Acquired Inflammatory White Matter Diseases

  • Massimo Gallucci
  • Massimo Caulo
  • Paolo Tortori-Donati


During the last decades, several different classifications were proposed to define white matter diseases. However, none proved to be completely satisfactory. Therefore, even now, some entities have clinical significance but no specific pathological, biochemical, or radiological support (i.e., Schilder’s myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis), and the reverse is true with others. Furthermore, several diseases, although not primitively categorized as inflammatory white matter disorders, present mixed or poorly defined borders; such is the case of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, a genetically defined metabolic disorder which presents a constant and often dramatic white matter inflammatory component. White matter inflammation is also constant in some acquired metabolic diseases (i.e., Wernicke’s encephalopathy). Discussion is also progressing on review of single diseases which were apparently already well defined: are Devic’s neuromyelitis optica, Balò’s concentric sclerosis, and Schilder’s myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis specific entities? Are they variants of multiple sclerosis (MS)? Or else, do they simply represent occasional combinations of some of the signs, symptoms, and findings that are common in pediatric MS?


Multiple Sclerosis White Matter Optic Neuritis Demyelinating Disease Magnetization Transfer Ratio 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Massimo Gallucci
    • 1
  • Massimo Caulo
    • 2
  • Paolo Tortori-Donati
    • 3
  1. 1.University of L’AquilaL’AquilaItaly
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyITAB-University of ChietiChietiItaly
  3. 3.Department of Pediatric NeuroradiologyG. Gaslini Children’s Research HospitalGenoaItaly

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