Advertisement

Excited states of chromium(III) in translucent glass-ceramics as prospective laser materials

  • Renata Reisfeld
  • Christian K. Jørgensen
Conference paper
Part of the Structure and Bonding book series (STRUCTURE, volume 69)

Abstract

The first excited quartet state 4T2 of chromium(III) provides broad-band luminescence in the near infrared. If the first doublet state 2E is below the 4T2 potential minimum, a narrow band may be emitted with high yield, as known from ruby. Glass-ceramics containing Cr(III) may show high quantum efficiency of 4T2 at room temperature, contrary to most other compounds. When the heat treatment is such that micro-crystallites of spinel, gahnite, mullite, virgilite, ... are obtained having dimensions smaller than the wave-length of violet light, transparent glassy-looking materials are obtained which may be suitable for tunable lasers similar to alexandrite, and luminescent solar concentrators. The absorption and emission spectra of Cr(III) are treated here in the angular overlap model. The sub-shell energy difference Δ (= 10 Dq) of Cr(III) in glasses is around 0.86 and in glass-ceramics 0.96 to 1.05 times its value of the aqua ion. Evidence is presented that the band widths and Stokes shift cannot be fully explained by effects of totally symmetric stretching. The multi-dimensional potential surfaces, combined with the Tanabe-Kamimura theorem and the Jahn-Teller effect, provide a more complete explanation of the spectroscopic behaviour. Anti-ferromagnetic and spin-orbit coupling are shortly reviewed. Comparison between chromium(III) luminescence and the exceptional Stokes shift of hexacyanocobaltate(III) is made.

Keywords

Ligand Field Octahedral Symmetry Luminescent Solar Concentrator Ligand Field Strength Interelectronic Repulsion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Reisfeld, R., Kisilev, A., Greenberg, E., Buch, A., Ish-Shalom, M.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 104, 153 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Poncon, V., Bouderbala, M., Boulon, G., Lejus, A.-M., Reisfeld, R., Buch, A., Ish-Shalom, M.: ibid. 130, 444 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kisilev, A., Reisfeld, R., Greenberg, E., Buch, A., Ish-Shalom, M.: ibid. 105, 405 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reisfeld, R., Kisilev, A., Buch, A., Ish-Shalom, M.: ibid. 129, 446 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Poncon, V., Kalisky, J., Boulon, G., Reisfeld, R.: ibid. 133, 363 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reisfeld, R.: Potential uses of Cr(III) doped transparent glass-ceramics in luminescent solar concentrators. Report Series Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences in Finland (Helsinki) 40, part I (Proc. Advanced Summer School on the Electronic Structure of New Materials, Loviisa, August 1984) pp. 7–34, Helsinki 1985Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Reisfeld, R.: Materials Science and Engineering 71, 375 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buch, A., Ish-Shalom, M., Reisfeld, R., Kisilev, A., Greenberg, E.: ibid. 71, 383 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reisfeld, R., Kisilev, A., Jørgensen, C. K., Buch, A., Ish-Shalom, M.: Quartet-quartet luminescence of chromium(III) in glass-ceramics. Abstracts 167. Meeting of Electrochem. Soc. on Luminescent and Display Materials Group, Toronto, May 1985Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Durville, F., Champagnon, B., Duval, E., Boulon, G., Gaume, F., Wright, A. F., Fitch, A. N.: Phys. Chem. Glasses 25, 126 (1984)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kisilev, A., Reisfeld, R.: Solar Energy 33, 163 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Reisfeld, R., Kisilev, A.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 115, 457 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schäfer, F. P. (ed.): Dye Lasers, Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York 1977Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boyd, R. N., Owen, J. F., Teegarten, K. T.: IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 697 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Walling, J. C. Jenssen, H. P., Morris, R. C., O'Dell, E. W., Peterson, O. G.: Opt. Letters 4, 182 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Struve, B., Huber, G., Laptev, V. V., Shcherbakov, L. A., Zharikov, E. V.: Appl. Phys. B30, 117 (1983)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Drube, J., Struve, B., Huber, G.: Opt. Commun. 50, 45 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sugano, S., Tanabe, Y., Kamimura, H.: Multiplets of Transition Metal Ions in Crystals, Academic Press, New York 1970Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reisfeld, R., Jørgensen, C. K.: Cr(III) broad-band quartet-quartet luminescence in glass-ceramics with higher yield than in complexes. King, E. L., Busch, D. H., Sievers, R. E. (eds.), Abstracts of 23. Int. Conf. Coordination Chemistry, Boulder CO 1984, p. 162Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Oxidation Numbers and Oxidation States, Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York 1969Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kenyon, P. T., Andrews, L., McCollum, B. C., Lempicki, A.: IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1189 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kalisky, Y., Poncon, V., Boulon, G., Reisfeld, R., Buch, A., Ish-Shalom, M.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 136, 368 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kisilev, A., Reisfeld, R., Buch, A., Ish-Shalom, M.: ibid. 129, 450 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bouderbala, M., Boulon, G., Lejus, A.-M., Kisilev, A., Reisfeld, R., Buch, A., Ish-Shalom, M.: ibid. 130, 438 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boulon, G.: Materials Chemistry and Physics 16, 301 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Reisfeld, R., Kisilev, A., Buch, A., Ish-Shalom, M.: J. Noncryst. Solids 91, 333 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang, M. L., Stevens, R., Knott, P.: Glass Technology 23, 238 (1982)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Durville, F., Champagnon, B., Duval, E., Boulon, G.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 46, 701 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bouderbala, M., Boulon, G., Reisfeld, R., Buch, A., Ish-Shalom, M., Lejus, A.-M.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 121, 535 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Derkosch, J., Mikenda, W., Preisinger, A.: Spectrochim. Acta 32 A, 1759 (1976)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mikenda, W., Preisinger, A.: J. Luminescence 26, 53 and 67 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mikenda, W.: ibid. 26, 85 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Derkosch, J., Mikenda, W.: ibid. 28, 431 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Imbusch, G. F. in: Energy Transfer Processes in Condensed Matter (ed. DiBartolo, B.) 114, 47 (1984), Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Landry, R. J., Fournier, J. T., Young, C. G.: J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1285 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Clarke, R. H., Andrews, L. J., Frank, H. A.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 85, 161 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Abdrakhmanov, R. S., Konoval, E. M., Shishkin, I. V.: Fizika i Khimiya Stekla 9, 403 (1983)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Absorption Spectra and Chemical Bonding in Complexes, Pergamon, Oxford 1962, 2. ed. 1964Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Adv. Chem. Phys. 5, 33 (1963)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Modern Aspects of Ligand Field Theory, North-Holland, Amsterdam 1971Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    McClure, D. S.: Solid State Phys. 9, 399 (1959)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    McClure, D. S.: J. Chem. Phys. 36, 2757 (1962); 38, 2289 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Reinen, D.: Structure and Bonding 6, 30 (1969)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reisfeld, R., Eyal, M., Jørgensen, C. K.: Chimia 41, 117 (1987)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Reisfeld, R., Eyal, M., Jørgensen, C. K., Guenther, A. H., Bendow, B.: ibid. 40, 403 (1986)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hitchman, M. A., Waite, T. D.: Inorg. Chem. 15, 2150 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Smith, D. W.: Structure and Bonding 35, 87 (1978)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jørgensen, C. K., Faucher, M., Garcia, D.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 128, 250 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Reisfeld, R., Jørgensen, C. K.: Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (eds. Gschneidner, K. A., Eyring, L.) 9, chapter 58, pp. 1–90, North-Holland, Amsterdam 1987Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Reisfeld, R., Jørgensen, C. K.: Lasers and Excited States of Rare Earths, Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York 1977Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jørgensen, C. K., Reisfeld, R.: Structure and Bonding 50, 121 (1982)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Acta Chem. Scand. 8, 1495 (1954)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schäffer, C. E.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 8, 149 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Porter, G. B., Schläfer, H. L.: Z. Physik. Chem. 37, 109 (1963)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ferguson, J., Guggenheim, H. J., Wood, D. L.: J. Chem. Phys. 54, 504 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Acta Chem. Scand. 9, 1362 (1955); 10, 887 (1956)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Reedijk, J., van Leeuwen, P. W. N. M., Groeneveld, W. L.: Rec. trav. chim. Pays-Bas 87, 129 (1968)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Griffith, J. S.: The Theory of Transition-metal Ions, Cambridge University Press 1961Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Condon, E. U., Shortley, G. H.: Theory of Atomic Spectra, Cambridge University Press 1953Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jørgensen, C. K., Schwochau, K.: Z. Naturforsch. 20a, 65 (1965)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schäffer, C. E., Jørgensen, C. K.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 8, 143 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Acta Chem. Scand. 10, 500 (1956); 11, 151 (1957)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Schröder, K. A.: J. Chem. Phys. 37, 2553 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jørgensen, C. K., Preetz, W., Homborg, H.: Inorg. Chim. Acta 5, 223 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Schläfer, H. L., Gausmann, H., Zander H. U.: Inorg. Chem. 6, 1528 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Schäffer, C. E.: Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Coord. Chem., Vienna 1964, pp. 77–81Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Brawer, S. A., White, W. B.: J. Chem. Phys. 67, 2043 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tischer, R. E.: ibid. 48, 4291 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Andrews, L. J., Lempicki, A., McCollum, B. C.: ibid. 74, 5526 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Adamson, A. W., Dunn, T. M.: J. Mol. Spectr. 18, 83 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Walters, R. T., Adamson, A. W.: Acta Chem. Scand. A33, 53 (1979)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Durville, F., Boulon, G., Reisfeld, R., Mack, H., Jørgensen, C. K.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 102, 393 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schäffer, C. E., Jørgensen, C. K.: Mat. fys. Medd. Dan. Vid. Selskab 34, No. 13 (1965)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Schäffer, C. E., Jørgensen, C. K.: Mol. Phys. 9, 401 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Schäffer, C. E.: Structure and Bonding 5, 68 (1968); 14, 69 (1973)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Schäffer, C. E.: Pure Appl. Chem. 24, 361 (1970)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Glerup, J., Mønsted, O., Schäffer, C. E.: Inorg. Chem. 15, 1399 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Brorson, M., Jensen, G. S., Schäffer, C. E.: J. Chem. Educ. 63, 387 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tanabe, Y., Kamimura, H.: J. Phys. Soc. Japan 13, 394 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Forster, L. S., Rund, J. V., Fulcaro, A. F.: J. Phys. Chem. 88, 5012; 5017 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Flint, C. D., Matthews, A. P.: J.C.S. Faraday Trans. II 70, 1307 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Forster, L. S., Mønsted, O.: J. Phys. Chem. 90, 5131 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Pott, G. T., McNicol, B. D.: J. Luminescence 6, 225 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kane-Maguire, N. A. P., Conway, J., Langford, C. H.: J.C.S. Chem. Comm. 801 (1974)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Adamson, A. W.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 28, 1955 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gutierrez, A. R., Adamson, A. W.: J. Phys. Chem. 82, 902 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Eriksen, J., Mønsted, O. Acta Chem. Scand. A37, 579 (1983)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Stokowski, S. E., Schawlow, A. L.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 965 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Glerup, J., Hodgson, D. J., Pedersen, E.: Acta Chem. Scand. A37, 161 (1983)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Riesen, H., Güdel, H. U.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 429 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pratt, G. W., Bailey, P. T.: Phys. Rev. 131, 1923 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Allen, J. W.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1526 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gorkom, G. G. P. van, Henning, J. C. M., Stapele, R. P. van: Phys. Rev. B8, 955 (1973)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Fournier, J. T., Landry, R. J., Bartram, R. H.: J. Chem. Phys. 55, 2522 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    chldfer, H. L., Gausmann, H., Witzke, H.: ibid. 46, 1423 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Adamson, A. W.: J. Chem. Educ. 60, 797 (1983)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: J. Physique (Colloq.) 46-C7, 409 (1985)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Orgel, L. E.: J. Chem. Phys. 23, 1824 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Oelkrug, D.: Structure and Bonding 9, 1 (1971)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Reinen, D., Frfebel, C.: ibid. 37, 1 (1979)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Warren, K. D.: ibid. 57, 119 (1984)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Chimia 27, 203 (1973); 28, 6 (1974)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Structure and Bonding 22, 49 (1975)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hathaway, B. J.: ibid. 57, 55 (1984)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Boulon, G., Jørgensen, C. K., Reisfeld, R.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 75, 24 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mfngardi, M., Porter, G. B.: J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4354 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wölpl, A., Oelkrug, D.: Ber. Bunsenges. 79, 394 (1975)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Viane, L., D'Olieslager, J., Ceulemans, A., Vanquickenborne, L. G.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 1405 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Condrate, R. A., Forster, L. S.: J. Chem. Phys. 48, 1514 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kirk, A. D., Ludi, A., Schläfer, H. L.: Ber. Bunsenges. 73, 669 (1969)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kirk, A. D., Schläfer, H. L., Ludi, A.: Canad. J. Chem. 48, 1065 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ludi, A., Gddel, H. U.: Helv. Chim. Acta 51, 1762 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Schl5fer, H. L., Wagener, H., Wasgestfan, F., Herzog, G., Ludf, A.: Ber. Bunsenges. 75, 878 (1971)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Eisenstein, J. C.: J. Chem. Phys. 34, 1628 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Orgel, L. E.: Nature 179, 1348 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Brorson, M., Schäffer, C. E.: Inorg. Chem., in pressGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Quimica Nova (Säo Paulo)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Jørgensen, C. K.: Chimia 42, 21 (1988)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Greenberg, E., Katz, G., Reisfeld, R., Spector, N., Marshall, R. C., Bendow, B., Brown, R. N.: J. Chem. Phys. 77, 4797 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Knochenmuss, R., Reber, C., Rajasekharan, M. V., Güdel, H. U.: ibid. 85, 4280 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Liehr, A. D.: J. Phys. Chem. 67, 1314 (1963)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hammerling, P., Budgor, A. B., Pinto, A. (eds.): Tunable Solid State Lasers, Springer Series in Optical Sciences 47 (1985)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Holzrichter, J. F.: Nature 316, 309 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Holzrichter, J. F., Campbell, E. M., Lindl, J. D., Storm, E.: Science 229, 1045 (1985)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Crookes, W.: Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 40, 280 (1886); 42, 25 (1887)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Targos, W., Forster, L. S.: J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4342 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Blasse, G.: Structure and Bonding 26, 43 (1976)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Weber, M. J.: Phys. Rev. 157, 262 (1967); B8, 54 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Chatterjee, K. K., Forster, L. S.: Spectrochim. Acta 20, 1603 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Goldsmith, G. J., Shallcross, F. V., McClure, D. S.: J. Mol. Spear. 16, 296 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Van Die, A., Blasse, G., Van der Weg, W. F.: J. Phys. CI8, 3379 (1985)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ghazzawi, A. M., Tyminski, J. K., Powell, R. C., Walling, J. C.: Phys. Rev. B30, 7182 (1984)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Suchocki, A., Gilliland, G. D., Powell, R. C.: ibid. B35, 5830 (1987)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Neuhaus, A.: Z. Krist. 113, 195 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Bruce, A., Capobianco, J. A., Cormier, G., Krashkevich, D., Simkin, D. J.: J. Physique (Colloq.)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Bergin, F. J., Donegan, J. F., Glynn, T. J., Imbusch, G. F.: J. Luminescence 36, 231 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Glerup, J.: Acta Chem. Scand. 26, 3775 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Heber, J., Platz, W.: J. Luminescence 18, 170 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ferguson, J., Oosterhaut, B. van: ibid. 18, 165 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Reisfeld, R.: Inorg. Chim. Acta 140, 345 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Reisfeld, R., Eyal, M., Buch, A., Ish-Shalom, M.: Chem. Phys. Lett., in pressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Renata Reisfeld
    • 1
  • Christian K. Jørgensen
    • 2
  1. 1.Enrique Berman Professor of Solar Energy; Department of Inorganic and Analytical ChemistryThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Département de Chimie, Analytique et AppliquéeUniversité de GenèveGeneva 4Switzerland

Personalised recommendations