Cervical and Endometrial Cancer Prevention

  • Francisco Garcia
  • J. Newton
  • Susie Baldwin


Cervical Cancer Endometrial Cancer Obstet Gynecol Endometrial Carcinoma Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. (1996). "National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference statement on cervical cancer. April 1–3, 1996." J Womens Health 1: 1–38.Google Scholar
  2. (1999). Evaluation of Cervical Cytology. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 5. Rockville, MD, Agency of Health Care Policy and Researh.Google Scholar
  3. (2001). Surveillance, Epidemiology, End Results Program, End Results Program 1975–2000. Atlanta, American Cancer Society.Google Scholar
  4. (2002). Cancer Facts and Figures 2002. Atlanta, American Cancer Society.Google Scholar
  5. (2003). "ACOG Practice Bulletin #45: Cervical Cytology Screening." Obstet Gynecol 102(2): 417–428.Google Scholar
  6. (2003). Cancer Facts & Figures for Hispanics/Latinos 2003–2005. Atlanta, American Cancer Society.Google Scholar
  7. Agarwal, S.S., A. Sehgal, et al. (1993). "Role of male behavior in cervical carcinogenesis among women with one lifetime sexual partner." Cancer 72(5): 1666–1669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Akhmedkhanov, A., A. Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, et al. (2001). "Role of exogenous and endogenous hormones in endometrial cancer: review of the evidence and research perspectives." Ann N Y Acad Sci 943: 296–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Alberts, D.S., R.R. Barakat, et al. (2004). Prevention of gynecologic malignancies. In: Gynecologic Cancer: Controversies in Management. D. M. Gershenson, W. P. McGuire, M. Gore, M.A. Quinn, G. Thomas (Eds.), Philadelphia, Elsevier Ltd.Google Scholar
  10. al-Saleh, W., P. Delvenne, et al. (1995). "Inverse modulation of intraepithelial Langerhans' cells and stromal macrophage/dendrocyte populations in human papillomavirus-associated squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix." Virchows Arch 427(1): 41–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Alvarez, R.D., M.G. Conner, et al. (2003). "The efficacy of 9-cis-retinoic acid (aliretinoin) as a chemopreventive agent for cervical dysplasia: results of a randomized double-blind clinical trial." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12(2): 114–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Anderson, K.E., E. Anderson, et al. (2001). "Diabetes and endometrial cancer in the Iowa women's health study." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10(6): 611–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Anttila, A., E. Pukkala, et al. (1999). "Effect of organised screening on cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Finland, 1963–1995: recent increase in cervical cancer incidence." Int J Cancer 83(1): 59–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Archer, D.F. (2001). "The effect of the duration of progestin use on the occurrence of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women." Menopause 8(4): 245–251.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bain, C, D.E. Parkin, et al. (2002). "Is outpatient diagnostic hysteroscopy more useful than endometrial biopsy alone for the investigation of abnormal uterine bleeding in unselected premenopausal women? A randomised comparison." BJOG 109(7): 805–811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Barker, B., F. Garcia, et al. (2001). "The correlation between colposcopically directed cervical biopsy and loop electrosurgical excision procedure pathology and the effect of time on that agreement." Gynecol Oncol 82(1): 22–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Baron, J.A. (1984). "Smoking and estrogen-related disease." Am J Epidemiol 119(1): 9–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Baron, J.A., C. La Vecchia, et al. (1990). "The antiestrogenic effect of cigarette smoking in women." Am J Obstet Gynecol 162(2): 502–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Belinson, J., Y. L. Qiao, et al. (2001). "Shanxi Province Cervical Cancer Screening Study: a cross-sectional comparative trial of multiple techniques to detect cervical neoplasia." Gynecol Oncol 83(2): 439–444.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bell, M.C., P. Crowley-Nowick, et al. (2000). "Placebo-controlled trial of indole-3-carbinol in the treatment of CIN." Gynecol Oncol 78(2): 123–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Berstein, L.M., E. N. Imyanitov, et al. (2002). "CYP17 genetic polymorphism in endometrial cancer: are only steroids involved?" Cancer Lett 180(1): 47–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bloss, J. D., M. L. Berman, et al. (1991). "Use of vaginal hysterectomy for the management of stage I endometrial cancer in the medically compromised patient." Gynecol Oncol 40(1): 74–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bokhman, J.V. (1983). "Two pathogenetic types of endometrial carcinoma." Gynecol Oncol 15(1): 10–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bokhman, J.V., O.F. Chepick, et al. (1985). "Can primary endometrial carcinoma stage I be cured without surgery and radiation therapy?" Gynecol Oncol 20(2): 139–155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Breitburd, F., R. Kirnbauer, et al. (1995). "Immunization with viruslike particles from cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) can protect against experimental CRPV infection." J Virol 69(6): 3959–3963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brinton, L.A., M.L. Berman, et al. (1992). "Reproductive, menstrual, and medical risk factors for endometrial cancer: results from a case-control study." Am J Obstet Gynecol 167(5): 1317–1325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brinton, L.A., W.C. Reeves, et al. (1989). "Parity as a risk factor for cervical cancer." Am J Epidemiol 130(3): 486–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Buckley, J.D., R.W. Harris, et al. (1981). "Case-control study of the husbands of women with dysplasia or carcinoma of the cervix uteri." Lancet 2(8254): 1010–1015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Butterworth, C.E., Jr., K.D. Hatch, et al. (1992). "Folate deficiency and cervical dysplasia." JAMA 267(4): 528–533.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Butterworth, C.E., Jr., K.D. Hatch, et al. (1992). "Oral folic acid supplementation for cervical dysplasia: a clinical intervention trial." Am J Obstet Gynecol 166(3): 803–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Castellsague, X., F.X. Bosch, et al. (2002). "Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners." N Engl J Med 346(15): 1105–1112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Childers, J.M., J. Chu, et al. (1995). "Chemoprevention of cervical cancer with folic acid: a phase III Southwest Oncology Group Intergroup study." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 4(2):155–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Choo, K.B., C.C. Pan, et al. (1987). "Integration of human papillomavirus type 16 into cellular DNA of cervical carcinoma: preferential deletion of the E2 gene and invariable retention of the long control region and the E6/E7 open reading frames." Virology 161(1): 259–261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Clavel, C, M. Masure, et al. (2001). "Human papillomavirus testing in primary screening for the detection of high-grade cervical lesions: a study of 7932 women." Br J Cancer 84(12): 1616–1623.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Clerici, M., M. Merola, et al. (1997). "Cytokine production patterns in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: association with human papillomavirus infection." J Natl Cancer Inst 89(3): 245–250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Clerici, M., G.M. Shearer, et al. (1998). "Cytokine dysregulation in invasive cervical carcinoma and other human neoplasias: time to consider the TH1/TH2 paradigm." J Natl Cancer Inst 90(4): 261–263.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Coker, A. and S. Bond (1999). Persistent oncogenic HPV and risk of SIL progression and LSIL maintenance. 18th International Human Papillomavirus conference, Charleston, SC.Google Scholar
  38. Coleman, N., H.D. Birley, et al. (1994). "Immunological events in regressing genital warts." Am J Clin Pathol 102(6): 768–774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Corodeanu, M. (1993). "Hypothesis for endometrial carcinoma carcinogenesis. Preventive prospects." Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 20(4): 254–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Cuzick, J., P. Sasieni, et al. (2000). "Asystematic review of the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing within a cervical screening programme: summary and conclusions." Br J Cancer 83: 561–565.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cuzick, J., A. Szarewski, et al. (2003). "Management of women who test positive for high-risk types of human papillomavirus: the HART study." Lancet 362(9399): 1871–1876.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dahlgren, E., L.G. Friberg, et al. (1991). "Endometrial carcinoma; ovarian dysfunction — a risk factor in young women." Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 41(2): 143–150.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. de Vet, H.C., P.G. Knipschild, et al. (1991). "The effect of beta-carotene on the regression and progression of cervical dysplasia: a clinical experiment." J Clin Epidemiol 44(3): 273–283.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. de Vet, H.C., F. Sturmans, et al. (1994). "The role of cigarette smoking in the etiology of cervical dysplasia." Epidemiology 5(6): 631–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Deacon, J.M., CD. Evans, et al. (2000). "Sexual behaviour and smoking as determinants of cervical HPV infection and of CIN3 among those infected: a case-control study nested within the Manchester cohort." Br J Cancer 83(11): 1565–1572.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. del Pinal, J.H. (1996). "Hispanic Americans in the United States: Young, dynamic and diverse." Stat Bull Metrop Insur Co 77(4): 2–13.Google Scholar
  47. Deligeoroglou, E., E. Michailidis, et al. (2003). "Oral contraceptives and reproductive system cancer." Ann N Y Acad Sci 997: 199–208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Denk, C, K. Butz, et al. (2001). "p53 mutations are rare events in recurrent cervical cancer." J Mol Med 79(5–6): 283–288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Di Fiore, P.P., J.H. Pierce, et al. (1987). "erbB-2 is a potent oncogene when overexpressed in NIH/3T3 cells." Science 237(4811): 178–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Ding, Z., A.G. Green, et al. (2002). "Retinoic acid inhibits telomerase activity and downregulates expression but does not affect splicing of hTERT: correlation with cell growth rate inhibition in an in vitro cervical carcinogenesis/multidrug-resistance model." Exp Cell Res 272(2): 185–191.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Duggan, B.D., J.C. Felix, et al. (1994). "Early mutational activation of the c-Ki-ras oncogene in endometrial carcinoma." Cancer Res 54(6): 1604–1607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Dunlop, M.G., S.M. Farrington, et al. (1997). "Cancer risk associated with germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutations." Hum Mol Genet 6(1): 105–110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Eichner, E. and M. Abellera (1971). "Endometrial hyperplasia treated by progestins." Obstet Gynecol 38(5): 739–742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. el-Deiry, W.S., T. Tokino, et al. (1993). "WAF1, a potential mediator of p53 tumor suppression." Cell 75(4): 817–825.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Enomoto, T., M. Inoue, et al. (1990). "K-ras activation in neoplasms of the human female reproductive tract." Cancer Res 50(19): 6139–6145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Evans, T.G., W. Bonnez, et al. (2001). "A Phase 1 study of a recombinant viruslike particle vaccine against human papillomavirus type 11 in healthy adult volunteers." J Infect Dis 183(10): 1485–1493.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Fahey, M.T., L. Irwig, et al. (1995). "Meta-analysis of Pap test accuracy." Am J Epidemiol 141(7): 680–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Fairley, C, S. Tabrizi, et al. (1996). "A randomized clinical trial of beta carotene vs. placebo for the treatment of cervical HPV infection." Int J Gynecol Cancer 6: 225–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Fisher, B., J.P. Costantino, et al. (1998). "Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study." J Natl Cancer Inst 90(18): 1371–1388.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Follen, M., E.N. Atkinson, et al. (2001). "A randomized clinical trial of 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix." Clin Cancer Res 7(11): 3356–3365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Follen, M., F. L. Meyskens, Jr., et al. (2003). "Cervical cancer chemoprevention, vaccines, and surrogate endpoint biomarkers." Cancer 98(9 Suppl): 2044–2051.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Folsom, A.R., Z. Demissie, et al. (2003). "Glycemic index, glycemic load, and incidence of endometrial cancer: the Iowa women's health study." Nutr Cancer 46(2): 119–124.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Franco, E.L. (1996). "Epidemiology of anogenital warts and cancer." Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 23(3): 597–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Fraser, I.S. and G.T. Kovacs (2003). "The efficacy of non-contraceptive uses for hormonal contraceptives." Med J Aust 178(12): 621–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Garcia, F., B. Barker, et al. (2003). "Thin-layer cytology and histopathology in the evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding." J Reprod Med 48(11): 882–888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Garcia, F, E. Mendez de Galaz, et al. (2003). "Factors that affect the quality of cytologic cervical cancer screening along the Mexico-United States border." Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(2): 467–472.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Garcia, F., K.U. Petry, et al. (2004). "ZYC101a for Treatment of High-Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Randomized Controlled Trial." Obstet Gynecol 103(2): 317–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Giannini, S.L., W. Al-Saleh, et al. (1998). "Cytokine expression in squamous intraepithelial lesions of the uterine cervix: implications for the generation of local immunosuppression." Clin Exp Immunol 113(2): 183–189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Goff, B.A. and L.W. Rice (1990). "Assessment of depth of myometrial invasion in endometrial adenocarcinoma." Gynecol Oncol 38(1): 46–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Goodman, M.T., J.H. Hankin, et al. (1997). "Diet, body size, physical activity, and the risk of endometrial cancer." Cancer Res 57(22): 5077–5085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Goodman, M.T., L.R. Wilkens, et al. (1997). "Association of soy and fiber consumption with the risk of endometrial cancer." Am J Epidemiol 146(4): 294–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Graham, V., E.S. Surwit, et al. (1986). "Phase II trial of beta-all-trans-retinoic acid for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia delivered via a collagen sponge and cervical cap." West J Med 145(2): 192–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Greene, F.L., D.L. Page, et al. (2002). AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, Sixth Edition. Chicago, American Joint Committee on Cancer.Google Scholar
  74. Greenlee, R.T., M.B. Hill-Harmon, et al. (2001). "Cancer statistics, 2001." CA Cancer J Clin 51(1): 15–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Grubbs, C.J., V.E. Steele, et al. (1995). "Chemoprevention of chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis by indole-3-carbinol." Anticancer Res 15(3): 709–716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Haiman, C.A., S. E. Hankinson, et al. (2001). "A polymorphism in CYP17 and endometrial cancer risk." Cancer Res 61(10): 3955–3960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Harro, CD., Y.Y. Pang, et al. (2001). "Safety and immunogenicity trial in adult volunteers of a human papillomavirus 16 LI virus-like particle vaccine." J Natl Cancer Inst 93(4): 284–292.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Hatta, Y., T. Hirama, et al. (1995). "Alterations of the p16 (MTS1) gene in testicular, ovarian, and endometrial malignancies." J Urol 154(5): 1954–1957.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hernandez, B. and M. Goodman (1999). Association of HPV viral load and risk of cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIL) among multi-ethnic women in Hawaii. 18th International Human Papillomavirus conference, Charleston, SC.Google Scholar
  80. Ho, G.Y., R. Bierman, et al. (1998). "Natural history of cervicovaginal papillomavirus infection in young women." N Engl J Med 338(7): 423–428.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Ho, G.Y., R.D. Burk, et al. (1995). "Persistent genital human papillomavirus infection as a risk factor for persistent cervical dysplasia." J Natl Cancer Inst 87(18): 1365–1371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Horn-Ross, PL., E.M. John, et al. (2003). "Phytoestrogen intake and endometrial cancer risk." J Natl Cancer Inst 95(15): 1158–1164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Howe, S.L., R.J. Delfino, et al. (1998). "The risk of invasive cervical cancer among Hispanics: evidence for targeted preventive interventions." Prev Med 27(5 Pt 1): 674–680.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Howell, E.A., Y.T. Chen, et al. (1999). "Differences in cervical cancer mortality among black and white women." Obstet Gynecol 94(4): 509–515.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Howell, L.P., T. Belk, et al. (1999). "AutoCyte interactive screening system. Experience at a university hospital cytology laboratory." Acta Cytol 43: 58–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hunter, J.E., D. E. Tritz, et al. (1994). "The prognostic and therapeutic implications of cytologic atypia in patients with endometrial hyperplasia." Gynecol Oncol 55(1): 66–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hutchinson, M.L., D.J. Zahniser, et al. (1999). "Utility of liquid-based cytology for cervical carcinoma screening: results of a population-based study conducted in a region of Costa Rica with a high incidence of cervical carcinoma." Cancer 87(2): 48–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Inoue, M. (2001). "Current molecular aspects of the carcinogenesis of the uterine endometrium." Int J Gynecol Cancer 11(5): 339–348.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Irwin, J.C., L. F. Suen, et al. (2001). "Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II inhibition of endometrial stromal cell tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 and IGF-binding protein-1 suggests paracrine interactions at the decidua:trophoblast interface during human implantation." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86(5): 2060–2064.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Ito, K., K. Watanabe, et al. (1996). "K-ras point mutations in endometrial carcinoma: effect on outcome is dependent on age of patient." Gynecol Oncol 63(2): 238–246.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Jemal, A., L.X. Clegg, et al. (2004). "Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1995–2001." Cancer 101: 3–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Jemal, A., R.C. Tiwari, et al. (2004). "Cancer statistics, 2004." CA Cancer J Clin 54(1): 8–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Jensen, J. and C. Christiansen (1988). "Effects of smoking on serum lipoproteins and bone mineral content during postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy." Am J Obstet Gynecol 159(4): 820–825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Jensen, J., C. Christiansen, et al. (1985). "Cigarette smoking, serum estrogens, and bone loss during hormone-replacement therapy early after menopause." N Engl J Med 313(16): 973–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Jones, B.A. and D.A. Novis (2000). "Follow-up of abnormal gynecologic cytology: a college of American pathologists Q-probes study of 16132 cases from 306 laboratories." Arch Pathol Lab Med 124(5): 665–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Jones, D.L., R.M. Alani, et al. (1997). "The human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein can uncouple cellular differentiation and proliferation in human keratinocytes by abrogating p21Cip1-mediated inhibition of cdk2." Genes Dev 11(16): 2101–2111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Judd, H.L., W.E. Lucas, et al. (1976). "Serum 17 beta-estradiol and estrone levels in postmenopausal women with and without endometrial cancer." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43(2): 272–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kamb, A., N.A. Gruis, et al. (1994). "A cell cycle regulator potentially involved in genesis of many tumor types." Science 264(5157): 436–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Karunagaran, D., E. Tzahar, et al. (1996). "ErbB-2 is a common auxiliary subunit of NDF and EGF receptors: implications for breast cancer." Embo J 15(2): 254–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Keefe, K.A., M.J. Schell, et al. (2001). "A randomized, double blind, Phase III trial using oral beta-carotene supplementation for women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10(10): 1029–1035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kilgore, L.C., E. E. Partridge, et al. (1995). "Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: survival comparisons of patients with and without pelvic node sampling." Gynecol Oncol 56(1): 29–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kim, Y.B., C.H. Holschneider, et al. (1997). "Progestin alone as primary treatment of endometrial carcinoma in premenopausal women. Report of seven cases and review of the literature." Cancer 79(2): 320–327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Klencke, B., M. Matijevic, et al. (2002). "Encapsulated plasmid DNA treatment for human papillomavirus 16-associated anal dysplasia: a Phase I study of ZYC101." Clin Cancer Res 8(5): 1028–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Kong, D., A. Suzuki, et al. (1997). "PTEN1 is frequently mutated in primary endometrial carcinomas." Nat Genet 17(2): 143–144.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Konya, J. and J. Dillner (2001). "Immunity to oncogenic human papillomaviruses." Adv Cancer Res 82: 205–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kosary, C.L. (1994). "FIGO stage, histology, histologic grade, age and race as prognostic factors in determining survival for cancers of the female gynecological system: an analysis of 1973–87 SEER cases of cancers of the endometrium, cervix, ovary, vulva, and vagina." Semin Surg Oncol 10(1): 31–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Koutsky, L.A., K.A. Ault, et al. (2002). "A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine." N Engl J Med 347(21): 1645–1651.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Koutsky, L.A., K.K. Holmes, et al. (1992). "A cohort study of the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 in relation to papillomavirus infection." N Engl J Med 327(18): 1272–1278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. La Vecchia, C, S. Franceschi, et al. (1984). "Risk factors for endometrial cancer at different ages." J Natl Cancer Inst 73(3): 667–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Lagarda, H., L. Catasus, et al. (2001). "K-ras mutations in endometrial carcinomas with microsatellite instability." J Pathol 193(2): 193–199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Latta, E. and W.B. Chapman (2002). "PTEN mutations and evolving concepts in endometrial neoplasia." Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 14(1): 59–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Lax, S. F, B. Kendall, et al. (2000). "The frequency of p53, K-ras mutations, and microsatellite instability differs in uterine endometrioid and serous carcinoma: evidence of distinct molecular genetic pathways." Cancer 88(4): 814–824.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Lee, A.J., M.X. Cai, et al. (2003). "Characterization of the oxidative metabolites of beta-estradiol and estrone formed by 15 selectively expressed human cytochrome p450 isoforms." Endocrinology 144(8): 3382–3398.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Lee, K.R., R. Ashfaq, et al. (1997). "Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smears and a fluid-based, thin-layer system for cervical cancer screening." Obstet Gynecol 90(2): 278–284.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Li, J., C. Yen, et al. (1997). "PTEN, a putative protein tyrosine phosphatase gene mutated in human brain, breast, and prostate cancer." Science 275(5308): 1943–1947.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Lian, Z., K. Niwa, et al. (2001). "Preventive effects of isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, on estradiol-17beta-related endometrial carcinogenesis in mice." Jpn J Cancer Res 92(7): 726–734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Littman, A.J., S.A. Beresford, et al. (2001). "The association of dietary fat and plant foods with endometrial cancer (United States)." Cancer Causes Control 12(8): 691–702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Liu, J.R., M. Conaway, et al. (1995). "Relationship between race and interval to treatment in endometrial cancer." Obstet Gynecol 86(4 Pt 1): 486–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Liu, T., X. Wang, et al. (1998). "Relationships between socioeconomic status and race-specific cervical cancer incidence in the United States, 1973–1992." J Health Care Poor Underserved 9(4): 420–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Liu, Y., D. el-Ashry, et al. (1995). "MCF-7 breast cancer cells overexpressing transfected c-erbB-2 have an in vitro growth advantage in estrogen-depleted conditions and reduced estrogen-dependence and tamoxifen-sensitivity in vivo." Breast Cancer Res Treat 34(2): 97–117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Londesborough, P., L. Ho, et al. (1996). "Human papillomavirus genotype as a predictor of persistence and development of high-grade lesions in women with minor cervical abnormalities." Int J Cancer 69(5): 364–368.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Lukes, A.S., M.F. Kohler, et al. (1994). "Multivariable analysis of DNA ploidy, p53, and HER-2/neu as prognostic factors in endometrial cancer." Cancer 73(9): 2380–2385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. MacDonald, PC, CD. Edman, et al. (1978). "Effect of obesity on conversion of plasma androstenedione to estrone in postmenopausal women with and without endometrial cancer." Am J Obstet Gynecol 130(4): 448–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Mackerras, D., L. Irwig, et al. (1999). "Randomized double-blind trial of beta-carotene and vitamin C in women with minor cervical abnormalities." Br J Cancer 79(9–10): 1448–1453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Madison, T., D. Schottenfeld, et al. (1998). "Cancer of the corpus uteri in white and black women in Michigan, 1985–1994: an analysis of trends in incidence and mortality and their relation to histologic subtype and stage." Cancer 83(8): 1546–1554.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Maiman, M. (1998). "Management of cervical neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women." J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr (23): 43–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Manetta, A., T. Schubbert, et al. (1996). "beta-Carotene treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a phase II study." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5(11): 929–932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Martin-Hirsch, P., E. Paraskevaidis, et al. (2000). Surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD001318.Google Scholar
  129. Masuyama, H., Y. Hiramatsu, et al. (2003). "Expression and potential roles of pregnane X receptor in endometrial cancer." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88(9): 4446–4454.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. McCann, M. F., D. E. Irwin, et al. (1992). "Nicotine and cotinine in the cervical mucus of smokers, passive smokers, and nonsmokers." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1(2): 125–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. McKean-Cowdin, R., H.S. Feigelson, et al. (2001). "Risk of endometrial cancer and estrogen replacement therapy history by CYP17 genotype." Cancer Res 61(3): 848–849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Meijer, C.J., M.A. Nobbenhuis, et al. (1999). Human papillomavirus and cervical lesions in a prospective study of 353 women with abnormal cytology. 18th International Human Papillomavirus Conference, Charleston, SC.Google Scholar
  133. Meisels, A., C. Morin, et al. (1983). "Human papillomavirus (HPV) venereal infections and gynecologic cancer." Pathol Annu 18 Pt 2: 277–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Menard, S., S.M. Pupa, et al. (2003). "Biologic and therapeutic role of HER2 in cancer." Oncogene 22(42): 6570–6578.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Meyskens, F. L., Jr., V. Graham, et al. (1983). "A phase I trial of beta-all-trans-retinoic acid delivered via a collagen sponge and a cervical cap for mild or moderate intraepithelial cervical neoplasia." J Natl Cancer Inst 71(5): 921–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Meyskens, F. L., Jr., E. Surwit, et al. (1994). "Enhancement of regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II (moderate dysplasia) with topically applied all-trans-retinoic acid: a randomized trial." J Natl Cancer Inst 86(7): 539–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Milde-Langosch, K., L. Riethdorf, et al. (1999). "P16/MTS1 and pRB expression in endometrial carcinomas." Virchows Arch 434(1): 23–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Miller, B.A., L.N. Kolonel, et al., editors (1996). Racial/ethnic patterns of cancer in the United States 1988–1992. Bethesda, National Cancer Institute.Google Scholar
  139. Mitchell, J.B. and L.A. McCormack (1997). "Time trends in late-stage diagnosis of cervical cancer. Differences by race/ethnicity and income." Med Care 35(12): 1220–1224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Mitchell, M.F., G. Tortolero-Luna, et al. (1998). "A randomized clinical trial of cryotherapy, laser vaporization, and loop electrosurgical excision for treatment of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix." Obstet Gynecol 92(5): 737–744.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Mitchell, M.F., G. Tortolero-Luna, et al. (1998). "Phase I dose de-escalation trial of alpha-difluoromethylornithine in patients with grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia." Clin Cancer Res 4(2): 303–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Mohan, D.S., M.A. Samuels, et al. (1998). "Long-term outcomes of therapeutic pelvic lymphadenectomy for stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma." Gynecol Oncol 70(2): 165–171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Montz, F.J. (2000). "Management of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and potential complications." Clin Obstet Gynecol 43(2): 394–409.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Moreno, V., F.X. Bosch, et al. (2002). "Effect of oral contraceptives on risk of cervical cancer in women with human papillomavirus infection: the IARC multicentric case-control study." Lancet 359(9312): 1085–1092.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Morris, M., G. Tortolero-Luna, et al. (1996). "Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer." Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 23(2): 347–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Moscicki, A. B., S. Shiboski, et al. (1998). "The natural history of human papillomavirus infection as measured by repeated DNA testing in adolescent and young women." J Pediatr 132(2): 277–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Moyer, P. (2004). "Vaccine against HPV strain protects against high-grade cervical neoplasia." Medscape Medical News Report on 44th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Abstract 3741., Accessed Feb 8, 2005.Google Scholar
  148. Muderspach, L, S. Wilczynski, et al. (2000). "A phase I trial of a human papillomavirus (HPV) peptide vaccine for women with high-grade cervical and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia who are HPV 16 positive." Clin Cancer Res 6(9): 3406–3416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Muller, M., J. Zhou, et al. (1997). "Chimeric papillomavirus-like particles." Virology 234(1): 93–111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Munoz, N., F.X. Bosch, et al. (2003). "Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer." N Engl J Med 348(6): 518–527.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Munoz, N., S. Franceschi, et al. (2002). "Role of parity and human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: the IARC multicentric case-control study, [see comments.]." Lancet 359(9312): 1093–1101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Murphy, L.J. (1994). "Growth factors and steroid hormone action in endometrial cancer." J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 48(5–6): 419–423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Muthuswamy, S. K., D. Li, et al. (2001). "ErbB2, but not ErbB1, reinitiates proliferation and induces luminal repopulation in-epithelial acini." Nat Cell Biol 3(9): 785–792.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Mutter, G.L., J.P. Baak, et al. (2001). "Global expression changes of constitutive and hormonally regulated genes during endometrial neoplastic transformation." Gynecol Oncol 83(2): 177–185.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Mutter, G.L., M.C. Lin, et al. (2000). "Altered PTEN expression as a diagnostic marker for the earliest endometrial precancers." J Natl Cancer Inst 92(11): 924–930.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Mutter, G.L., M.C. Lin, et al. (2000). "Changes in endometrial PTEN expression throughout the human menstrual cycle." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85(6): 2334–2338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Nakashima, R., M. Fujita, et al. (1999). "Alteration of p16 and p15 genes in human uterine tumours." Br J Cancer 80(3–4): 458–467.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Napoles-Springer, A., E.J. Perez-Stable, et al. (1996). "Risk factors for invasive cervical cancer in Latino women." J Med Syst 20(5): 277–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Nastala, C.L., H.D. Edington, et al. (1994). "Recombinant IL-12 administration induces tumor regression in association with IFN-gamma production." J Immunol 153(4): 1697–1706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. NCI (2001). NCI Bethesda System 2001, National Cancer Institute,, Accessed Feb 8, 2005.Google Scholar
  161. Negri, E., C. La Vecchia, et al. (1996). "Intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of endometrial carcinoma." Cancer 77(5): 917–923.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. NIH (1996). Cervical Cancer: NIH Consensus Statement. 14: 1–38.Google Scholar
  163. Oehler, M. K., A. Brand, et al. (2003). "Molecular genetics and endometrial cancer." J Br Menopause Soc 9(1): 27–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Ordener, C, B. Cypriani, et al. (1993). "Epidermal growth factor and insulin induce the proliferation of guinea pig endometrial stromal cells in serum-free culture, whereas estradiol and progesterone do not." Biol Reprod 49(5): 1032–1044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. O'Shaughnessy, J.A., G.J. Kelloff, et al. (2002). "Treatment and prevention of intraepithelial neoplasia: an important target for accelerated new agent development." Clin Cancer Res 8(2): 314–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Ostor, A.G. (1993). "Natural history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a critical review." Int J Gynecol Pathol 12(2): 186–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Palazzo, J.P., W.E. Mercer, et al. (1997). "Immunohistochemical localization of p21(WAF1/CIP1) in normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic uterine tissues." Hum Pathol 28(1): 60–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Palefsky, J.M. and E.A. Holly (1995). "Molecular virology and epidemiology of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 4(4): 415–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Parazzini, F., C. La Vecchia, et al. (1991). "The epidemiology of endometrial cancer." Gynecol Oncol 41(1): 1–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Parkin, D.M., F. Bray, et al. (2001). "Estimating the world cancer burden: Globocan 2000." Int J Cancer 94(2): 153–156.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Parkin, D.M., P. Pisani, et al. (1999). "Estimates of the worldwide incidence of 25 major cancers in 1990." Int J Cancer 80(6): 827–841.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Parkin, D.M., P. Pisani, et al. (1999). "Global cancer statistics." CA Cancer J Clin 49(1): 33–64, 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Parkin, D. M., A. P. Vizcaino, et al. (1994). "Cancer patterns and risk factors in the African population of southwestern Zimbabwe, 1963–1977." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 3(7): 537–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Patten, S.F., J.S.J. Lee, et al. (1997). "The AutoPap 300 QC system multicenter clinicaltials for use in quality control rescreening of cervical smears. I. A prospective intended use study." Cancer Cytopathol 81: 337–342.Google Scholar
  175. Peiffer, S.L., T.J. Herzog, et al. (1995). "Allelic loss of sequences from the long arm of chromosome 10 and replication errors in endometrial cancers." Cancer Res 55(9): 1922–1926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Perez-Medina, T, J. Bajo, et al. (1999). "Atypical endometrial hyperplasia treatment with progestogens and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues: long-term follow-up." Gynecol Oncol 73(2): 299–304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Peters, W.A., 3rd, W.A. Andersen, et al. (1983). "The selective use of vaginal hysterectomy in the management of adenocarcinoma of the endometrium." Am J Obstet Gynecol 146(3): 285–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Petridou, E., S. Kedikoglou, et al. (2002). "Diet in relation to endometrial cancer risk: a case-control study in Greece." Nutr Cancer 44(1): 16–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Pike, M.C., R.K. Peters, et al. (1997). "Estrogen-progestin replacement therapy and endometrial cancer." J Natl Cancer Inst 89(15): 1110–1116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Plaxe, S.C. and S.L. Saltzstein (1997). "Impact of ethnicity on the incidence of high-risk endometrial carcinoma." Gynecol Oncol 65(1): 8–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Prokopczyk, B., J.E. Cox, et al. (1997). "Identification of tobacco-specific carcinogen in the cervical mucus of smokers and nonsmokers." J Natl Cancer Inst 89(12): 868–873.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Randall, T.C. and R.J. Kurman (1997). "Progestin treatment of atypical hyperplasia and well-differentiated carcinoma of the endometrium in women under age 40." Obstet Gynecol 90(3): 434–440.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Richardson, H., G. Kelsall, et al. (2003). "The natural history of type-specific human papillomavirus infections in female university students." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12(6): 485–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Ries, L.A.G., M.P. Eisner, et al., editors (2001). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973–1998. Bethesda, National Cancer Institute.Google Scholar
  185. Ries, L.A.G., L.N. Kosary, et al., editors (1999). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973–1996. Bethesda, National Cancer Institute.Google Scholar
  186. Risinger, J.I., A.K. Hayes, et al. (1997). "PTEN/MMAC1 mutations in endometrial cancers." Cancer Res 57(21): 4736–4738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Roland, P.Y., F.J. Kelly, et al. (2004). "The benefits of a gynecologic oncologist: a pattern of care study for endometrial cancer treatment." Gynecol Oncol 93(1): 125–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Rolitsky, CD., K.S. Theil, et al. (1999). "HER-2/neu amplification and overexpression in endometrial carcinoma." Int J Gynecol Pathol 18(2): 138–143.Google Scholar
  189. Romney, S.L., J. Basu, et al. (1987). "Plasma reduced and total ascorbic acid in human uterine cervix dysplasias and cancer." Ann N Y Acad Sci 498: 132–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Romney, S.L., A. Dwyer, et al. (1985). "Chemoprevention of cervix cancer: Phase I–II: A feasibility study involving the topical vaginal administration of retinyl acetate gel." Gynecol Oncol 20(1): 109–119.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Romney, S.L., G.Y. Ho, et al. (1997). "Effects of beta-carotene and other factors on outcome of cervical dysplasia and human papillomavirus infection." Gynecol Oncol 65(3): 483–492.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Rossouw, J. E., G. L. Anderson, et al. (2002). "Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial." JAMA 288(3): 321–333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Salehi, M., R. Bravo-Vera, et al. (2004). "Pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome: what is the role of obesity?" Metabolism 53(3): 358–376.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Salvesen, H.B. and LA. Akslen (2002). "Molecular pathogenesis and prognostic factors in endometrial carcinoma." Apmis 110(10): 673–689.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Samson, S.-L.A., J.R. Bentley, et al. (2005). "The effect of LEEP electrosurgical excision procedure on future pregnancy outcome." Obstet Gynecol 105(2): 325–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Sarkar, M.A., V. Vadlamuri, et al. (2003). "Expression and cyclic variability of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 isoforms in human endometrium and cervix during the menstrual cycle." Drug Metab Dispos 31(1): 1–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Sasaki, H., H. Nishii, et al. (1993). "Mutation of the Ki-ras protooncogene in human endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma." Cancer Res 53(8): 1906–1910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Sasaki, M., M. Kaneuchi, et al. (2003). "CYP1B1 gene in endometrial cancer." Mol Cell Endocrinol 202(1–2): 171–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Saslow, D., CD. Runowicz, et al. (2002). "American Cancer Society guideline for the early detection of cervical neoplasia and cancer." CA Cancer J Clin 52(6): 342–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Scheffner, M., J.M. Huibregtse, et al. (1993). "The HPV-16 E6 and E6-AP complex functions as a ubiquitin-protein ligase in the ubiquitination of p53." Cell 75(3): 495–505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Schiffman, M.H., H.M. Bauer, et al. (1993). "Epidemiologic evidence showing that human papillomavirus infection causes most cervical intraepithelial neoplasia." J Natl Cancer Inst 85(12): 958–964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Schiffman, M.H. and S.K. Kjaer (2003). "Natural history of anogenital human papillomavirus infection and neoplasia." J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 31: 14–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Schlesselman, J.J. (1997). "Risk of endometrial cancer in relation to use of combined oral contraceptives. A practitioner's guide to meta-analysis." Hum Reprod 12(9): 1851–1863.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Sheets, E.E., R.G. Urban, et al. (2003). "Immunotherapy of human cervical high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with microparticle-delivered human papillomavirus 16 E7 plasmid DNA." Am J Obstet Gynecol 188(4): 916–926.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Sherman, M.E. and S.S. Devesa (2003). "Analysis of racial differences in incidence, survival, and mortality for malignant tumors of the uterine corpus." Cancer 98(1): 176–186.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Sherman, M. E., M. Schiffman, et al. (2002). "Effects of age and human papilloma viral load on colposcopy triage: data from the randomized Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study (ALTS)." J Natl Cancer Inst 94(2): 102–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Shiozawa, T., T. Nikaido, et al. (1997). "Immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of cdk4 and p16INK4 in human endometrioid-type endometrial carcinoma." Cancer 80(12): 2250–2256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Shirodkar, S., M. Ewen, et al. (1992). "The transcription factor E2F interacts with the retinoblastoma product and a p107-cyclin A complex in a cell cycle-regulated manner." Cell 68(1): 157–166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Sizemore, N., C.K. Choo, et al. (1998). "Transcriptional regulation of the EGF receptor promoter by HPV16 and retinoic acid in human ectocervical epithelial cells." Exp Cell Res 244(1): 349–356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Smid-Koopman, E., L.J. Blok, et al. (2004). "Gene expression profiling in human endometrial cancer tissue samples: utility and diagnostic value." Gynecol Oncol 93(2): 292–300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Steck, P.A., M.A. Pershouse, et al. (1997). "Identification of a candidate tumour suppressor gene, MMAC1, at chromosome 10q23.3 that is mutated in multiple advanced cancers." Nat Genet 15(4): 356–362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Surwit, E.A., V. Graham, et al. (1982). "Evaluation of topically applied trans-retinoic acid in the treatment of cervical intraepithelial lesions." Am J Obstet Gynecol 143(7): 821–823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Swanson, C.A., N. Potischman, et al. (1994). "Endometrial cancer risk in relation to serum lipids and lipoprotein levels." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 3(7): 575–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Tashiro, H., M.S. Blazes, et al. (1997). "Mutations in PTEN are frequent in endometrial carcinoma but rare in other common gynecological malignancies." Cancer Res 57(18): 3935–3940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. ter Harmsel, B., F. Smedts, et al. (1999). "Relationship between human papillomavirus type 16 in the cervix and intraepithelial neoplasia." Obstet Gynecol 93(1): 46–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Terry, P., A. Wolk, et al. (2002). "Fatty fish consumption lowers the risk of endometrial cancer: a nationwide case-control study in Sweden." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11(1): 143–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Terry, P. D., T. E. Rohan, et al. (2002). "Cigarette smoking and the risk of endometrial cancer." Lancet Oncol 3(8): 470–480.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Thiet, M. P., R. Osathanondh, et al. (1994). "Localization and timing of appearance of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and their receptors in the human fetal mullerian tract." Am J Obstet Gynecol 170(1 Pt 1): 152–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Thomas, D. B., R. M. Ray, et al. (1996). "Prostitution, condom use, and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer in Thailand." Am J Epidemiol 143(8): 779–786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Thorland, E.C., S.L. Myers, et al. (2000). "Human papillomavirus type 16 integrations in cervical tumors frequently occur in common fragile sites." Cancer Res 60(21): 5916–5921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Troisi, R., N. Potischman, et al. (1997). "Insulin and endometrial cancer." Am J Epidemiol 146(6): 476–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Tsuda, H., K. Jiko, et al. (1995). "Frequent occurrence of c-Ki-ras gene mutations in well differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma showing inflltrative local growth with fibrosing stromal response." Int J Gynecol Pathol 14(3): 255–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Vadlamuri, S.V., D.D. Glover, et al. (1998). "Regiospecific expression of cytochrome P4501A1 and 1B1 in human uterine tissue." Cancer Lett 122(1–2): 143–150.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. van Duin, M., P.J. Snijders, et al. (2002). "Human papillomavirus 16 load in normal and abnormal cervical scrapes: an indicator of CIN II/III and viral clearance." Int J Cancer 98(4): 590–595.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Vassilakos, P., J. Saurel, et al. (1999). "Direct-to-vial use of the AutoCyte PREP liquid-based preparation for cervical-vaginal specimens in three European laboratories." Acta Cytol 43(1): 65–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Vogelstein, B., E.R. Fearon, et al. (1988). "Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development." N Engl J Med 319(9): 525–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Vousden, K. H. and X. Lu (2002). "Live or let die: the cell's response to p53." Nat Rev Cancer 2(8): 594–604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Waterman, H., I. Alroy, et al. (1999). "The C-terminus of the kinase-defective neuregulin receptor ErbB-3 confers mitogenic superiority and dictates endocytic routing." Embo J 18(12): 3348–3358.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Watson, P., H.F. Vasen, et al. (1994). "The risk of endometrial cancer in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer." Am J Med 96(6): 516–520.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Wattenberg, L.W. and W.D. Loub (1978). "Inhibition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced neoplasia by naturally occurring indoles." Cancer Res 38(5): 1410–1413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Weiderpass, E., K. Brismar, et al. (2003). "Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF-binding protein 1 and 3, and insulin and endometrial cancer risk." Br J Cancer 89(9): 1697–1704.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Weiner, S.A., E.A. Surwit, et al. (1986). "A phase I trial of topically applied trans-retinoic acid in cervical dysplasia-clinical efficacy." Invest New Drugs 4(3): 241–244.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Wentz, W.B. (1985). "Progestin therapy in lesions of the endometrium." Semin Oncol 12(1 Suppl 1): 23–27.Google Scholar
  234. Wright, T.C., J.T. Cox, et al. (2002). "2001 consensus guidelines for the management of women with cervical cytological abnormalities." JAMA 287: 2120–2129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Wright, T.C., Jr. (1994). Precancerous lesions of the cervix. In: Blaustein's Pathology of the Female Genital Tract. R. Kurman (Ed.), Springer Verlag: 229–278.Google Scholar
  236. Wright, T.C., Jr., J.T. Cox, et al. (2003). "2001 consensus guidelines for the management of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia." Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(1): 295–304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Wright, T.C., Jr., A. Lorincz, et al. (1998). "Reflex human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid testing in women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears." Am J Obstet Gynecol 178(5): 962–966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Wright, T.C., Jr., M. Schiffman, et al. (2004). "Interim guidance for the use of human papillomavirus DNA testing as an adjunct to cervical cytology for screening." Obstet Gynecol 103(2): 304–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Yoo, K.Y., D. Kang, et al. (1997). "Risk factors associated with uterine cervical cancer in Korea: a case-control study with special reference to sexual behavior." J Epidemiol 7(3): 117–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Zaino, R.J., R.J. Kurman, et al. (1996). "Pathologic models to predict outcome for women with endometrial adenocarcinoma: the importance of the distinction between surgical stage and clinical stage — a Gynecologic Oncology Group study." Cancer 77(6): 1115–1121.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Zola, H., P. Roberts-Tompson, et al. (1995). Diagnostic Immunopathology, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  242. Zunzunegui, M.V., M.C. King, et al. (1986). "Male influences on cervical cancer risk." Am J Epidemiol 123(2): 302–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. zur Hausen, H. (1977). "Human papillomaviruses and their possible role in squamous cell carcinomas." Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 78: 1–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Zwaveling, S., S.C. Ferreira Mota, et al. (2002). "Established human papillomavirus type 16-expressing tumors are effectively eradicated following vaccination with long peptides." J Immunol 169(1): 350–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisco Garcia
    • 1
  • J. Newton
    • 1
  • Susie Baldwin
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of ArizonaTucson

Personalised recommendations