Lung Cancer Prevention

  • Iman Hakim
  • Linda Garland


Lung Cancer Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Natl Cancer Inst Environmental Tobacco Smoke Lung Cancer Risk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. (1994). "The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group." N Engl J Med 330(15): 1029–1035.Google Scholar
  2. (1996). "Clinical development plan: tea extracts. Green tea polyphenols. Epigallocatechin gallate." J Cell Biochem Suppl 26: 236–257.Google Scholar
  3. (1999). "Tobacco use—United States, 1900–1999." MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 48(43): 986–993.Google Scholar
  4. (2002). "Cigarette smoking among adults — United States, 2000." MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 51(29): 642–645.Google Scholar
  5. (2004). "Prevalence of cigarette use among 14 racial/ethnic populations — United States, 1999–2001." MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 53(3): 49–52.Google Scholar
  6. Ahmad, N., D.K. Feyes, et al. (1997). "Green tea constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate and induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human carcinoma cells." J Natl Cancer Inst 89(24): 1881–1886.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Akaike, T., M. Suga, et al. (1998). "Free radicals in viral pathogenesis: molecular mechanisms involving superoxide and NO." Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 217(1): 64–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ames, B.N., L.S. Gold, et al. (1995). "The causes and prevention of cancer." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92(12): 5258–5265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ames, B.N. and M.K. Shigenaga (1992). DNA damage by endogenous oxidants and mito-genesis as causes of aging and cancer. Molecular biology of free radical scavenging systems. J.G. Scandalios. Plainview, N.Y., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: ix, 284.Google Scholar
  10. Awad, J.A., L.J. Roberts, 2nd, et al. (1996). "Isoprostanes — prostaglandin-like compounds formed in vivo independently of cyclooxygenase: use as clinical indicators of oxidant damage." Gastroenterol Clin North Am 25(2): 409–427.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Belinsky, S.A., K.J. Nikula, et al. (1998). "Aberrant methylation of p16(INK4a) is an early event in lung cancer and a potential biomarker for early diagnosis." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95(20): 11891–11896.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bell, D.A., J.A. Taylor, et al. (1993). "Genetic risk and carcinogen exposure: a common inherited defect of the carcinogen-metabolism gene glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) that increases susceptibility to bladder cancer." J Natl Cancer Inst 85(14): 1159–1164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Boffetta, P. and F. Nyberg (2003). "Contribution of environmental factors to cancer risk." Br Med Bull 68: 71–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bohr, V.A., B.G. Taffe, et al. (1995). DNA repair, oxidative stress and aging. Oxidative stress and aging. R.G. Cutler. Basel; Boston, Birkhhauser Verlag: 101–110.Google Scholar
  15. Brockmoller, J., R. Kerb, et al. (1993). "Genotype and phenotype of glutathione S-transferase class mu isoenzymes mu and psi in lung cancer patients and controls." Cancer Res 53(5): 1004–1011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Burns, D. M. (2000). "Primary prevention, smoking, and smoking cessation: implications for future trends in lung cancer prevention." Cancer 89(11 Suppl): 2506–2509.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, Y., M. Sato, et al. (1999). "Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and p53 proteins in carcinogenesis of squamous cell lung cancer." Anticancer Res 19(2B): 1351–1356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cheng, K.C., D.S. Cahill, et al. (1992). "8-Hydroxyguanine, an abundant form of oxidative DNA damage, causes G–T and A–C substitutions." J Biol Chem 267(1): 166–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cheng, S.J. (1989). "[Inhibitory effect of green tea extract on promotion and related action of TPA]." Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 11(4): 259–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark, L.C. (1985). "The epidemiology of selenium and cancer." Fed Proc 44(9): 2584–2589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen, A.J. (2000). "Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer." Environ Health Perspect 108Suppl 4: 743–750.Google Scholar
  22. Colby, T.V. (1999). Precursor lesions to pulmonary neoplasia. Lung tumors: fundamental biology and clinical management. C. Brambilla and E. Brambilla. New York, Dekker: xxxii, 858.Google Scholar
  23. Combs, G.F., Jr. (1999). "Chemopreventive mechanisms of selenium." Med Klin (Munich) 94Suppl 3: 18–24.Google Scholar
  24. Criqui, M. H., S. Bangdiwala, et al. (1991). "Selenium, retinol, retinol-binding protein, and uric acid. Associations with cancer mortality in a population-based prospective case-control study." Ann Epidemiol 1(5): 385–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cuendet, M. and J.M. Pezzuto (2000). "The role of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase in cancer chemoprevention." Toxicology 153(1–3): 11–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Danam, R.P., X.C. Qian, et al. (1999). "Methylation of selected CpGs in the human O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter region as a marker of gene silencing." Mol Carcinog 24(2): 85–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Doll, R. (1978). "Atmospheric pollution and lung cancer." Environ Health Perspect 22: 23–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Doll, R. and A.B. Hill (1952). "A study of the aetiology of carcinoma of the lung." Br Med J 2(4797): 1271–1286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Doll, R. and R. Peto (1976). "Mortality in relation to smoking: 20 years' observations on male British doctors." Br Med J 2(6051): 1525–1536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Doll, R., M.B. Vessey, R.W. Beasley, A.R. Buckley, E.C. Fear, R.E.W. Fisher, E.J. Gammon, W. Gunn, G.O. Hughes, K. Lee, K., et al. (1972). "Mortality of gas workers: final report of a prospective study." Br J Ind Med 29: 394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ebbert, J.O., P. Yang, et al. (2003). "Lung cancer risk reduction after smoking cessation: observations from a prospective cohort of women." J Clin Oncol 21(5): 921–926.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. El-Bayoumy, K. (2001). "The protective role of selenium on genetic damage and on cancer." Mutat Res 475(1–2): 123–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Erhola, M., S. Toyokuni, et al. (1997). "Biomarker evidence of DNA oxidation in lung cancer patients: association of urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine excretion with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and response to treatment." FEBS Lett 409(2): 287–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Esteller, M., P.G. Corn, et al. (2001). "A gene hypermethylation profile of human cancer." Cancer Res 61(8): 3225–3229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Esteller, M., P.G. Corn, et al. (1998). "Inactivation of glutathione S-transferase P1 gene by promoter hypermethylation in human neoplasia." Cancer Res 58(20): 4515–4518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Esteller, M., S.R. Hamilton, et al. (1999). "Inactivation of the DNA repair gene O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase by promoter hypermethylation is a common event in primary human neoplasia." Cancer Res 59(4): 793–797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Esteller, M., M. Sanchez-Cespedes, et al. (1999). "Detection of aberrant promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in serum DNA from non-small cell lung cancer patients." Cancer Res 59(1): 67–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Esteller, M., S. Tortola, et al. (2000). "Hypermethylation-associated inactivation of p14(ARF) is independent of p16(INK4a) methylation and p53 mutational status." Cancer Res 60(1): 129–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Etzel, C.J., C.I. Amos, et al. (2003). "Risk for smoking-related cancer among relatives of lung cancer patients." Cancer Res 63(23): 8531–8535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Farias-Eisner, R., M. P. Sherman, et al. (1994). "Nitric oxide is an important mediator for tumoricidal activity in vivo." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91(20): 9407–9411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fiala, E.S., M.E. Staretz, et al. (1998). "Inhibition of DNA cytosine methyltransferase by chemopreventive selenium compounds, determined by an improved assay for DNA cytosine methyltransferase and DNA cytosine methylation." Carcinogenesis 19(4): 597–604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Filep, J.G., C. Baron, et al. (1996). "Involvement of nitric oxide in target-cell lysis and DNA fragmentation induced by murine natural killer cells." Blood 87(12): 5136–5143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Floyd, R.A. (1990). "The role of 8-hydroxyguanine in carcinogenesis." Carcinogenesis 11(9): 1447–1450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Floyd, R.A., J.J. Watson, et al. (1986). "Hydroxyl free radical adduct of deoxyguanosine: sensitive detection and mechanisms of formation." Free Radic Res Commun 1(3): 163–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fontana, R.S., D.R. Sanderson, et al. (1984). "Early lung cancer detection: results of the initial (prevalence) radiologic and cytologic screening in the Mayo Clinic study." Am Rev Respir Dis 130(4): 561–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Franklin, W.A. (2000). "Pathology of lung cancer." J Thorac Imaging 15(1): 3–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Frenkel, K., J.M. Donahue, et al. (1988). Benzo(a)pyrene-induced exudative DNA damage. A possible mechanism for promotion by complete carcinogens. Oxy-radicals in molecular biology and pathology: proceedings of an Upjohn-UCLA symposium, held at Park City, Utah, January 24–30, 1988. P.A. Cerutti, I. Fridovich and J.M. McCord. New York, Liss: xx, 586.Google Scholar
  48. Fujiki, H., M. Suganuma, et al. (2001). "Cancer prevention with green tea and monitoring by a new biomarker, hnRNP B1." Mutat Res 480–481: 299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Garland, M., J.S. Morris, et al. (1995). "Prospective study of toenail selenium levels and cancer among women." J Natl Cancer Inst 87(7): 497–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Giovino, G.A., M.W. Schooley, et al. (1994). "Surveillance for selected tobacco-use behaviors — United States, 1900–1994." MMWR CDC Surveill Summ 43(3): 1–43.Google Scholar
  51. Grandis, J.R. and J.C. Sok (2004). "Signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor during the development of malignancy." Pharmacol Ther 102(1): 37–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gridelli, C, P. Maione, et al. (2000). "Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and non-small cell lung cancer." Drug Metabol Drug Interact 17(1–4): 109–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Guyton, K.Z. and T.W. Kensler (1993). "Oxidative mechanisms in carcinogenesis." Br Med Bull 49(3): 523–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hahn, S. M., E. Bernhard, et al. (2001). "Farnesyltransferase inhibitors." Semin Oncol 28(5 Suppl 16): 86–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Halliwell, B. and O.I. Aruoma (1991). "DNA damage by oxygen-derived species. Its mechanism and measurement in mammalian systems." FEBS Lett 281(1/2): 9–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Halpern, M.T., B.W. Gillespie, et al. (1993). "Patterns of absolute risk of lung cancer mortality in former smokers." J Natl Cancer Inst 85(6): 457–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hammond, E.C. (1966). "Smoking in relation to the death rates of one million men and women." Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 19: 127–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hayes, J.D. and D.J. Pulford (1995). "The glutathione S-transferase supergene family: regulation of GST and the contribution of the isoenzymes to cancer chemoprotection and drug resistance." Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 30(6): 445–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. He, X.Z., W. Chen, et al. (1991). "An epidemiological study of lung cancer in Xuan Wei County, China: current progress. Case-control study on lung cancer and cooking fuel." Environ Health Perspect 94: 9–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hecht, S.S. (1999). "Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer." J Natl Cancer Inst 91(14): 1194–1210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Henschke, C.I., D.I. McCauley, et al. (1999). "Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening." Lancet 354(9173): 99–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hirvonen, A., K. Husgafvel-Pursiainen, et al. (1993). "The GSTM1 null genotype as a potential risk modifier for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung." Carcinogenesis 14(7): 1479–1481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hittleman, W.N. (2002). "Effect of tobacco carcinogens on the bronchial epithelium." American Society of Clinical Oncology: 18–23.Google Scholar
  64. Hommura, F., H. Dosaka-Akita, et al. (2000). "Prognostic significance of p27KIP1 protein and ki-67 growth fraction in non-small cell lung cancers." Clin Cancer Res 6(10): 4073–4081.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Howard, D.J., L.A. Briggs, et al. (1998). "Oxidative DNA damage in mouse heart, liver, and lung tissue due to acute side-stream tobacco smoke exposure." Arch Biochem Biophys 352(2): 293–297.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Hu, G., C. Han, et al. (1995). "Inhibition of oncogene expression by green tea and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in mice." Nutr Cancer 24(2): 203–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Inoue, M., T. Osaki, et al. (1998). "Lung cancer patients have increased 8-hydroxydeoxygua-nosine levels in peripheral lung tissue DNA." Jpn J Cancer Res 89(7): 691–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Ip, C., H.J. Thompson, et al. (2000). "Selenium modulation of cell proliferation and cell cycle biomarkers in normal and premalignant cells of the rat mammary gland." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9(1): 49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Islam, S., N. Islam, et al. (2000). "Involvement of caspase-3 in epigallocatechin-3-gallate-mediated apoptosis of human chondrosarcoma cells." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 270(3): 793–797.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Izzotti, A., R. M. Balansky, et al. (2001). "Modulation of biomarkers by chemopreventive agents in smoke-exposed rats." Cancer Res 61(6): 2472–2479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Jackson, J.H. (1994). "Potential molecular mechanisms of oxidant-induced carcinogenesis." Environ Health Perspect 102Suppl 10: 155–157.Google Scholar
  72. Jemal, A., K.C. Chu, et al. (2001). "Recent trends in lung cancer mortality in the United States." J Natl Cancer Inst 93(4): 277–283.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Jemal, A., R.C. Tiwari, et al. (2004). "Cancer statistics, 2004." CA Cancer J Clin 54(1): 8–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kabuto, M., H. Imai, et al. (1994). "Prediagnostic serum selenium and zinc levels and subsequent risk of lung and stomach cancer in Japan." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 3(6):465–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Karch, N.J., M.A. Schneiderman (1981). Explaining the Urban Factor in Lung Cancer Mortality. A Report of the National Resources Defense Council. Washington DC, Clement Associates Inc.Google Scholar
  76. Kasai, H. (1998). "Hydroxyguanine in carcinogenesis." Pathophysiology 5(Supplement 1): 140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Katiyar, S. K., R. Agarwal, et al. (1992). "(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate in Camellia sinensis leaves from Himalayan region of Sikkim: inhibitory effects against biochemical events and tumor initiation in Sencar mouse skin." Nutr Cancer 18(1): 73–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Katoh, T., N. Nagata, et al. (1996). "Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) genetic polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric and colorectal adenocarcinoma." Carcinogenesis 17(9): 1855–1859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kawamori, T., K. El-Bayoumy, et al. (1998). "Evaluation of benzyl selenocyanate glutathione conjugate for potential chemopreventive properties in colon carcinogenesis." Int J Oncol 13(1): 29–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Keefer, L.K. and D.A. Wink (1996). "DNA damage and nitric oxide." Adv Exp Med Biol 387: 177–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kennedy, T.C., S.P. Proudfoot, et al. (1996). "Cytopathological analysis of sputum in patients with airflow obstruction and significant smoking histories." Cancer Res 56(20): 4673–4678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kersting, M., C. Friedl, et al. (2000). "Differential frequencies of p16(INK4a) promoter hypermethylation, p53 mutation, and K-ras mutation in exfoliative material mark the development of lung cancer in symptomatic chronic smokers." J Clin Oncol 18(18): 3221–3229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Ketterer, B., J.M. Harris, et al. (1992). "The human glutathione S-transferase supergene family, its polymorphism, and its effects on susceptibility to lung cancer." Environ Health Perspect 98: 87–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Khuri, F.R., J.S. Lee, et al. (2001). "Modulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the bronchial epithelium of smokers." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10(4): 311–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Khuri, F.R., M.T. Spitz, W.K. Hong (1995). "Lung cancer chemoprevention: targeting former rather than current smokers." Can Prec Int 2: 55.Google Scholar
  86. Kihara, M. and K. Noda (1994). "Lung cancer risk of GSTM1 null genotype is dependent on the extent of tobacco smoke exposure." Carcinogenesis 15(2): 415–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Knekt, P., A. Aromaa, et al. (1990). "Serum selenium and subsequent risk of cancer among Finnish men and women." J Natl Cancer Inst 82(10): 864–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Knekt, P., R. Jarvinen, et al. (1991). "Dietary antioxidants and the risk of lung cancer." Am J Epidemiol 134(5): 471–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Knekt, P., J. Marniemi, et al. (1998). "Is low selenium status a risk factor for lung cancer?" Am J Epidemiol 148(10): 975–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Koomagi, R. and M. Volm (2000). "Relationship between the expression of caspase-3 and the clinical outcome of patients with non-small cell lung cancer." Anticancer Res 20(1B): 493–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kurie, J.M., R. Lotan, et al. (2003). "Treatment of former smokers with 9-cis-retinoic acid reverses loss of retinoic acid receptor-beta expression in the bronchial epithelium: results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial." J Natl Cancer Inst 95(3): 206–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kuschner, M. (1968). "The causes of lung cancer." Am Rev Respir Dis 98(4): 573–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Lam, S., J.C. leRiche, et al. (1999). "Sex-related differences in bronchial epithelial changes associated with tobacco smoking." J Natl Cancer Inst 91(8): 691–696.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Lane, P. and S.S. Gross (1999). "Cell signaling by nitric oxide." Semin Nephrol 19(3): 215–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Le Marchand, L., T. Donlon, et al. (2002). "Association of the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism with lung cancer risk." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11(4): 409–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Lee, H.Y., J. Chaudhary, et al. (1998). "Suppression of c-Fos gene transcription with malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells." Oncogene 16(23): 3039–3046.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Leo, M.A., S.I. Aleynik, et al. (1997). "F2-isoprostane and 4-hydroxynonenal excretion in human bile of patients with biliary tract and pancreatic disorders." Am J Gastroenterol 92(11): 2069–2072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Levin, M. L., H. Goldstein, et al. (1950). "Cancer and tobacco smoking; a preliminary report." J Am Med Assoc 143(4): 336–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Lippman, S.M., J.J. Lee, et al. (2001). "Randomized phase III intergroup trial of isotretinoin to prevent second primary tumors in stage I non-small-cell lung cancer." J Natl Cancer Inst 93(8): 605–618.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lubin, J.H. and K. Steindorf (1995). "Cigarette use and the estimation of lung cancer attributable to radon in the United States." Radiat Res 141(1): 79–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. MacNee, W. (2001). "Oxidants/antioxidants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: pathogenesis to therapy." Novartis Found Symp 234: 169–185; discussion 185–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Maehira, F., F. Zaha, et al. (2000). "Effects of passive smoking on the regulation of rat aortic cholesteryl ester hydrolases by signal transduction." Lipids 35(5): 503–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Mallat, Z., I. Philip, et al. (1998). "Elevated levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha in pericardial fluid of patients with heart failure: a potential role for in vivo oxidant stress in ventricular dilatation and progression to heart failure." Circulation 97(16): 1536–1539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Marks, F., K. Muller-Decker, et al. (2000). "A causal relationship between unscheduled eicosanoid signaling and tumor development: cancer chemoprevention by inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism." Toxicology 153(1–3): 11–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Masuda, M., M. Suzui, et al. (2001). "Effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on growth, epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathways, gene expression, and chemosensitivity in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines." Clin Cancer Res 7(12): 4220–4229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Mayne, S.T., J. Buenconsejo, et al. (1999). "Familial cancer history and lung cancer risk in United States nonsmoking men and women." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8(12): 1065–1069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Melamed, M.R., B.J. Flehinger, et al. (1984). "Screening for early lung cancer. Results of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering study in New York." Chest 86(1): 44–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Mendilaharsu, M., E. De Stefani, et al. (1998). "Consumption of tea and coffee and the risk of lung cancer in cigarette-smoking men: a case-control study in Uruguay." Lung Cancer 19(2): 101–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Menkes, M.S., G.W. Comstock, et al. (1986). "Serum beta-carotene, vitamins A and E, selenium, and the risk of lung cancer." N Engl J Med 315(20): 1250–1254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Montine, T.J., M.F. Beal, et al. (1999). "Cerebrospinal fluid F2-isoprostanes are elevated in Huntington's disease." Neurology 52(5): 1104–1105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Montuschi, P., G. Ciabattoni, et al. (1998). "8-Isoprostane as a biomarker of oxidative stress in interstitial lung diseases." Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158(5 Pt 1): 1524–1527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Morrow, J.D., T.A. Minton, et al. (1994). "Evidence that the F2-isoprostane, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha, is formed in vivo." Biochim Biophys Acta 1210(2): 244–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Narayanaswami, V. and H. Sies (1990). "Antioxidant activity of ebselen and related selenoorganic compounds in microsomal lipid peroxidation." Free Radic Res Commun 10(4–5): 237–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. NCI (2004). National Lung Screening Trial Reaches Goal of 50,000 Participants., National Cancer Institute Press Release, January 27, 2004.Google Scholar
  115. Nelson, M.A., M. Reid, et al. (2002). "Prostate cancer and selenium." Urol Clin North Am 29(1): 67–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Neuberger, J.S. and R.W. Field (2003). "Occupation and lung cancer in nonsmokers." Rev Environ Health 18(4): 251–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Nguyen, A., Z. Jing, et al. (2000). "In vivo gene expression profile analysis of metallothionein in renal cell carcinoma." Cancer Lett 160(2): 133–140.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Nigro, J.M., S.J. Baker, et al. (1989). "Mutations in the p53 gene occur in diverse human tumour types." Nature 342(6250): 705–708.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Nomura, A., L.K. Heilbrun, et al. (1987). "Serum selenium and the risk of cancer, by specific sites: case-control analysis of prospective data." J Natl Cancer Inst 79(1): 103–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Ohashi, N. and M. Yoshikawa (2000). "Rapid and sensitive quantification of 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha in human plasma and urine by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry." J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 746(1): 17–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Ohno, Y., K. Wakai, et al. (1995). "Tea consumption and lung cancer risk: a case-control study in Okinawa, Japan." Jpn J Cancer Res 86(11): 1027–1034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Okai, Y. and K. Higashi-Okai (1997). "Potent suppressing activity of the non-polyphenolic fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against genotoxin-induced umu C gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium (TA 1535/pSK 1002)—association with pheophytins a and b." Cancer Lett 120(1): 117–123.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Omenn, G.S., G.E. Goodman, et al. (1996). "Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease." N Engl J Med 334(18): 1150–1155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Palmisano, W.A., K. K. Divine, et al. (2000). "Predicting lung cancer by detecting aberrant promoter methylation in sputum." Cancer Res 60(21): 5954–5958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Park, J.Y., S.Y. Lee, et al. (2002). "Polymorphism of the DNA repair gene XRCC1 and risk of primary lung cancer." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11(1): 23–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Passey, R.D. (1962). "Some problems of lung cancer." Lancet 2: 107–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Pemble, S., K.R. Schroeder, et al. (1994). "Human glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT1): cDNA cloning and the characterization of a genetic polymorphism." Biochem J 300 (Pt 1): 271–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Peterhans, E. (1997). "Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in viral diseases." Biol Trace Elem Res 56(1): 107–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Petty, W.J., K. H. Dragnev, et al. (2003). "Cyclin D1 as a target for chemoprevention." Lung Cancer 41(1): 155–161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Phillips, D.H. (2002). "Smoking-related DNA and protein adducts in human tissues." Carcinogenesis 23(12): 1979–2004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Pratico, D., L. Iuliano, et al. (1998). "Enhanced lipid peroxidation in hepatic cirrhosis." J Investig Med 46(2): 51–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Pratico, D., M.Y. L. V, et al. (1998). "Increased F2-isoprostanes in Alzheimer's disease: evidence for enhanced lipid peroxidation in vivo." Faseb J 12(15): 1777–1783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Prokopczyk, B., J.E. Cox, et al. (1996). "Effects of dietary 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)seleno-cyanate on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced DNA adduct formation in lung and liver of A/J mice and F344 rats." Carcinogenesis 17(4): 749–753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Rao, C.V., B. Simi, et al. (2000). "Mechanisms in the chemoprevention of colon cancer: modulation of protein kinase C, tyrosine protein kinase and diacylglycerol kinase activities by 1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)selenocyanate and impact of low-fat diet." Int J Oncol 16(3): 519–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Rebbeck, T.R. (1997). "Molecular epidemiology of the human glutathione S-transferase genotypes GSTM1 and GSTT1 in cancer susceptibility." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6(9): 733–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Resnicow, K., G. Kabat, et al. (1991). "Progress in decreasing cigarette smoking." Important Adv Oncol: 205–213.Google Scholar
  137. Rogot, E. and J. Murray (1980). "Cancer mortality among nonsmokers in an insured group of U.S. veterans." J Natl Cancer Inst 65(5): 1163–1168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Ronai, Z., J.K. Tillotson, et al. (1995). "Effects of organic and inorganic selenium compounds on rat mammary tumor cells." Int J Cancer 63(3): 428–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Saarikoski, S.T., A. Voho, et al. (1998). "Combined effect of polymorphic GST genes on individual susceptibility to lung cancer." Int J Cancer 77(4): 516–521.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Salonen, J.T., G. Alfthan, et al. (1984). "Association between serum selenium and the risk of cancer." Am J Epidemiol 120(3): 342–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Schrauzer, G. N. (1976). "Cancer mortality correlation studies. II. Regional associations of mortalities with the consumptions of foods and other commodities." Med Hypotheses 2(2): 39–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sebti, S. M. (2003). "Blocked pathways: FTIs shut down oncogene signals." Oncologist 8(3): 30–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Seidegard, J., W.R. Vorachek, et al. (1988). "Hereditary differences in the expression of the human glutathione transferase active on trans-stilbene oxide are due to a gene deletion." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85(19): 7293–7297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Seow, A., B. Zhao, et al. (2001). "Cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) activity and lung cancer risk: a preliminary study among Chinese women in Singapore." Carcinogenesis 22(4): 673–677.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Shamberger, R.J. and D.V. Frost (1969). "Possible protective effect of selenium against human cancer." Can Med Assoc J 100(14): 682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Shen, H.M., C.N. Ong, et al. (1995). "Aflatoxin B1-induced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation in rat hepatic DNA." Carcinogenesis 16(2): 419–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Shopland, D.R. (1995). "Tobacco use and its contribution to early cancer mortality with a special emphasis on cigarette smoking." Environ Health Perspect 103(Suppl 8): 131–142.Google Scholar
  148. Sigler, K. and R.J. Ruch (1993). "Enhancement of gap junctional intercellular communication in tumor promoter-treated cells by components of green tea." Cancer Lett 69(1): 15–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Smith, C.A., G. Smith, et al. (1994). "Genetic polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolism." Eur J Cancer 30A(13): 1921–1935.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Stich, H.F., M. P. Rosin, et al. (1982). "Inhibition of mutagenicity of a model nitrosation reaction by naturally occurring phenolics, coffee and tea." Mutat Res 95(2–3): 119–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Stoner, G.D. and H. Mukhtar (1995). "Polyphenols as cancer chemopreventive agents." J Cell Biochem Suppl 22: 169–180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Strauss, G.M., R. E. Gleason, et al. (1997). "Screening for lung cancer. Another look; a different view." Chest 111(3): 754–768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Suganuma, M., Y. Ohkura, et al. (2001). "Combination cancer chemoprevention with green tea extract and sulindac shown in intestinal tumor formation in Min mice." J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 127(1): 69–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Suganuma, M., S. Okabe, et al. (1999). "Synergistic effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate with (-)-epicatechin, sulindac, or tamoxifen on cancer-preventive activity in the human lung cancer cell line PC-9." Cancer Res 59(1): 44–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Sung, H., J. Nah, et al. (2000). "In vivo antioxidant effect of green tea." Eur J Clin Nutr 54(7): 527–529.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Takeuchi, T., M. Nakajima, et al. (1994). "Establishment of a human system that generates O2-and induces 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, typical of oxidative DNA damage, by a tumor promotor." Cancer Res 54(22): 5837–5840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Tang, X., F.R. Khuri, et al. (2000). "Hypermethylation of the death-associated protein (DAP) kinase promoter and aggressiveness in stage I non-small-cell lung cancer." J Natl Cancer Inst 92(18): 1511–1516.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Tenkanen, L., T. Hakulinen, et al. (1987). "The joint effect of smoking and respiratory symptoms on risk of lung cancer." Int J Epidemiol 16(4): 509–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Tewes, F.J., L.C. Koo, et al. (1990). "Lung cancer risk and mutagenicity of tea." Environ Res 52(1): 23–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Tockman, M. (1986). "Survival and mortality from lung cancer in a screened population: the Johns Hopkins Study." Chest 89: 325S–326S.Google Scholar
  161. Tockman, M.S., N.R. Anthonisen, et al. (1987). "Airways obstruction and the risk for lung cancer." Ann Intern Med 106(4): 512–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Tokuhata, G.K. and A.M. Lilienfeld (1963). "Familial aggregation of lung cancer in humans." J Natl Cancer Inst 30: 289–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Toyokuni, S., K. Okamoto, et al. (1995). "Persistent oxidative stress in cancer." FEBS Lett 358(1): 1–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. USDDHS (2000). Healthy People 2010, 2nd Edition. Washington DC.Google Scholar
  165. USDEW (1964). Smoking and Health. Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. DHEW Publication No. 1103. U.S. Department of Health, Public Health Service, Communicable Disease Center.Google Scholar
  166. USDHHS (1964). Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee of the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service Source.Google Scholar
  167. USDHHS (1980). The Health Consequences of Smoking for Women. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Smoking and Health. Washington.Google Scholar
  168. van den Brandt, P.A., R.A. Goldbohm, et al. (1993). "A prospective cohort study on toenail selenium levels and risk of gastrointestinal cancer." J Natl Cancer Inst 85(3): 224–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Vinceti, M., S. Rovesti, et al. (1995). "Cancer mortality in a residential cohort exposed to environmental selenium through drinking water." J Clin Epidemiol 48(9): 1091–1097.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Wagner, H., Jr. and J.C. Ruckdeschel (1995). "Screening, Early Detection, and Early Intervention Strategies for Lung Cancer." Cancer Control 2(6): 493–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Wallace, R. (1929). "A ‘Lucky’ or a sweet — or both!" Nation 123: 305–307.Google Scholar
  172. Wang, X.D. and R.M. Russell (1999). "Procarcinogenic and anticarcinogenic effects of beta-carotene." Nutr Rev 57(9 Pt 1): 263–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Wang, Y., Q. Zhou, et al. (2000). "[Transcriptional expression of apoptosis suppression gene bcl-2 in non-small cell lung carcinoma]." Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 17(4): 262–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Wang, Z.Y., J.Y. Hong, et al. (1992). "Inhibition of N-nitrosodiethylamine-and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced tumorigenesis in A/J mice by green tea and black tea." Cancer Res 52(7): 1943–1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Wei, L., H. Wei, et al. (1993). "Sensitivity to tumor promotion of SENCAR and C57BL/6J mice correlates with oxidative events and DNA damage." Carcinogenesis 14(5): 841–847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Wisnivesky, J.P., A.I. Mushlin, et al. (2003). "The cost-effectiveness of low-dose CT screening for lung cancer: preliminary results of baseline screening." Chest 124(2): 614–621.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Wistuba, II, C. Behrens, et al. (1999). "Sequential molecular abnormalities are involved in the multistage development of squamous cell lung carcinoma." Oncogene 18(3): 643–650.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Wood, M.L., M. Dizdaroglu, et al. (1990). "Mechanistic studies of ionizing radiation and oxidative mutagenesis: genetic effects of a single 8-hydroxyguanine (7-hydro-8-oxoguanine) residue inserted at a unique site in a viral genome." Biochemistry 29(30): 7024–7032.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Wu, L., J. Lanfear, et al. (1995). "The selenium metabolite selenodiglutathione induces cell death by a mechanism distinct from H2O2 toxicity." Carcinogenesis 16(7): 1579–1584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Xu, G.P., P.J. Song, et al. (1993). "Effects of fruit juices, processed vegetable juice, orange peel and green tea on endogenous formation of N-nitrosoproline in subjects from a high-risk area for gastric cancer in Moping County, China." Eur J Cancer Prev 2(4): 327–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Xu, Y., C.T. Ho, et al. (1992). "Inhibition of tobacco-specific nitrosamine-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice by green tea and its major polyphenol as antioxidants." Cancer Res 52(14): 3875–3879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Yamashita, T., T. Uchida, et al. (1997). "Nitric oxide is an effector molecule in inhibition of tumor cell growth by rIFN-gamma-activated rat neutrophils." Int J Cancer 71(2): 223–230.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Yandell, D.W., T.A. Campbell, et al. (1989). "Oncogenic point mutations in the human retinoblastoma gene: their application to genetic counseling." N Engl J Med 321(25): 1689–1695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Yang, C.S. and Z.Y. Wang (1993). "Tea and cancer." J Natl Cancer Inst 85(13): 1038–1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Yang, C.S., G.Y. Yang, et al. (1998). "Tea and tea polyphenols inhibit cell hyperproliferation, lung tumorigenesis, and tumor progression." Exp Lung Res 24(4): 629–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Yano, S., K. Kondo, et al. (2003). "Distribution and function of EGFR in human tissue and the effect of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibition." Anticancer Res 23(5 A): 3639–3650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Yu, S.Y., Y.J. Chu, et al. (1985). "Regional variation of cancer mortality incidence and its relation to selenium levels in China." Biological Trace Element Research 7: 21–29.Google Scholar
  188. Zhang, J., S. Jiang, et al. (2001). "Antioxidant supplementation prevents oxidation and inflammatory responses induced by sidestream cigarette smoke in old mice." Environ Health Perspect 109(10): 1007–1009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Zhao, Y., J. Cao, et al. (1997). "Apoptosis induced by tea polyphenols in HL-60 cells." Cancer Lett 121(2): 163–167.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Zhong, S., A.F. Howie, et al. (1991). "Glutathione S-transferase mu locus: use of genotyping and phenotyping assays to assess association with lung cancer susceptibility." Carcinogenesis 12(9): 1533–1537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Zieba, M., M. Suwalski, et al. (2000). "Comparison of hydrogen peroxide generation and the content of lipid peroxidation products in lung cancer tissue and pulmonary parenchyma." Respir Med 94(8): 800–805.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Zochbauer-Muller, S., K.M. Fong, et al. (2001). "Aberrant promoter methylation of multiple genes in non-small cell lung cancers." Cancer Res 61(1): 249–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iman Hakim
    • 1
  • Linda Garland
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Medicine and College of Public HealthUniversity of ArizonaTucson

Personalised recommendations