Advertisement

Electrochemistry of solvated electrons

  • Ninel M. Alpatova
  • Lev I. Krishtalik
  • Yuri V. Pleskov
Conference paper
Part of the Topics in Current Chemistry book series (TOPCURRCHEM, volume 138)

Abstract

Over the past 10–15 years a new trend has been developed in theoretical electrochemistry: the electrochemistry of solvated electrons. In this review theoretical concepts of the electrochemical properties of solvated electrons and the results of experimental studies are considered from a unified position. Also discussed are: energy levels of localized (solvated) and delocalized electrons in solutions and methods for their determination; conditions of electrochemical formation of solvated electrons and properties of these solutions; equilibrium on an “electron electrode”. The kinetics and mechanisms of cathodic generation of solvated electrons and of their anodic “oxidation” are discussed in detail. In the last sections participation of solvated electrons in “ordinary” electrode reactions is discussed, and the possibilities of cathodic electrosyntheses utilizing solvated electrons are considered.

Keywords

Alkali Metal Proton Donor Delocalized Electron Excess Electron Solvate Electron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

11 References

  1. 1.
    Edwards, P. P.: Adv. Inorg. Chem. Radiochem. 25, 135 (1982)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weyl, W.: Poggendorffs Ann. 121, 601 (1864)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kraus, C. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 30, 1197 (1908)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kraus, C. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 43, 749 (1921)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pikaev, A. K.: Solvatirovannyi elektron v radiatsionnoi khimii, Moscow, Nauka 1969Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hart, E. J., Anbar, M.: The Hydrated Electron, New York e. a., Wiley-Interscience 1970Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thompson, J. C.: Electrons in Liquid Ammonia, Oxford, Clarendon Press 1976Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    The sixth international conference on excess electrons and metal — ammonia solutions. Colloque Weyl VI. June 26–July I, 1983. J. Phys. Chem. 88, 3699 (1984)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brodsky, A. M., Gurevich, Yu. Ya., Pleskov, Yu. V., Rotenberg, Z. A.: Sovremennaya fotoelektrokhimiya. Fotoemissionnye yavleniya, Moscow, Nauka 1974Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gurevich, Yu. Ya., Pleskov, Yu. V., Rotenberg, Z. A.: Photoelectrochemistry, New York-London, Consultants Bureau 1980Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Antropov, L. I.: in: Itogi nauki, ser. Elektrokhimiya, Vol. 6, p. 5, Moscow, VINITI 1971Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kenney, I. A., Walker, D. C.: In: Electroanalytical Chemistry (Ed.) Bard, A. J., Vol. 5, p. 1, New York, M. Dekker 1971Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Conway, B. E.: In: Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry (eds.) Conway, B. E., Bockris, J. O' M., Vol. 7, p. 83, New York, Plenum Press 1972Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alpatova, N. M., Kessler, Yu. M., Krishtalik, L. I., Ovsyannikova, E. V., Fomicheva, M. G.: in: Itogi nauki i tekhniki, ser. Elektrokhimiya, Vol. 10, p. 45, Moscow, VINITI 1975Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krishtalik, L. I., Alpatova, N. M.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 65, 219 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Krishtalik, L. I., Alpatova, N. M.: Elektrokhimiya 12, 163 (1976)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Alpatova, N. M., Krishtalik, L. I.: in: Itogi nauki i tekhniki, ser. Elektrokhimiya, Vol. 15, p. 132, Moscow, VINITI 1979Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cady, H. P.: J. Phys. Chem. 1, 707 (1896–1897)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Laitinen, H. A., Nyman, C. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 70, 3002 (1948)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Avaka, L. A., Bewick, A.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 41, 395 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kanzaki, Y., Aoyagui, S.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 36, 297 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Krishtalik, L. I., Alpatova, N. M. Fomicheva, M. G.: Elektrokhimiya 7, 1393 (1971)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Landau, L. D.: Phys. Z. Sov. Union 3, 664 (1933)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pekar, S. I.: Zh. eksp. i teor. fiz. 16, 341 (1946)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Davydov, A. S.: Zh. eksp. i teor. fiz. 18, 913 (1948)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jortner J. In: Actions chimiques et biologiques des radiations. Paris, Masson, 1970, Ser. 14, p. 7–72.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pleskov, Yu. V., Rotenberg, Z. A.: in: Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering (eds.) Gerischer, H., Tobias, C., Vol. II, p. 3, New York e. a., Wiley-Interscience 1978Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dogonadze, R. R., Krishtalik, L. I., Pleskov, Yu. V.: Elektrokhimiya 10, 507 (1974)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Parsons, R.: in: Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry (ed.) Bockris, J. O'M., Vol. I, p. 130, London, Butterworths 1954Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Trasatti, S.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 139, I (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gurevich, Yu. Ya., Pleskov Yu. V.: Elektrokhimiya 18, 1477 (1982)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bonch-Bruevich, V. L.: Uspekhi fiz. nauk 140, 583 (1983)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gerischer, H.: in: Physical Chemistry (ed.) Eyring, H., Vol. 9, p. 463, New York, Academic Press 1970Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jortner, J., Noyes, R. M.: J. Phys. Chem. 70, 770 (1966)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schindewolf, U.: J. Phys. Chem. 88, 3820 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barker, G. C., Gardner, A. W., Sammon, D. C.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 113, 1182 (1966)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Aldrich, J. E., Bronskill, M. J., Wolff, R. K., Hunt, J. W.: J. Chem. Phys. 55, 530 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brodsky, A. M., Gurevich, Yu. Ya.: Teoriya elektronnoi emissii iz metallov, Moscow, Nauka 1973Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Krohn, C. E., Antoniewicz, P. R., Thompson, J. C.: Surface Sci. 101, 241 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sass, J. K., Gerischer, H.: in: Photoemission and the Electronic Properties of Surfaces (eds.) Feuerbacher, B., Fitton, B., Willis, R. F., p. 469, Wiley 1978Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Delahay, P.: Acc. Chem. Res. 15, 40 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gremmo, N., Randles, J. E. B.: J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 70, Pt. I, 1478 (1974)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pleskov, Yu. V.: Khim. vys. energii 12, 296 (1978)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pleskov, Yu. V.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 105, 227 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Eletsky, V. V., Pleskov, Yu. V.: Elektrokhimiya 13, 1376 (1977)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kokilashvili, R. G., Eletsky, V. V., Pleskov, Yu. V.: Elektrokhimiya 20, 1075 (1984)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kokilashvili, R. G., Eletsky, V. V., Pleskov, Yu. V., Dzhaparidze, Dz. I.: Elektrokhimiya 17, 262 (1981)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Itaya, K., Malpas, R. E., Bard, A. J.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 63, 411 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rotenberg, Z. A., Gromova, N. V.: Elektrokhimiya 22, 152 (1986)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lange, P., Sass, J. K., Unwin, R., Tench, D. M.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 122, 387 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kaganovich, R. I., Damaskin, B. B., Ganzhina, I. M.: Elektrokhimiya 4, 867 (1968)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Damaskin, B. B., Kaganovich, R. I.: Elektrokhimiya 13, 293 (1977)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Case, B., Parsons, R.: Trans. Faraday Soc. 63, 1224 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Parsons, R., Rubin, B. T.: J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 70, Pt. I, 1636 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Parsons, R., de Valera, E.: Nouv. J. Chim. 2, III (1978)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Randles, J. E. B.: Trans. Faraday Soc. 52, 1573 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gomer, R., Tryson, G.: J. Chem. Phys. 66, 4413 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Farrell, J. R., Mc Tigue, P.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 139, 37 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Antropov, L. I., Gerasimenko, M. A., Khirkh-Yalan, I. F., Shkolnaya, E. F.: Elektrokhimiya 20, 1357 (1984)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Frumkin, A. N., Iofa, Z. A., Gerovich, M. A.: Zh. fiz. khim. 30, 1455 (1956)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Trasatti, S.: in: Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering (eds.) Conway, B., Bockris, J. O'M., Vol. 13, p. 81, New York, Plenum Press, 1979Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Case, B., Hush, N. S., Parsons, R., Peover, M. E.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 10, 360 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lepoutre, G., Jortner, J.: J. Phys. Chem. 76, 683 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Holroyd, K. A., Tames, S., Kennedy, A.: J. Phys. Chem. 79, 2857 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rotenberg, Z. A.: Elektrokhimiya 8, 1198 (1972)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pleskov, Yu. V., Rotenberg, Z. A.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 20, I (1969)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Brodsky, A. M., Tsarevsky, A. V.: Adv. Chem. Phys. 44, 483 (1980)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Aulich, A., Nemec, L., Delahay, P.: J. Chem. Phys. 61, 4235 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gremmo, N., Randles, J. E. B.: J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 70, Pt. I, 1488 (1974)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    German, E. D.: Reviews in Inorganic Chemistry 5, 123 (1984)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Barthel, J.: in: Ionen in nichtwä\rigen Lösungen. Fortschritte der physikalischen Chemie (ed.) Jost, W., Bd. 10 Darmstadt, Dr. D. Steinkoff Verlag 1976Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Maltsev, E. I., Alpatova, N. M., Vannikov, A. V.: Elektrokhimiya 13, 263 (1977)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Baron, B., Delahay, P., Lugo, R.: J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4180 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Alpatova, N. M., Maltsev, E. I., Vannikov, A. V., Zabusova, S. E.: Elektrokhimiya 9, 1034 (1973)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shaede, E. A., Dorfman, L. M., Flynn, G. J., Walker, D. C.: Canad. J. Chem. 51, 3905 (1973)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Copeland, D. A., Kestner, N. B., Jortner, J.: J. Chem. Phys. 53, 1189 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Maltsev, E. I., Golovanov, V. V., Zolotarevskii, V. I., Vannikov, A. V.: Khim. vys. energii 11, 97 (1977)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Alpatova, N. M., Grishina, A. D.: Elektrokhimiya 9, 1375 (1973)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Logan, S. H.: J. Chem. Educ. 44, 344 (1967)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rabani, J.: in: Solvated Electron, p. 242, Washington, Amer. Chem. Soc. 1965Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Schindewolf, U.: Chemie in unserer Zeit 4, 37 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Frumkin, A. N., Bagotsky, V. S., Iofa, Z. A., Kabanov, B. N.: Kinetika elektrodnykh protsessov, Moscow, Izd. MGU 1952Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Belloni, J., Saito, E.: Nucl. Sci. Abstr. 28, 150 (1973)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Saito, E.: in: Electrons in Fluids, The Nature of Metal-Ammonia Solutions (eds.) Jortner, J., Kestner, N. R., p. 139, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, Springer-Verlag 1973Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Belloni, J., Saito, E.: in: Electrons in Fluids. The Nature of Metal-Ammonia Solutions (eds.), Jortner, J., Kestner, N. R., p. 71, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, Springer-Verlag 1973Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Baxendale, J. H.: Zh. V. Kh. O. im. Mendeleeva 11, 168 (1966)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jolly, W.: J. Chem. Educ. 33, 512 (1956)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Putnam, G. L., Kobe, K. A.: Trans. Electrochem. Soc. 74, 609 (1938)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Makishima, S.: J. Faculty Eng. Tokyo Univ. 21, 115 (1938); C. A. 32, 8220 (1938)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Davidson, A. W., Kleinberg, J., Bennet, W. E., Mc Elroy, A. D.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 71, 377 (1949)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mc Elroy, A. D., Kleinberg, J., Davidson, A. W.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 72, 5178 (1950)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Quinn, R. K., Lagowski, J. J.: Inorg. Chem. 9, 414 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Harima, Y., Kurihara, H., Aoyagui, S.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 124, 103 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Dainton, F. S., Wiles, D. M., Wright, A. N.: J. Chem. Soc. 4283 (1960)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Cafasso, F. A., Sundheim, B. R.: J. Chem. Phys. 31, 809 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Glarum, S. H., Marshall, J. H.: J. Chem. Phys. 52, 5555 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Morijiri, M., Itaya, K., Toshima, S.: Rev. Polarography 22, 107 (1976)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Strong, J., Tuttle, T. R.: J. Phys. Chem. 77, 533 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Down, J. L., Lewis, J., Moore, B., Wilkinson, G.: J. Chem. Soc. 3767 (1959)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mei Tak Lok, Tehan, F. J., Dye, J. L.: J. Phys. Chem. 76, 2975 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Seddon, W. A., Fletcher, J. W., Sopchyshyn, F. C., Selkirc, E. B.: Canad. J. Chem. 57, 1792 (1979)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dubois, J. E., Lacaze, P. C., de Fiquelmont, A. M.: C. r. Akad. Sci. Ser. C, 262, 181 (1966)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Gal, J. Y., Yvernault, T.: Bull. Soc. chim. France 2770 (1971)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gal, J. Y., Yvernault, T.: C. r. Acad. Sci. 272, Ser. C, 42 (1971)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Izutsu, K., Sakura, S., Fujinaga, T.: Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 45, 445 (1972)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Dubois, J. E., Monvernay, A., Lacaze, P. C.: Electrochim. Acta 15, 315 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Catterall, R.: in: Solutions metal-ammoniac. Proprietes physicochimiques (eds.) Lepoutre, G., Sienko, M., p. 41, New York, Benjamin 1964Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Nakamura, Y., Yamamoto, M., Shimokava, S.: Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 44, 3212 (1971)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Gutmann, V.: Coordination Chemistry in Non-Aqueous Solutions, Wien-New York, Springer-Verlag 1968Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mayer, U., Gutmann, V., Gerger, W.: Monatsh. Chem. 106, 1235 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Gutmann, V.: Electrochim. Acta 21, 661 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Diggle, J. W., Bogsanyi, D.: J. Phys. Chem. 78, 1018 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Tehan, F. J., Barnett, B. L., Dye, J. L.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 96, 7203 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Dye, J. L., Andrews, C. W., Ceraso, J. M.: J. Phys. Chem. 79, 3076 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Dye, J. L.: in: Electrons in Fluids. The Nature of Metal-Ammonia Solutions (eds.) Jortner, J., Kestner, N. R., p. 78, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, Springer-Verlag 1973Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Dye, J. L.: Scientific American 237, 92 (1977)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Dinh Le, L., Issa, D., Van Eck, B., Dye, J. L.: J. Phys. Chem. 86, 7 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ceraso, J. M., Dye, J. L.: J. Chem. Phys. 61, 1585 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Dye, J. L., De Baster, M., Nicely, V. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 92, 5226 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Peter, F., Gross, M.: in: International Society of Electrochemistry. 27th Meeting, Extended Abstracts, No. 240, Zürich 1976Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Espinola, A., Jordan, J.: in: Charact. Solutes Nonaqueous Solvants. Proc. Symp. Spectrosc. Electrochem. Charact. Solute Species Nonaqueous Solvents, 1976 (ed.) Mamantov, G., p. 311, New York, Plenum Press 1978Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Isaeva, L. I., Polyakov, P. V., Mikhalev, Yu. G., Dubova, G. F.: in: Tezisy dokladov VIII Vsesoyuznoi konferentsii po fizicheskoi khimii i elektrokhimii ionnykh rasplavov i tverdykh elektrolitov, Vol. 2, p. 88, Leningrad (1983)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Solutions metal-ammoniac. Proprietes physico-chimiques. Colloque Weyl (I). Juin 1963 (eds.) Lepoutre, G., Sienko, M. J., New York, Benjamin 1964Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Metal-Ammonia Solutions. Colloque Weyl II, June 1969 (eds.) Lagowski, J. J., Sienko, M., London, Butterworths 1970Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Electrons in Fluids. The Nature of Metal-Ammonia Solutions. Colloque Weyl III. June 1972 (eds.) Jortner, J., Kestner, N. R., Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, Springer-Verlag 1973Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Electrons in Fluids. The Nature of Metal-Ammonia Solutions. Colloque Weyl IV. June 30–July 3 1975, J. Phys. Chem. 79, 2789 (1975)Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    The Fifth International Conference on Excess Electrons and Metal-Ammonia Solutions. Colloque Weyl V. June 1979, J. Phys. Chem. 84, 1065 (1980)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Khaikin, G. I., Zhigunov, V. A., Dolin, P. I.: Khim. vys. energii 5, 54 (1971)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Quinn, R. K., Lagowski, J. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 72, 1374 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Quinn, R. K., Lagowski, J. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 73, 2326 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Doughit, R. C., Dye, J. L.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 82, 4472 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Mal'tsev, E. I., Vannikov, A. V.: Radiation Effects 20, 197 (1973)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Broocks, J. M., Dewald, R. R.: J. Phys. Chem. 72, 2655 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Alpatova, N. M., Grishina, A. D.: Elektrokhimiya, 7, 853 (1971)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Alpatova, N. M., Grishina, A. D., Fomicheva, M. G.: Elektrokhimiya 8, 253 (1972)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Grishina, A. D., Vannikov, A. V., Alpatova, N. M.: Elektrokhimiya 12, 1507 (1976)Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Grishina, A. D., Vannikov, A. V., Alpatova, N. M.: Radiat. Phys. and Chem. 11, 289 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Akhmanov, S. A., Aslanyan, L. S., Bunkin, A. F., Zhuravleva, T. S., Vannikov, A. V.: Khim, vys. energii 14, 417 (1980)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Zhuravleva, T. S., Kessenikh, A. V.: Khim, fizika 1464 (1982)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Pavlov, Yu. V., Fomicheva, M. G., Mishustin, A. I., Alpatova, N. M.: Elektrokhimiya 9, 541 (1973)Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kessler, Yu. M., Emelin, V. P., Mishustin, A. I., Yastremskii, P. S., Verstakov, E. S., Alpatova, N. M., Fomicheva, M. G., Kireev, K. V., Gruba, V. D., Bratishko, R. Kh.: Zh. strukt. khimii 16, 797 (1975)Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lagowski, J. J.: in: Electrons in Fluids. The Nature of Metal-Ammonia Solutions (eds.) Jortner, J., Kestner, N. R., p. 29, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, Springer-Verlag 1973Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Schindewolf, U., Werner, M., J. Phys. Chem. 84, 1123 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Harris, R. L., Lagowski, J. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 84, 1091 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Mal'tsev, E. I., Vannikov, A. V.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 200, 379 (1971)Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Mal'tsev, E. I., Vannikov, A. V., Bach, N. A.: Radiation Effects 11, 79 (1971)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Vannikov, A. V., Alpatova, N. M., Mal'tsev, E. I., Krishtalik, L. I.: Elektrokhimiya 10, 830 (1974)Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Vannikov, A. V., Alpatova, N. M.: Elektrokhimiya 11, 996 (1975)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Mal'tsev, E. I., Vannikov, A. V.: Radiat. Phys. and Chem. 10, 99 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Harima, Y., Kurihara, H., Nishiki, Y., Aoyagui, S., Tokuda, K., Matsuda, H.: Canad. J. Chem. 60, 445 (1982)Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Alpatova, N. M., Ovsyannikova, E. V., Zabusova, S. E.: in: Itogi nauki i tekhniki, ser. Elektrokhimiya, Vol. 23, Moscow, VINITI 1986Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Rubinstein, G., Tuttle, T. R., Golden, S.: J. Phys. Chem. 77, 2872 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Evtushenko, N. E., Karasevskii, A. I.: Ukrain, fiz. zh. 27, 1325 (1982)Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Bratsch, S. G., Lagowski, J. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 88, 1086 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kraus, C. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 36, 864 (1914)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Russel, J. B., Sienko, M. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 79, 4051 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Dye, J. L.: in: Solutions metal-ammoniac. Proprietes physico-chimiques (eds.) Lepoutre, G., Sienko, M. J., p. 137, New York, Benjamin 1964Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Harima, Y., Aoyagui, S.: Israel J. Chem. 18, 81 (1979)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Teherani, T., Itaya, K., Bard, A. J.: Nouv. J. Chim. 2, 481 (1979)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Bard, A. J., Itaya, K., Malpas, R. E., Teherani, T.: J. Phys. Chem. 84, 1262 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Lagowski, J. J.: Pure and Appl. Chem. 25, 429 (1971)Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Ahrens, M., Heusler, K. E.: Electrochim. Acta 27, 239 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Alpatova, N. M., Krishtalik, L. I., Ovsyannikova, E. V., Zabusova, S. E.: Elektrokhimiya 9, 884 (1973)Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Ovsyannikova, E. V., Krishtalik, L. I., Novitskii, S. P., Burenkov, I. I., Alpatova, N. M.: Elektrokhimiya 18, 867 (1982)Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Ovsyannikova, E. V., Krishtalik, L. I., Alpatova, N. M.: Elektrokhimiya, 12, 1032 (1976)Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Ovsyannikova, E. V., Alpatova, N. M., Krishtalik, L. I.: Elektrokhimiya 13, 1094 (1977)Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Kanzaki, Y., Aoyagui, S.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 51, 19 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    De Battisti, A., Trasatti, S.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 79, 251 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Gross, W., Schindewolf, U.: J. Phys. Chem. 84, 1266 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Harima, Y., Aoyagui, S.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 137, 171 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Gordon, R. P., Sundheim, B. R.,: J. Phys. Chem. 68, 3347 (1964)Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Harima, Y., Aoyagui, S.: Rev. Polarography 36, 47 (1977)Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Uribe, F. A., Sharp, P. R., Bard, A. J.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 152, 173 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Wilhelm, S. M.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 207 C (1979)Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Van Amerongen, G., Guyomard, G., Heindl, R., Herlem, M., Sculfort, J.-L.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 129, 1998 (1982)Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Harima, Y., Kurihara, H., Aoyagui, S.: Canad. J. Chem. 58, 1151 (1980)Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Martin, G. W., Murray, R. W.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 98, 149 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Kanzaki, Y., Aoyagui, S.: J. Electroanal. Chem 47, 109 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Kanzaki, Y., Aoyagui, S.: in: Japan—USSR Seminar on Electrochemistry, Extended Abstracts, p. 155, Tokyo, 1974Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Itaya, K., Kawai, M., Toshima, S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100, 5996 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Pleskov, Yu. V., Filinovsky, V. Yu.: The Rotating Disk Electrode, New York—London, Consultants Bureau 1976Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Worley, G., Lagowski, J. J.: in: 179th ACS Nat. Meet. Houston, Tex., Abstr. Pap. Washington, D. C. s. a., p. 571, 1980Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Teherani, T. H., Peer, W. J., Lagowski, J. J., Bard, A. J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 1717 (1978)Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Peer, W. J., Lagowski, J. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100, 6260 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Teherani, T. H., Peer, W. J., Bard, A. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100, 7768 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Bennet, J., Harney, D., Mitchell, T.: in: 18th Intersoc. Energy. Convers. Eng. Conf., Energy Marketplace, Orlando, Fla, Aug. 21–26, 1983. Proc. Vol. 4, p. 166, New York, 1983Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Bernard, L., Demortier, A., Lelieur, J. P., Lepoutre, G., t'Kint de Roodenbeke, F., Le Mehaute, A.: J. Phys. Chem. 88, 3833 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Le Mehaute, A.: J. Power Sources 9, 167 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Alpatova, N. M., Krishtalik, L. I., Fomicheva, M. G.: Elektrokhimiya 8, 535 (1972)Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Krishtalik, L. I., Alpatova, N. H., Fomicheva, M. G.: Croatica Chemica Acta 44, 1 (1972)Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Alpatova, N. M., Fomicheva, M. G., Ovsyannikova, E. V., Krishtalik, L. I.: Elektrokhimiya 9, 1234 (1973)Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Krishtalik, L. I., Alpatova, N. M., Ovsyannikova, E. V.: Elektrokhimiya 12, 1493 (1976)Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Zabusova, S. E., Fomicheva, M. G., Krishtalik, L. I., Alpatova, N. M.: Elektrokhimiya 11, 1888 (1975)Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Alpatova, N. M., Zabusova, S. E., Krishtalik, L. I.: Elektrokhimiya 12, 625 (1976)Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Zabusova, S. E., Fomicheva, M. G., Alpatova, N. M., Krishtalik, L. I.: Elektrokhimiya 14, 1619 (1978)Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Krishtalik, L. I.: Electrochim. Acta 21, 693 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Frumkin, A. N., Petrii, O. A., Nikolaeva-Fedorovich, N. V.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 147, 878 (1962)Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Brodsky, A. M., Frumkin, A. N.: Elektrokhimiya 6, 658 (1970)Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Fomicheva, M. G., Alpatova, N. M., Zabusova, S. E.: Elektrokhimiya 13, 216 (1977)Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Dubois, J. E., Monvernay, A., Lacaze, P. C.: J. Chim. Phys. 70, 39 (1973)Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Massignon, D., Le Gresus, C., Dubois, J. E.: in: International Society of Electrochemistry. 29th Meeting, Extended Abstracts, Pt. I, p. 337, Budapest 1978Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Pianka, M., Owen, B. D.; J. Appl. Chem. 5, 525 (1955)Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Kuznetsova, T. V., Kedrinskii, I. A., Ivanov, E. G., Potapova, G. P.: Elektrokhimiya 12, 1453 (1976)Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Kedrinskii, I. A., Kuznetsova, T. V., Morozov, S. V., Ivanov, E. G., Grudyanov, I. I.: Elektrokhimiya 12, 1458 (1976)Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Ichikawa, K., Thompson, J. C.: In: Electrons in Fluids. Nature of Metal-Ammonia Solutions (eds.) Jortner, J., Kestner, N. R., p. 231, Berlin—Heidelberg—New York, Springer-Verlag 1973Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Ichikawa, K., Thompson, J. C.: J. Chem. Phys. 59, 1680 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Sato, H., Harima, Y., Aoyagui, S.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 144, 449 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Krishtalik, L. I., Kuznetsov, A. M.: Elektrokhimiya 22, 246 (1986)Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Huges, G., Roach, R. J.: Chem. Communs. 600 (1965)Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Hills, G. J., Kinnibrugh, D. K.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 113, 1111 (1966)Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Walker, D. C.: Canad. J. Chem. 44, 2226 (1966)Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Walker, D. C.: Canad. J. Chem. 45, 807 (1967)Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Pyle, T., Roberts, C.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 247 (1968)Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Jansta, J., Dousek, F. P., Riga, J.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 44, 263 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Postl, D., Schindewolf, U.: Ber. Bunsenges. phys. Chem. 75, 662 (1971)Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Parsons, R.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 113, 1118 (1966)Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Krishtalik, L. I.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 113, 1117 (1966)Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Conway, B. E., McKinnon, D. J.: J. Phys. Chem. 74, 3663 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Bewick, A., Conway, B. E., Tuxford, A. M.: J. Electroanal. Chem. 42, Appl. II (1973)Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Krishtalik, L. I., Fomicheva, M. G., Alpatova, N. M.: Elektrokhimiya 8, 629 (1972)Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Krishtalik, L. I., Alpatova, N. M., Fomicheva, M. G.: in: International Society of Electrochemistry, 22nd Meeting, Extended Abstracts, p. 113, Dubrovnik 1971Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Krishtalik, L. I.: in: Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Ingineering (ed.) Delahay, P., Vol. 7, p. 283, New York, Interscience 1970Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Korshunov, N. V.: in: Sovremennye problemy polarografii s nakopleniem, p. 27, Tomsk 1975Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Rabinovich, V. A., Khavin, Z. A.: Kratkii khimicheskii spravochnik, Moscow, Khimiya 1977Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Wolthorn, H. J., Fernelius, W. C.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 56, 1551 (1934)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Bennet, J. E., Mile, B., Thomas, A.: Nature 201 919 (1964)Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Pleskov, V. A.: Uspekhi khimii 16, 254 (1947)Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Pleskov, V. A.: Zh. fiz, khim. 13, 1449 (1939)Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Smith, H.: in: Chemistry in Nonaqueous Ionizing Solvents Vol. I, Pt. 2. New York—London, Interscience Publishers 1963Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Dye, J. L., Sankuer, R. F., Smith, G. E.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 82, 4797 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Vannikov, A. V.: Uspekhi khimii 44, 1931 (1975)Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Avaca, L. A., Bewick, A.: J. Appl. Electrochem. 2, 349 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Kryukova, T. A., Sinyakova, S. I., Aref'eva, T. V.: Polarograficheskii analiz, Moscow, Goskhimizdat 1959Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Demortier, A., Bard, A. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 95, 3495 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Dewald, R. R., Jones, S. R., Schwartz, B. S.: J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3272 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Sternberg, W., Markby, R., Wender, I.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 110, 425 (1963)Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Dubois, J. E., Dobin, G.: Tetrahedron Letters 2325 (1969)Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Asahara, S., Senoo, M.: Pat. Japan 7240786. (1972); C. A. 78, 3805 (1973)Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Schindewolf, U., Neumann, B.: J. Phys. Chem. 83, 423 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Birch, A. J., Smith, H.: Q. Rev. (Chem. Soc.) 12, 17 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Krapcho, A. P., Bothner-By, A. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 81, 3658 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Eastham, J. F., Keenan, C. W., Secor, H. V.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 81, 6523 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Hatayama, T., Hamano, Y., Yamamoto, T. US Pat. 3700572 (1972); C. A. 78, 37265 (1973)Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Wagenknecht, J. H., Coleman, J. P.: in: Extended Abstracts, Electrochem. Soc. 80-1, p. 1075 (1980)Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Misra, R. A., Yadav, A. R.: Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 55, 347 (1982)Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    Benkeser, R., Kaiser, E.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 85, 2858 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Benkeser, R., Kaiser, E., Lambert, R.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 86, 5272 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Misono, A., Osa, T., Yamagishi, T., Kadama, T.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 266 (1968)Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Moritake, M., Fujii, M., Okazaki, T.: Japan Kokai 7379843 (1973); C. A. 80, 59636 (1974)Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Fujii, M., Moritake, M., Okazaki, T.: Japan Kokai 7379844 (1973); C. A. 80, 59635 (1974)Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Sternberg, H. W., Markby, R. E., Wender, J., Mohilner, D. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 186 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Lund, H.: in: Organic Electrochemistry, (eds.) Baizer, M. M., Lund, H., p. 873, New York, M. Dekker 19832 Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    White, G. F., Morrison, A. B., Anderson, E. G. E.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 46, 961 (1924)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Bolton, G. L., Robinson, M. G., Freeman, G. R.: Can. J. Chem. 54, 1177 (1976)Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Dewald, R. R., Dye, J. L., Eigen, M., Le Mayer, L.: J. Chem. Phys. 39, 2388 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Dewald, R. R., Bezirjian, O. H.: J. Phys. Chem. 74, 4155 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Zabusova, S. E., Tomilov, A. P., Filimonova, L. F., Alpatova, N. M.: Elektrokhimiya 16, 970 (1980)Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Coleman, J. P., Kobylecky, R. J., Utley, J. H. P.: Chem. Communs. 104 (1971)Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Itaya, K., Kawai, M., Toshima, S.: Chem. Phys. Letters 42, 179 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Itaya, K., Toshima, S.: Rev. Polarography 22, 40 (1976)Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Doblhofer, K., Gerischer, H.: Electrochim. Acta 20, 215 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Itaya, K., Bard, A. J.: J. Phys. Chem 85, 1358 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ninel M. Alpatova
    • 1
  • Lev I. Krishtalik
    • 1
  • Yuri V. Pleskov
    • 1
  1. 1.A. N. Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Academy of Sciences of USSRMoscow

Personalised recommendations