Prenatal Ultrasound: Head and Neck

  • Mario Lituania
  • Ubaldo Passamonti


Appraisal of the fetal cranium includes an assessment of both size and shape. Size can be ascertained by calculating the biparietal and occipito-frontal diameters, head circumference, and other basic body measurements and their ratios, which disclose important irregularities when plotted on morphometric growth curves. Serial axial, coronal, and sagittal scans determine whether the shape of the cranium deviates from the norm and provide appreciation of signs of cranial dysmorphology. The recognition of craniofacial anomalies suggests an accurate fetal anatomic evaluation also for minor abnormalities, as these may be a marker of a syndrome, a sequence, or an isolated or more generalized disorder.


Prenatal Diagnosis Cleft Palate Prenatal Ultrasound Neural Tube Defect Cystic Hygroma 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Lituania
    • 1
  • Ubaldo Passamonti
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Fetal and Perinatal MedicineGalliera Civic HospitalGenoaItaly

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