Hydrocephalus, Cysts, and Other Disorders of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Spaces

  • Paolo Tortori-Donati
  • Andrea Rossi
  • Roberta Biancheri


The term hydrocephalus refers to a pathologically increased volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the ventricles and/or subarachnoid spaces, usually associated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP). The cause of hydrocephalus, its severity, and the age of patient influence the degree of dilatation of the CSF pathways and the consequent damage of brain tissue. Alternating periods of worsening and spontaneous stabilization may also influence the evolution in some cases. Hydrocephalus must be distinguished from other forms of ventricular dilatation that involve ex vacuo mechanisms, i.e., in the absence of increased ICP. In such cases, the term ventriculomegaly should be employed.


Subarachnoid Space Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy Arachnoid Cyst Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Intracranial Hypotension 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hayman LA, Wheeler Weathers S, Kirkpatrick JB. Cerebrospinal fluid spaces and choroid plexuses. In: Hayman LA, Hinck UC (eds) Clinical Imaging. St. Louis: Mosby, 1992:306–328.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    McLone DG, Naidich TP. Developmental morphology of the subarachnoid space, brain vasculature, and contiguous structures, and the cause of the Chiari II malformation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1992; 13:463–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miller JD, Ironsi De JW. Raised intracranial pressure, oedema and hydrocephalus. In: Graham DI, Lantos PL (eds) Greenfield’s Neuropathology, 6th edn. London: Arnold, 1997:157–195, vol. I.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kahle W, Leonhardt H, Platzer W. Color Atlas and Textbook of Human Anatomy, 3rd edn. Stuttgart: Thieme, 1986.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cama A, Tortori-Donati P, Carini S, Andreussi L. Idrocefalo congenito e neonatale. In: Tortori-Donati P, Taccone A, Longo M (eds) Malformazioni Cranio-Encefaliche. Neuroradiologia. Turin: Minerva Medica, 1996:313–339.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Greitz D, Greitz T, Hindmarsh T. A new view on the CSF-circulation with the potential for pharmacological treatment of childhood hydrocephalus. Acta Paediatr 1997; 86:125–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greitz D, Greitz T. The pathogenesis and hemodynamics of hydrocephalus. Proposal for a new understanding. International Journal of Neuroradiology 1997; 3:367–375.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    McAllister JP, Chovan P. Neonatal hydrocephalus. Mechanisms and consequences. Neurosurg Clin North Am 1998; 9:73–93.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barkovich AJ, Edwards MSB. Applications of neuroimaging in hydrocephalus. Pediatr Neurosurg 1992; 18:65–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    O’Hayon BB, Drake JM, Ossip MG, Tuli S, Clarke M. Frontal and occipital horn ratio: A linear estimate of ventricular size for multiple imaging modalities in pediatric hydrocephalus. Pediatr Neurosurg 1998; 29:245–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kulkarni AV, Drake JM, Armstrong DC, Dirks PB. Measurement of ventricular size: reliability of the frontal and occipital horn ratio compared to subjective assessment. Pediatr Neurosurg 1999; 31:65–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Milhorat TH, Hammock MK, Davis DA, Fenstermacher JD. Choroid plexus papilloma. I. Proof of cerebrospinal fluid overproduction. Childs Brain 1976; 2:273–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bradley WG Jr, Orrison WW Jr. Hydrocephalus and cerebrospinal fluid flow. In: Orrison WW Jr (ed) Neuroimaging. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000:1704–1716.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Quencer RM. Intracranial CSF flow in pediatric hydrocephalus: evaluation with cine-MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1992; 13:601–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Laurence KM. The biology of choroid plexus papilloma and carcinoma of the lateral ventricle. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1974:555.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Britz GW, Kim DK, Loeser JD. Hydrocephalus secondary to diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 1996; 85:689–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barkovich AJ. Pediatric Neuroimaging, 3nd edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Erdincler P, Dashti R, Kaynar MY, Canbaz B, Ciplak N, Kuday C. Hydrocephalus and chronically increased intracranial pressure in achondroplasia. Childs Nerv Syst 1997; 13:345–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    DiMario FJ, Ramsby GR, Burleson JA, Greensheilds IR. Brain morphometric analysis in achondroplasia. Neurology 1995; 45:519–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    van der Knaap MS, Valk J. Magnetic resonance of myelin, myelination, and myelin disorders, 2nd edn. Berlin: Springer, 1995.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shiihara T, Oka A, Suzaki I, Ida H, Takeshita K. Communicating hydrocephalus in a patient with Gaucher’s disease type 3. Pediatr Neurol 2000; 22:234–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sahin M, du Plessis AJ. Hydrocephalus associated with glycogen storage disease type II (Pompe’s disease). Pediatr Neurol 1999; 21:674–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rossi A, Cerone R, Biancheri R, Gatti R, Schiaffino MC, Fonda C, Zammarchi E, Tortori-Donati P. Early-onset combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria: neuroradiologic findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001; 22:554–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Baethmann M, Wendel U, Hoffman GF, Gohlich-Ratmann G, Kleinlein B, Seiffert P, Blom H, Voit T. Hydrocephalus internus in two patients with 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency. Neuropediatrics. 2000; 31:314–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rossi A, Biancheri R, Tortori-Donati P. The pathogenesis of hydrocephalus in inborn errors of the single carbon transfer pathway. Neuropediatrics 2001; 32:335–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Prasad VS, Basha A, Prasad BC, Reddy DR. Intraspinal tumour presenting as hydrocephalus in childhood. Childs Nerv Syst 1994; 10:156–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nakamura S, Makiyama H, Miyagi A, Tsubokawa T, Ushinohama H. Congenital unilateral hydrocephalus. Childs Nerv Syst 1989; 5:367–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Landrieu P, Ninane J, Ferriere G, Lyon G. Aqueductal stenosis in X-linked hydrocephalus: a secondary phenomenon? Dev Med Child Neurol 1979; 21:637–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schrander-Stumpel C, Fryns JP. Congenital hydrocephalus: nosology and guidelines for clinical approach and genetic counselling. Eur J Pediatr 1998; 157:355–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kenwrick S, Jouet M, Donnai D. X-linked hydrocephalus and MASA syndrome. J Med Genet 1996; 33:59–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chow CW, Halliday JL, Anderson RMcD, Danks DM, Fortune DW. Congenital absence of pyramids and its significance in genetic diseases. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1985; 65:313–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yamasaki M, Arita N, Hiraga S, Izumoto S, Morimoto K, Nakatani S, Fujitani K, Sato N, Hayakawa T. A clinical and neuroradiological study of X-linked hydrocephalus in Japan. J Neurosurg 1995; 83:50–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Graf WD, Born DE, Shaw DW, Thomas Jr, Holloway LW, Michaelis RC. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in boys with neural cell adhesion molecule L1 mutations and congenital hydrocephalus. Ann Neurol 2000; 47:113–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fukuhara T, Vorster SJ, Ruggieri P, Luciano MG. Third ventriculostomy patency: comparison of findings at cinephasecontrast MR imaging and at direct exploration. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1999; 20:1560–1566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Laitt RD, Mallucci CL, Jaspan T, McConachie NS, Vloeberghs M, Punt J. Constructive interference in steady-state 3D Fourier-transform MRI in the management of hydrocephalus and third ventriculostomy. Neuroradiology 1999; 41:117–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gilkes CE, Steers AJ, Minns RA. A classification of CSF shunt malfunction. Eur J Pediatr Surg 1999; 9(Suppl 1):19–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Smith RR, George JC. The cerebrospinal fluid spaces. In: Zimmerman RA, Gibby WA, Carmody RF (eds) Neuroimaging. Clinical and Physical Principles. New York: Springer, 2000:585–614.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sakamoto H, Fujitani K, Kitano S, Murata K, Hakuba A. Cerebrospinal fluid edema associated with hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg 1994; 81:179–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Di Rocco C. Is the slit ventricle syndrome always a slit ventricle syndrome? Childs Nervous System 1994; 10:49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Oi S, Matsumoto S. Infantile hydrocephalus and the slit ventricle syndrome in early infancy. Childs Nerv Syst 1987; 3:145–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Epstein F, Lapras C, Wisoff JH. “Slit ventricle syndrome”: etiology and treatment. Pediatr Neurosci 1988; 14:5–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Weisberg LA. Computed tomography in benign intracranial hypertension. Neurology 1985; 35:1075–1078.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Silbergleit R, Junck L, Gebarski SS, Hatfield MK. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri): MR imaging. Radiology 1989; 170:207–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gibby WA, Cohen MS, Goldberg HI, Sergott RC. Pseudotumor cerebri: CT findings and correlation with vision loss. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1993; 160:143–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wilms G, Vanderschueren G, Demaerel PH, Smet MH, Van Calenbergh F, Plets C, Goffin J, Casaer P. CT and MR in infants with pericerebral collections and macrocephaly: benign enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces versus subdural collections. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1993; 14:855–860.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kim D, Choi J, Yoon S, Suh J, Kim T. Hypertrophic arachnoid membrane in infantile external hydrocephalus: neuroradiologic and histopathologic correlation. Radiology 1993; 189(P):195.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Prassopoulos P, Cavouras D, Golfinopoulos S, Nezi M. The size of the intra-and extraventricular cerebrospinal fluid compartments in children with idiopathic benign widening of the frontal subarachnoid space. Neuroradiology 1995; 37:418–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nickel RE, Gallenstein JS. Developmental prognosis for infants with benign enlargement of the subarachnoid space. Dev Med Child Neurol 1987; 29:181–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Alvarez LA, Maytal J, Shinnar S. Idiopathic external hydrocephalus: natural history and relationship to benign familial macrocephaly. Pediatrics 1986; 77:901–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gordon N. Apparent cerebral atrophy in patients on treatment with steroids. Dev Med Child Neurol 1980; 22:502–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ito M, Takao P, Okumo T, Mikawa H. Sequential CT studies of 24 children with infantile spasms on ACTH therapy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1983; 25:475–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Aoki N. Extracerebral fluid collections in infancy: role of magnetic resonance imaging in differentiation between subdural effusion and subarachnoid space enlargement. J Neurosurg 1994; 81:20–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Franco E, Gil-Peralta A, Salinas E, Perez-Errazquin F, Garzon F. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Rev Neurol 1999; 29:1038–1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mokri B. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks: from intracranial hypotension to cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia-evolution of a concept. Mayo Clin Proc 1999; 74:1113–1123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Marta-Moreno E, Alarcia R, Bestue M, Lopez-Gaston J, Marta-Moreno J, Guelbenzu S. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension: findings of cerebral NMR. Rev Neurol 1998; 27:589–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ferrante E, Riva M, Gatti A, Brioschi AM, Guccione A, Colombo N, Vanini M, Veronese S. Intracranial hypotension syndrome: neuroimaging in five spontaneous cases and etiopathogenetic correlations. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1998; 100:33–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Atkinson JL, Weinshenker BG, Miller GM, Piepgras DG, Mokri B. Acquired Chiari I malformation secondary to spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid leakage and chronic intracranial hypotension syndrome in seven cases. J Neurosurg 1998; 88:237–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Blank SC, Shakir RA, Bindoff LA, Bradey N. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension: clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1997; 99:199–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ben Amor S, Maeder P, Gudinchet F, Duc C, Ingvar-Maeder M. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome. Rev Neurol 1996; 152:611–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schievink WI, Meyer FB, Atkinson JL, Mokri B. Spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid leaks and intracranial hypotension. J Neurosurg 1996; 84:598–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pannullo SC, Reich JB, Krol G, Deck MD, Posner JB. MRI changes in intracranial hypotension. Neurology 1993; 43:919–926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hochman MS, Naidich TP, Kobetz SA, Fernandez-Maitin A. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension with pachymeningeal enhancement on MRI. Neurology 1992; 42:1628–1630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rando TA, Fishman RA. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension: report of two cases and review of the literature. Neurology 1992; 42(3 Pt 1):481–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Palmieri A, D’Incerti L, Ciceri E, Savoiardo M. Alterazioni meningee da ipotensione liquorale “essenziale.” Rivista di Neuroradiologia 1993; 6:347–354.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Messori A, Polonara G, Salvolini U. Dilation of cervical epidural veins in intracranial hypotension. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001; 22:224–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Yousry I, Forderreuther S, Moriggl B, Holtmannspotter M, Naidich TP, Straube A, Yousry T. Cervical MR imaging in postural headache: MR signs and pathophysiological implications. AJNR Am J Neuroradiology 2001; 22:1239–1250.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Carollo C, Rigobello L. Cisti liquorali sopratentoriali. In: Tortori-Donati P, Longo M, Taccone A. Malformazioni Cranio-Encefaliche. Neuroradiologia. Turin: Minerva Medica, 1996:275–311.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wester K. Peculiarities of intracranial arachnoid cysts: location, sidedness, and sex distribution in 126 consecutive patients. Neurosurgery 1999; 45:775–779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sommer IE, Smit LM. Congenital supratentorial arachnoidal and giant cysts in children: a clinical study with arguments for a conservative approach. Childs Nerv Syst 1997; 13:8–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Patankar T, Krishnan A, Patkar D, Prasad S, Shah J, Limdi J. Intrasellar arachnoid cysts: report of three cases and literature review. Rivista di Neuroradiologia 1999; 12:697–700.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mohn A, Schoof E, Fahlbusch R, Wenzel D, Dorr HG. The endocrine spectrum of arachnoid cysts in childhood. Pediatr Neurosurg 1999; 31:316–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Adan L, Bussieres L, Dinand V, Zerah M, Pierre-Kahn A, Brauner R. Growth, puberty and hypothalamic-pituitary function in children with suprasellar arachnoid cyst. Eur J Pediatr 2000; 159:348–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Harding B, Copp AJ. Malformations. In: Graham DI, Lantos PL (eds) Greenfield’s Neuropathology, 6th edn. London: Arnold, 1997:397–536 (vol. I).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Altman NR, Naidich TP, Braffman BH. Posterior fossa malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1992; 13:691–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Schuhmann MU, Tatagiba M, Hader C, Brandis A, Samii M. Ectopic choroid plexus within a juvenile arachnoid cyst of the cerebellopontine angle: cause of cyst formation or reason of cyst growth. Pediatr Neurosurg 2000; 32:73–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Martinez-Lage JF, Ruiz-Macia D, Valenti JA, Poza M. Development of a middle fossa arachnoid cyst. A theory on its pathogenesis. Childs Nerv Syst 1999; 15:94–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tsuruda JS, Chew WM, Moseley ME, Norman D. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the brain: value of differentiating between extraaxial cysts and epidermoid tumors. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1990; 11:925–931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Benedetti A, Carbonin C, Colombo F. Possible aetiopathogenetic correlation between primary empty sella and arachnoid cyst. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1977; 38:269–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Miyajima M, Arai H, Okuda O, Hishii M, Nakanishi H, Sato K. Possible origin of suprasellar arachnoid cysts: neuroimaging and neurosurgical observations in nine cases. J Neurosurg 2000; 93:62–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lancon JA, Bruce DA. Colloid cyst of the third ventricle. Pediatr Neurosurg 1999; 31:108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Pollock BE, Huston J 3rd. Natural history of asymptomatic colloid cysts of the third ventricle. J Neurosurg 1999; 91:364–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kachhara R, Das K, Nair S, Gupta AK. Changing characteristics of a colloid cyst of the third ventricle. Neuroradiology 1999; 41:188–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Vandertop WP. Familial colloid cyst of the third ventricle: case report and review of associated conditions. Neurosurgery 1996; 39:421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Macdonald RL, Humphreys RP, Rutka JT, Kestle Jr. Colloid cysts in children. Pediatr Neurosurg 1994; 20:169–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Weir B. Colloid cysts. J Neurosurg 2000; 92:903–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kirsch CFE, Smirniotopoulos JG, Olan WJ, Koeller KK. Colloid cysts. Radiologic-pathologic correlation with review of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology experience and world literature. International Journal of Neuroradiology 1997; 3:460–469.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Atlas SW, Lavi E. Intra-axial brain tumors. In: Atlas SW (ed) Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain and Spine. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1996:402–404.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Duckett S. Pediatric Neuropathology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1995.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lantos PL, VandenBerg SR, Kleihues P. Tumours of the nervous system. In: Graham DI, Lantos PL (eds). Greenfield’s Neuropathology, 6th edn. London: Arnold, 1997:583–880 (vol. II).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jan M, Ba-Zeze V, Velut S. Colloid cyst of the fourth ventricle: diagnostic problems and pathogenic considerations. Neurosurgery 1989; 24:939–942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kondziolka D, Bilbao JM. An immunoistochemical study of neuroepithelial (colloid) cyst. J Neurosurg 1989; 71:91–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Majos C, Coll S, Aguilera C, Acebes JJ, Pons LC. Intraventricular mass lesions of the brain. Eur Radiol 2000; 10:951–961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Graziani N, Dufour H, Figarella-Branger D, Donnet A, Bouillot P, Grisoli F. Do the suprasellar neurenteric cyst, the Rathke cleft cyst and the colloid cyst constitute a same entity? Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1995; 133:174–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Osborn AG. Diagnostic Neuroradiology. St. Louis: Mosby, 1994:646–648.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sherman JL, Camponovo E, Citrin cm. MR imaging of CSF-like choroidal fissure and parenchymal cysts of the brain. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1990; 11:939–945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sanders WP, Chundi VV. Extra-axial tumors including pituitary and parasellar. In: Orrison WW Jr (ed) Neuroimaging. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000:612–717.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Nakase H, Ishida Y, Tada T, Sakaki T, Goda K, Tunoda S, Tominaga M, Hisanaga M, Lee KS, Yun IG, et al. Neuroepithelial cyst of the lateral ventricle. Clinical features and treatment. Surg Neurol 1992; 37:94–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Morioka T, Nishio S, Suzuki S, Fukui M, Nishiyama T. Choroidal fissure cyst in the temporal horn associated with complex partial seizure. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1994; 96:164–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gao P, Osborn AG, Smirniotopoulos JG, Palmer CA, Boyer RS. Neurenteric cysts. Pathology, imaging spectrum, and differential diagnosis. International Journal of Neuroradiology 1995; 1:17–27.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lonjon M, Paquis P, Michiels JF, Griffet J, Grellier P. Endodermal cyst of the foramen magnum: case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst 1998; 14:100–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Tortori-Donati P, Rossi A, Cama A. Spinal dysraphism: a review of neuroradiological features with embryological correlations and proposal for a new classification. Neuroradiology 2000; 42:471–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Inoue T, Kawahara N, Shibahara J, Matsumoto T, Usami K, Kirino T. Extradural neurenteric cyst of the cerebellopontine angle. Case report. J Neurosurg 2004; 100:1091–1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Harris CP, Dias MS, Brockmeyer DL, Townsend JJ, Willis BK, Apfelbaum RI. Neuroenteric cysts of the posterior fossa: recognition, management, and embryogenesis. Neurosurgery 1991; 29:893–897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Shakudo M, Inoue Y, Ohata K, Tanaka S. Neurenteric cyst with alteration of signal intensity on follow-up MR images. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001; 22:496–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Shin JH, Byun BJ, Kim DW, Choi DL. Neurenteric cyst of the cerebellopontine angle with xanthogranulomatous changes: serial MR findings with patologic correlation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2002; 23:663–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Song CJ, Kim JH, Kier EL, Bronen RA. MR imaging and histologic features of subinsular bright spots on T2-weighted MR images: Virchow-Robin spaces of the extreme capsule and insular cortex. Radiology 2000; 214:671–677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Osborn AG, Weller RO, Salzman KL, Hewlett R. Imaging of brain perivascular spaces. Rivista di Neuroradiologia 2003; 16(Suppl 2):55–58.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Matheus MG, Castillo M, Smith JK, Armao D, Towle D, Muenzer J. Brain MRI findings in patients with mucopoly-saccahridosis types I and II and mild clinical presentation. Neuroradiology 2004 Jun 17 [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Nakano S, Hojo H, Kataoka K, Yamasaki S. Age related incidence of cavum septi pellucidi and cavum vergae on CT scans of pediatric patients. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1981; 5:348–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Schwid De JT. Incidence of cavum septi pellucidi and cavum vergae in 1,032 human brains. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1952; 67:625–632.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Nopoulos PC, Giedd JN, Andreasen NC, Rapoport JL. Frequency and severity of enlarged cavum septi pellucidi in childhood-onset schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 1998; 155:1074–1079.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kwon JS, Shenton ME, Hirayasu Y, Salisbury DF, Fischer IA, Dickey CC, Yurgelun-Todd D, Tohen M, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, McCarley RW. MRI study of cavum septi pellucidi in schizophrenia, affective disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155:509–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bodensteiner JB, Schaefer GB, Craft JM. Cavum septi pellucidi and cavum vergae in normal and developmentally delayed populations. J Child Neurol 1998; 13:120–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wester K, Krakenes J, Moen G. Expanding cava septi pellucidi and cava vergae in children: report of three cases. Neurosurgery 1995; 37:134–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Eisenberg VH, Zalel Y, Hoffmann C, Feldman Z, Achiron R. Prenatal diagnosis of cavum velum interpositum cysts: significance and outcome. Prenat Diagn 2003; 23:779–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Chen CY, Chen FH, Lee CC, Lee KW, Hsiao HS. Sonographic characteristics of the cavum velum interpositum. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1998; 19:1631–1635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kier EL. The evolutionary and embryologic basis for the development and anatomy of the cavum veli interpositi. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1999; 20:1383–1384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hertzberg BS, Kliewer MA, Provenzale JM. Cyst of the velum interpositum: antenatal ultrasonographic features and differential diagnosis. J Ultrasound Med 1997; 16:767–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Gangemi M, Donati P, Maiuri F, Sigona L. Cyst of the velum interpositum treated by endoscopic fenestration. Surg Neurol 1997; 47:134–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Meller W, Tsai LY, Chiu LC. Cavum velum interpositum in a boy with infantile autism. J Autism Dev Disord 1985; 15:109–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Tortori-Donati
    • 1
  • Andrea Rossi
    • 1
  • Roberta Biancheri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric NeuroradiologyG. Gaslini Children’s Research HospitalGenoaItaly

Personalised recommendations