Advertisement

Unravelling the Cretaceous-Paleogene (KT) Turnover, Evidence from Flora, Fauna and Geology

  • Adriana Ocampo
  • Vivi Vajda
  • Eric Buffetaut
Part of the Impact Studies book series (IMPACTSTUD)

Abstract

The global devastation of ecosystems as a consequence of a meteorite impact 65 million years ago is clearly detectable in palaeontological and geological records all over the globe. Here we compare and contrast the consequences of the impact expressed in the vegetation, vertebrate fossil record and geological signatures left by the devastation, including information from new proximal KT boundary exposures and new palynological data. The geological evidence of the Chicxulub impact crater shows that the target rock was composed by higher percentages of anhydrite (sulfur source) than carbonates. Atmospheric radiative transfer models suggest that the vaporized target rock rapidly converted into sulfuric acid H2SO4 aerosols where it was injected in the stratosphere by the force of the impact and globally distributed. It took at least 10 years for the H2SO4 to dissipate, making the Earth’s atmosphere opaque to sunlight, leading to a reduction of solar transmission to 10–20% of normal for that period.

Southern Hemisphere terrestrial Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sediments in New Zealand reveal that a diverse Late Cretaceous vegetation was abruptly followed by a short interval dominated by fungi, before the pioneer vegetation of ferns re-conquered the soil. The fern dominated interval, so called fern spike is also evident from Northern Hemisphere Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sections. The massive depletion in sporepollen diversity is interpreted to reflect devastation of photosynthetic plant communities, a scenario that agrees well with the atmospheric radiative transfer models. The pattern of vertebrate extinctions revealed by the fossil record accords with the temporary, global devastation of photosynthetic plant communities. Vegetation depletion at high latitudes may also explain the extinction of polar dinosaurs, which apparently were able to withstand relatively cool temperatures and periods of low light intensity: the main reason for their disappearance appears to have been lack of food rather than darkness and cooling.

Keywords

Mass Extinction Chicxulub Impact Tertiary Boundary America Special Paper Ejecta Blanket 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alvarez L, Alvarez W, Asaro F, Michel HV (1980) Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction. Science 208: 1095–1108Google Scholar
  2. Aubry MP, Gradstein FM, Jansa LF (1990) The late early Eocene Montagnais bolide: no impact on biotic diversity. Micropaleontology 36: 164–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barclay RS, Johnson KR (2004) West Bijou Site Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Denver Basin, Colorado. In: Nelson EP, Erslev EA (eds) Field Trips in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA. The Geological Society of America Field Guide 5: 59–68Google Scholar
  4. Becker L, Poreda RJ, Basu AR, Pope KO, Harrison TM, Nicholson C, Iasky R (2004) Bedout: A possible End-Permian impact crater offshore of Northwestern Australia. Science 304: 1469–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bohor BF, Modreski PJ, Foord EE (1987) Shocked quartz in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clays — evidence for a global disruption. Science 236: 705–709Google Scholar
  6. Braman DR, Sweet AR, Lerbekmo F (1993) Palynofloristic changes across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and contiguous strata [abs.] Canadian Geophysical Union, Joint Annual Meeting 18: 12Google Scholar
  7. Brinkhuis H, Schiøler P (1996) Palynology of the Geulhemmerberg Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary section (Limburg, SE Netherlands). Geologie en Mijnbouw 75: 193–213Google Scholar
  8. Buffetaut E (1984) Selective extinctions and terminal Cretaceous events. Nature 310: 276Google Scholar
  9. Buffetaut E (1990) Vertebrate extinctions and survival across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Tectonophysics 171: 337–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buffetaut E (1994) Les Dinosaures. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris. 128 pGoogle Scholar
  11. Buffetaut E (2002) Giant ground birds at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary: extinction or survival? In: Koeberl C, MacLeod KG (eds) Catastrophic events and mass extinctions; impacts and beyond. Geological Society of America Special Paper 356: 303–306Google Scholar
  12. Buffetaut E (2004) Polar dinosaurs and the question of dinosaur extinction: a brief review. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 214: 225–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buffetaut E, Le Loeuff J (1998) A new giant ground bird from the Upper Cretaceous of southern France. Journal of the Geological Society, London 155: 1–4Google Scholar
  14. Covey C, Thompson SL, Weissman PR, MacCracken MC (1994) Global climatic effects of atmospheric dust from an asteroid or comet impact on earth. Global and Planetary Change 9: 263–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dypvik H, Gudlaugsson ST, Tsikalas F, Attrep M, Ferrell RE, Krinsley DH, Mork A, Faleide JI, Nagy J (1996) Mjølnir structure: An impact crater in the Barents sea. Geology 24: 779–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fassett JE, Zielinski RA, Budahn JR (2002) Dinosaurs that did not die: Evidence for Paleocene dinosaurs in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. In: Koeberl C, MacLeod KG (eds) Catastrophic events and mass extinctions; impacts and beyond. Geological Society of America Special Paper 356: 307–336Google Scholar
  17. Fastovsky D E, Huang Y, Hsu J, Martin-McNaughton J, Sheehan PM, Weishampel DB (2004) Shape of Mesozoic dinosaur richness. Geology 32:887–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fleming RF (1985) Palynological observations of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton Formation, New Mexico. In: abstracts of the proceedings of the Seventeenth annual meeting of the American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists. Palynology 9: 242Google Scholar
  19. Fouke BW, Zerkle AL, Alvarez W, Pope KO, Ocampo AC, Wachtman RJ, Nishimura JMG, Claeys P, Fischer AG (2002) Cathodoluminescence petrography and isotope geochemistry of KT impact ejecta deposited 360 km from the Chicxulub crater, at Albion island, Belize. Sedimentology 49: 117–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grieve RAF (1991) Terrestrial impact: the record in the rocks. Meteoritics 26, 175–194Google Scholar
  21. Heissig K (1986) No effect of the Ries impact event on the local mammal fauna. Modern Geology 10: 171–179Google Scholar
  22. Herngreen GFW, Schuurman HAHM, Verbeek JW, Brinkhuis H, Burnett JA, Felder WM, Kedves M (1998) Biostratigraphy of Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary strata in the Curfs Quarry, the Netherlands. Mededelingen Nederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen 61: 57Google Scholar
  23. Hildebrand A, Boyton W (1990) Proximal Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact deposits in the Caribbean. Science 248: 843–847Google Scholar
  24. Hildebrand AR, Penfield GT, Kring DA, Pilkington M, Camargo A, Jacobsen SB, Boyton W (1991) Chicxulub Crater — A possible Cretaceous Tertiary boundary impact crater on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Geology 19: 867–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hotton C (2002) Palynology of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in central Montana; evidence extraterrestrial impact as a cause of the terminal Cretaceous extinctions. In: Hartman JH, Johnson KR, Nichols DJ (eds) The Hell Creek Formation and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the Northern Great Plains: An Integrated Continental Record of the End of the Cretaceous. Geological Society of America Special Paper 361: 473–501Google Scholar
  26. Ivanov B, Badukov D, Yakolev O, Gerasimov M, Dikov Y, Pope K, Ocampo A (1996) Degassing of sedimentary rocks due to Chicxulub Impact: Hydrocode and physical simulations. In: Ryder G, Fastovsky D, Gartner S (eds) The Cretaceous-Tertiary event and other catastrophes in Earth history. Geological Society of America Special Paper 307: 125–139Google Scholar
  27. Izett GA (1991) Tektites in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary rocks on Haiti and their bearing on the Alvarez impact extinction hypothesis. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets 96: 20879–20883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Izett GA, Dalrymple GB, Snee LW (1991) Ar-40/Ar-39 age of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary tektites from Haiti. Science 252: 1539–1542Google Scholar
  29. Jerzykiewicz T, Sweet AR (1986) The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the central Alberta Foothills: stratigraphy. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 23: 1356–1374Google Scholar
  30. Johnson KR (1992) Leaf-fossil evidence for extensive floral extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, North-Dakota, USA. Cretaceous Research 13:91–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Johnson KR, Nichols DJ, Attrep Jr M, Orth CJ (1989) High-resolution leaf-fossil record spanning the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Nature 340: 708–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Keller G, Stinnesbeck W, Adatte T (2003a) Multiple impacts across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Earth Science Reviews 62: 327–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Keller G, Stinnesbeck W, Adatte T, Holland B, Stueben D, Harting M, de-Leon C, de la Cruz J (2003b) Spherule deposits in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments in Belize and Guatemala. Journal of the Geological Society of London 160: 783–795Google Scholar
  34. Kring DA (1997) Air blast produced by the Meteor Crater impact event and a reconstruction of the affected environment. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 32: 517–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kring DA (2003) Environmental consequences of impact cratering events as a function of ambient conditions on Earth. Astrobiology 3: 133–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kring DA, Durda DD (2002) Trajectories and distribution of material ejected from the Chicxulub Impact Crater: implications for post-impact wildfires. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets 107: 5062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kring DA, Melosh HJ, Hunten DM (1996) Impact-induced perturbations of atmospheric sulfur. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 140: 201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kyte FT (1998) A meteorite from the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Science 396: 237–239Google Scholar
  39. Labandeira CC, Johnson KR, Wilf P (2002) Impact of the terminal Cretaceous event on plant-insect associations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 99: 2061–2066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Laurent Y, Bilotte M, Loeuff JL (2002) Late Maastrichtian continental vertebrates from southwestern France: Correlation with marine fauna. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 187: 121–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Le Loeuff J (2000) Les derniers dinosaures. In: La Valse des Espèces, Dossier Pour la Science, Paris: 94–99Google Scholar
  42. Lerbekmo JF, Sweet AR, St Louis RM (1987) The relationship between the iridium anomaly and palynological floral events at three Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary localities in western Canada. Geological Society of America Bulletin 99: 325–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. López-Martínez, Canudo JI, Ardevol L, Suberbiola XP, Orue-Etxebarria X, Cuenca-Bescos G, Ruiz-Omenaca JI, Murelaga X, Feist M (2001) New dinosaur sites correlated with Upper Maastrichtian pelagic deposits in the Spanish Pyrenees: implications for the dinosaur extinction pattern in Europe. Cretaceous Research 22: 41–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Maruoka T, Koeberl C (2003) Acid-neutralizing scenario after the Cretaceous-Tertiary impact event. Geology 31: 489–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McIver EE (1999) Paleobotanical evidence for ecosystem disruption at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary from Wood Mountain, Saskatchewan, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 36: 775–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Milner AC (1998) Timing and causes of vertebrate extinction across the Cretaceous — Tertiary boundary. In: Grady MM, Hutchison R, McCall GJH, Rothery DA (eds) Meteorites; flux with time and impact effects. Geological Society, London, Special Publication 140: 247–257Google Scholar
  47. Nathan S (1978) Sheet S44 Greymouth. Geological map of New Zealand 1:63 360. Wellington, N.Z. Department of Scientific and Industrial ResearchGoogle Scholar
  48. Nichols DJ, Jarzen DM, Orth CJ, Oliver PQ (1986) Palynological and iridium anomalies at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, south-central Saskatchewan. Science 231: 714–717Google Scholar
  49. Nichols DJ, Fleming RF (1990) Plant microfossil record of the terminal Cretaceous event in the western United States and Canada In: Sharpton VL, Ward PD (eds) Global catastrophes in Earth history; an interdisciplinary conference on impacts, volcanism, and mass mortality. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 247: 445–455Google Scholar
  50. Nichols DJ, Brown JL, Attrep Jr M, Orth CJ (1992) A new Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary locality in the western Powder River basin, Wyoming: biological and geological implications. Cretaceous Research 13: 3–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nichols DJ, Johnson KR (2002) Palynology and microstratigraphy of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sections in southwestern North Dakota. In: Hartman JH, Johnson KR, Nichols DJ (eds) The Hell Creek Formation and the Cretaceous Tertiary Boundary in the Northern Great Plains: An Integrated Continental Record of the End of the Cretaceous. The Geological Society of America, Special Paper 361: 95–144Google Scholar
  52. Norris RD (2001) Impact of K-T boundary events on marine life. In: Briggs DEG, Crowther PR (eds) Palaeobiology II. Blackwell Science, Oxford, 229–231Google Scholar
  53. Ocampo A (1997) The Geology of the Chicxulub Impact Ejecta in Belize, Master of Science Thesis, Geology Department, California State University, Northridge. 67 pGoogle Scholar
  54. Ocampo A, Pope K, Fischer A (1996) Ejecta blanket deposits of the Chicxulub crater from Albion Island, Belize. In: Ryder G, Fastovsky D, Gartner S (eds) The Cretaceous-Tertiary event and other catastrophes in Earth history. Geological Society of America Special Paper 307: 75–88Google Scholar
  55. Orth CJ, Gilmore JS, Knight JD, Pillmore CL, Tschudy RH, Fasett JE (1981) An iridium abundance anomaly at the palynological Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in Northern New Mexico. Science 214: 1341–1343Google Scholar
  56. Pearson DA, Schaefer T, Johnson KR, Nichols DJ (2001) Palynologically calibrated vertebrate record from North Dakota consistent with abrupt dinosaur extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Geology 29: 39–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pearson DA, Schaefer T, Johnson KR, Nichols DJ, Hunter JP (2002) Vertebrate biostratigraphy of the Hell Creek Formation in southwestern North Dakota and northwestern South Dakota. In: Hartman JH, Johnson KR, Nichols DJ (eds) The Hell Creek Formation and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Northern Great Plains; an integrated continental record of the end of the Cretaceous. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 361: 145–167Google Scholar
  58. Pierazzo E, Melosh HJ (2000a) Understanding oblique impacts from experiments, observations, and modelling. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 28: 141–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pierazzo E, Melosh HJ (2000b) Melt production in oblique impacts. Icarus 145: 252–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pierazzo E, Kring DA, Melosh HJ (1998) Hydrocode simulation of the Chicxulub impact event and the production of climatically active gases. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets 103: 28607–28625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pierazzo E, Hahmann AN, Sloan LC (2003) Chicxulub and climate: radiative perturbations of impact-produced S-bearing gases. Astrobiology 3: 99–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pollack JB, Toon OB, Ackerman TP, McKay CP, Turco RP (1983) Environmental-effects of an impact-generated dust cloud — implications for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions. Science 219: 287–289Google Scholar
  63. Pope K (2002) Impact dust not the cause of Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction. Geology 30: 99–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pope K, Ocampo A, Duller C (1991) Mexican site for K/T impact crater? Nature 351: 105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pope K, Baines K, Ocampo A, Ivanov B (1994) Impact winter and the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinctions: Results of a Chicxulub asteroid impact model, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 128: 719–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pope K, Baines K, Ocampo A, Ivanov B (1997) Energy, volatile production, and climatic effects of the Chicxulub Cretaceous/Tertiary impact. Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 21645–21664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pope KO, D’Hondt SL, Marshall CR (1998) Meteorite impact and the mass extinction of species at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95: 11028–11029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Raup D, Sepkoski J (1982) Mass extinction in the marine fossil record. Science 215: 501–503Google Scholar
  69. Raup D, Sepkoski J (1986) Periodic extinctions of families and genera. Science 231: 833–836Google Scholar
  70. Read J, Francis J (1992) Responses of some southern-hemisphere tree species to a prolonged dark period and their implications for high-latitude Cretaceous and Tertiary floras. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 99: 271–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Romein AJT, Smit J (1981) Carbon-oxygen isotope stratigraphy of the Cretaceous — Tertiary boundary interval: data from the Biarritz section (SW France). Geologie en Mijnbouw 60: 541–544Google Scholar
  72. Salge T, Tagle R, Claeys P (2000) Accretionary lapilli from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary site of Guayal, Mexico: Preliminary insights into expansion plume formation [abs.]. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 35: A140–A141Google Scholar
  73. Sarjeant WAS, Currie PJ (2001) The “Great Extinction” that never happened: the demise of the dinosaurs considered. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 38:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sepkoski J (1990) The taxonomic structure of periodic extinction. In: Sharpton VL, Ward PD (eds) Global catastrophes in Earth history; an interdisciplinary conference on impacts, volcanism, and mass mortality. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 247: 33–44Google Scholar
  75. Sheehan PM, Fastovsky DE (1992) Major extinctions of land-dwelling vertebrates at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, eastern Montana. Geology 20: 556–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sheehan PM, Fastovsky DE, Barreto C, Hoffmann R.G. (2000) Dinosaur abundance was not declining in a “3 m gap” at the top of the Hell Creek Formation, Montana and North Dakota. Geology 28: 523–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Shukolyukov A, Lugmair G (1998) Isotopic evidence for the Cretaceous-Tertiary impactor and its type. Science 282: 927–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Smit J (1999) The global stratigraphy of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact ejecta. Annual Review of Earth Planetary Science 27: 75–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sullivan RM, Lucas SG, Braman D (2002) Paleocene dinosaurs? A critique of the ages assigned to the upper Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22: 212A.Google Scholar
  80. Sweet AR, Braman DR (2001) Cretaceous-Tertiary palynoflora perturbations and extinctions within the Aquilapollenites phytogeographic province. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 8: 249–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sweet R, Braman DR (1992) The K-T boundary and contiguous strata in western Canada: interactions between paleoenvironments and palynological assemblages. Cretaceous Research 13: 31–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sweet R, Braman DR, Lerbekmo JF (1990) Palynofloral response to K/T boundary events: a transitory interruption within a dynamic system. In: Sharpton VL, Ward PD (eds) Global catastrophes in Earth history; an interdisciplinary conference on impacts, volcanism, and mass mortality. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 247: 457–469Google Scholar
  83. Sweet AR, Braman DR, Lerbekmo JF (1999) Sequential palynological changes across the composite Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary claystone and contiguous strata, western Canada and Montana, USA. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 36: 743–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Toon OB, Zahnle K, Morrison D, Turco RP, Covey C (1997) Environmental perturbations caused by the impacts of asteroids and comets. Reviews of Geophysics 35: 41–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tschudy RH, Pillmore CL, Orth CJ (1984) Disruption of the terrestrial plant ecosystem at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Western Interior. Science 225: 1030–1032Google Scholar
  86. Upchurch Jr GR (1989) Terrestrial environmental changes and extinction patterns at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, North America. In: Donovan SK (ed) Mass Extinctions; processes and evidence. Columbia University Press. New York, NY, United States: 195–216Google Scholar
  87. Upchurch Jr GR, Wolfe JA (1987) Plant extinction patterns at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Raton and Denver basins. Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America 19: 874Google Scholar
  88. Vajda V, McLoughlin S (2004) Fungal proliferation at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Science 303: 1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vajda V, Raine JI (2003) Terrestrial palynology of the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary at mid-Waipara River, North Canterbury, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 46: 255–273Google Scholar
  90. Vajda V, Raine JI, Hollis CJ (2001) Indication of global deforestation at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary by New Zealand fern spike. Science 294: 1700–1702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vega FJ, Feldmann RM, Ocampo AC, Pope KO (1997) A new species of Late Cretaceous crab (Brachyura: Carcineretidae) from Albion Island, Belize. Journal of Paleontology 71: 615–620Google Scholar
  92. Ward S (1997) Lithostratigraphy, palynostratigraphy and basin analysis of the Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary Paparoa Group, Greymouth Coalfield, New Zealand. Ph.D. thesis, University of Canterbury, 200 pp.Google Scholar
  93. Wilf P, Johnson KR (2004) Land plant extinction at the end of the Cretaceous: A quantitative analysis of the North Dakota megafloral record. Paleobiology 30:347–368Google Scholar
  94. Wolbach WS, Gilmour I, Anders E, Orth CJ, Brooks RR (1988) Global fire at the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary. Nature 334: 665–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wolfe JA, Upchurch Jr GR (1986) Vegetation, climatic and floral changes at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Nature 324: 148–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wolfe JA, Russell DA (2001) Impact of K-T boundary events on terrestrial life. In: Briggs DEG, Crowther PR (eds) Palaeobiology II. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 232–234Google Scholar
  97. Zhao ZK (1978) A preliminary investigation on the thinning of the dinosaurian eggshells of the Late Cretaceous and some related problems. Vertebrate Palaentology of Asia 16: 213–221Google Scholar
  98. Zhao ZK (1993) Structure, formation, and evolutionary trends of dinosaur eggshell. In: Kobayashi I, Mutvei H, Sahni A (eds) Structure, Formation and Evolution of Fossil Hard Tissues. Tokai University Press, Tokyo: pp 195–212Google Scholar
  99. Zhao ZK (1994) The dinosaur eggs in China: on the structure and evolution of eggshells. In: Carpenter K, Hirsch KF, Horner JR (eds) Dinosaur Eggs and Babies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: pp 184–203Google Scholar
  100. Zhao ZK, Ye J, Li H, Zhao Z, Yan Z (1991) Extinction of the dinosaurs across the Cretaceous-Tertiary in Nanxiong Basin, Guangdong Province. Vertebrate Palaeontology of Asia 29: 1–20Google Scholar
  101. Zhao Z, Mao XY, Chai ZF, Yang GC, Kong P, Ebihara M, Zhao ZH (2002) A possible causal relationship between extinction of dinosaurs and K/T iridium enrichment in the Nanxiong Basin, South China: evidence from dinosaur eggshells. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 178: 1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adriana Ocampo
    • 1
  • Vivi Vajda
    • 2
  • Eric Buffetaut
    • 3
  1. 1.California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion LaboratoryPasadenaUSA
  2. 2.GeoBiosphere Science CentreUniversity of LundLundSweden
  3. 3.CNRSParisFrance

Personalised recommendations