A comparative study of concurrency control methods in B-trees

  • Alexandros Biliris
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 227)


In this paper, we described a number concurrency control methods for B-trees. Among them, a protocol which allows a number of independent search, insertion, and deletion processes, acting concurrently on a B-tree, to operate even when multiple insertions or deletions are pending. A number of properties have been also proposed to compare such protocols. The set of properties includes the number of lock types being used, degree of data sharing, number of processes that are permitted to access a node simultaneously, how fast a reader can reach the leaf node, number of nodes locked by the three processes during their operation, number of nodes being accessed sequentially, and the number an updater passes through the tree. Based on these properties, seven protocols are compared and discussed.


Leaf Node Concurrency Control Read Process Insertion Process Sibling Node 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [BAYE72]
    Bayer R., McCreight E., Organization and maintenance of large ordered indexes, Acta Informatica, Vol. 1, 1972.Google Scholar
  2. [BAYE77b]
    Bayer R., Schkolnick M., Concurrency of operations on B-trees, Acta Informatica, Vol. 9, 1977.Google Scholar
  3. [BERN78]
    Bernstein P. A., Rothnie J. B. Jr., Goodman N., Papadimitriou C. A., The Concurrency Control Mechanism of SDD-1: A System for Distributed Databases (The Fully Redundant Case), IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. SE-4, No. 3, May 1978.Google Scholar
  4. [BERN79]
    Bernstein P., Shipman D., Wong W., Formal Aspects of Serializability in Database Concurrency Control, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol 5, No 3, May 1979.Google Scholar
  5. [BILI85a]
    Biliris A., Feldman M.B., Concurrent Insertions in Multiway Dynamic Structures, Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, March 1985.Google Scholar
  6. [BILI85b]
    Biliris A., Concurrency Control on Database Indexes: Design and Evaluation, Ph.D. Thesis, EECS Department, George Washington University, 1985. Available also as TR 85014-85015, Computer Science Dept., Boston University.Google Scholar
  7. [BILI86]
    Biliris A., Feldman M. B., Using the Ada Tasking Model in Evaluating Concurrency Control Protocols in Databases, submitted to IEEE, Transactions on Software Engineering.Google Scholar
  8. [CARE83]
    Carey M. J., Modeling and Evaluation of Database Concurrency Control Algorithms, Ph.D. Thesis, Computer Science Department, University of California, Berkley, 1983Google Scholar
  9. [COME79]
    Comer D., The ubiquitous B-Tree, ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 11, No. 2, and Vol. 11, No. 4, 1979.Google Scholar
  10. [FRAN85]
    Franaszek P., Robinson J. T., Limitations of Concurrency in Transaction Processing, ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol 10, No 1, 1985.Google Scholar
  11. [GARC83]
    Garcia-Molina H., Using Semantic Knowledge for Transaction Processing in a Distributed Database, ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 8, No. 2, June 1983.Google Scholar
  12. [GUIB78]
    Guibas C. S., Sedgewick R., A Dichromatic Framework for Balanced Trees, Proceedings of the 19th Annual Symp. Foundation Comp. Science, 1978.Google Scholar
  13. [HSU83]
    Hsu M., Madnick S., Hierarchical Database Decomposition — A Technique for Database Concurrency Control, Proceedings of the second ACM SIGACT-SIGMOD Symposium on Principles of Database Systems, Atlanta, Georgia, March 1983.Google Scholar
  14. [KERS84]
    Kersten M. L., Tebra H., Application of an Optimistic Concurrency Control Method, Software-Practice and Experience, Eds. John Wiley and Sons, Vol. 14, No. 2, February 1984.Google Scholar
  15. [KNUT73]
    Knuth D. E., The Art of Computer Programming, vol 3: Sorting and Searching, Reading MA: Addisson-Wesley, 1973.Google Scholar
  16. [KOHL81]
    Kohler W. H., A Survey of Techniques for Synchronization and Recovery in Decentralized Computer Systems, ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 13, No. 2, June 1981.Google Scholar
  17. [KUNG80]
    Kung H. T., Lehman P. L., A concurrent database manipulation problem: binary search trees, ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 5, No 3, 1980.Google Scholar
  18. [KUNG81]
    Kung H., Robinson J., On Optimistic Methods for Concurrency Control, ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 6, No. 2, June 1981.Google Scholar
  19. [KWON82]
    Kwong Y., Wood D., A new method for concurrency in B-trees, IEEE Transactions on Soft. Engineering, Vol 8, No 3, 1982.Google Scholar
  20. [LAUS84]
    Lausen G., Integrated Concurrency Control in Shared B-Trees, Computing, Vol. 33, No. 1, Eds. Spring-Verlag, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  21. [LEHM81]
    Lehman P. L, Yao S. B., Efficient Locking for Concurrent Operation on B-Trees, ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1981.Google Scholar
  22. [MILL78]
    Miller R., Snyder I., Multiple access to B-trees, Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference in Information Science and Systems, March 1978.Google Scholar
  23. [PAPA79]
    Papadimitriou C., Serializability of Concurrent Updates, Journal of the ACM, Vol. 26, No. 4, October 1979.Google Scholar
  24. [SAMA76]
    Samadi B., B-trees in a system with multiple users, Information Processing letters, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1976.Google Scholar
  25. [SPEC83]
    Spector A., Schwartz P., Transactions: A Construct for Reliable Distributed Computing, Operating Systems Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, April 1983.Google Scholar
  26. [SPEC85]
    Spector A. Z., Butcher J., Daniels D. S., Duchamp D. J., Eppinger J. L., Fineman C. E., Heddaya A., Schwarz P., Support for Distributed Transactions in the TABS Prototype, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. SE-11, No. 6, June 1985.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandros Biliris
    • 1
  1. 1.Computer Science DepartmentBoston UniversityBoston

Personalised recommendations