J Neurosurg 2001; 95:933–943.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Iwasa Y, Nakashima Y, Okajima H, Morishita S. Sacral chordoma in early childhood: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study. Pediatr Dev Pathol 1998; 1:420–426.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Morimitsu Y, Aoki T, Yokoyama K, Hashimoto H. Sarcomatoid chordoma: chordoma with a massive malignant spindle-cell component. Skeletal Radiol 2000; 29:721–725.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Diel J, Ortiz O, Losada RA, Price DB, Hayt MW, Katz DS. The sacrum: pathologic spectrum, multimodality imaging, and subspecialty approach. Radiographics 2001; 21:83–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Smolders D, Wang X, Drevelengas A, Vanhoenacker F, De Schepper AM. Value of MRI in the diagnosis of non-clival, non-sacral chordoma. Skeletal Radiol 2003; 32:343–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Currarino G, Coln D, Votteler T. Triad of anorectal, sacral, and presacral anomalies. AJR Am J Roentgenol 137:395–398, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Venkateswaran L, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Merchant TE, Poquette CA, Rao BN, Pappo AS. Primary Ewing tumor of the vertebrae: clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcome. Med Pediatr Oncol 2001; 37:30–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mohan V, Sabri T, Gupta RP, Das DK. Solitary ivory vertebra due to primary Ewing’s sarcoma. Pediatr Radiol 1992; 22:388–390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bemporad JA, Sze G, Chaloupka JC, Duncan C. Pseudohemangioma of the vertebra: an unusual radiographic manifestation of primary Ewing’s sarcoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1999; 20:1809–1813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ilaslan H, Sundaram M, Unni KK, Shives TC. Primary vertebral osteosarcoma: imaging findings. Radiology 2004; 230:697–702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gadwal SR, Fanburg-Smith JC, Gannon FH, Thompson LD. Primary chondrosarcoma of the head and neck in pediatric patients: a clinicopathologic study of 14 cases with a review of the literature. Cancer 2000; 88:2181–2188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ginsberg LE, Leeds NE. Neuroradiology of leukemia. AJR Am J Roentgenol 165:525–534, 1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tarbell NJ, Loeffler JS, Silver B, Lynch E, Lavally BL, Kupsky WJ, Scott RM, Sallan SE. The change in patterns of relapse in medulloblastoma. Cancer 1991; 68:1600–1604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Allam K, Sze G. MR of primary extraosseous Ewing sarcoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1994; 15:305–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Scazzeri F, Prosetti D, Ferrito G, Lepori P. Un caso di sarcoma di Ewing extraosseo. Rivista di Neuroradiologia 1996; 9:623–625.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shin JH, Lee HK, Rhim SC, Cho KJ, Choi CG, Suh DC. Spinal epidural extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma: MR findings in two cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001; 22:795–798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Choi SJ, Choi HJ, Hong JT, Woo HK, Sung JH, Lee SW, Kim MC, Kang JK. Intraspinal extradural teratoma mimicking neural sheath tumor in infant. Childs Nerv Syst 2004; 20:123–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Woodruff JM, Godwin TA, Erlandson RA, Susin M, Martini N. Cellular schwannoma: a variety of schwannoma sometimes mistaken for a malignant tumor. Am J Surg Pathol 1981; 5:733–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Fletcher CD, Davies SE, McKee PH. Cellular schwannoma: a distinct pseudosarcomatous entity. Histopathology 1987; 11:21–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    White W, Shiu MH, Rosenblum MK, Erlandson RA, Woodruff JM. Cellular schwannoma. A clinicopathologic study of 57 patients and 58 tumors. Cancer 1990; 66:1266–1275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Aoyagi N, Kojima K, Kasai H. Review of spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2003; 43:471–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rovira A, Rovira A, Capellades J, Zauner M, Bella R, Rovira M. Lumbar extradural hemangiomas: report of three cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1999; 20:27–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Shin JH, Lee HK, Rhim SC, Park SH, Choi CG, Suh DC. Spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma: MR findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2001; 25:257–261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Veneselli E, Conte M, Biancheri R, Acquaviva A, De Bernardi B. Effect of steroid and high-dose immunoglobulin therapy on opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome occurring in neuroblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 1998; 30:15–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Slovis TL, Meza MP, Cushing B, Elkowitz SS, Leonidas JC, Festa R, Kogutt MS, Fletcher BD. Thoracic neuroblastoma: what is the best imaging modality for evaluating extent of disease? Pediatr Radiol 1997; 27:273–275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dietrich RB, Kangarloo H, Lenarsky C, Feig SA. Neuroblastoma: the role of MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1987; 148:937–942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Siegel MJ, Jamroz GA, Glazer HS, Abramson CL. MR imaging of intraspinal extension of neuroblastoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1986; 10:593–595.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Chourmouzi D, Pistevou-Gompaki K, Plataniotis G, Skaragas G, Papadopoulos L, Drevelegas A. MRI findings of extramedullary haemopoiesis. Eur Radiol 2001; 11:1803–1806.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dibbern DA Jr, Loevner LA, Lieberman AP, Salhany KE, Freese A, Marcotte PJ. MR of thoracic cord compression caused by epidural extramedullary hematopoiesis in myelodysplastic syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1997; 18:363–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Tortori-Donati
    • 1
  • Andrea Rossi
    • 1
  • Roberta Biancheri
    • 1
  • Maria Luisa Garrè
    • 2
  • Armando Cama
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric NeuroradiologyG. Gaslini Children’s Research HospitalGenoaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Pediatric Hematology and OncologyG. Gaslini Children’s Research HospitalGenoaItaly

Personalised recommendations