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Thermomechanics of polymers

  • Yu. K. Godovsky
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 76)

Abstract

This article reviews recent developments in polymer thermomechanics both in theory and experiment. The first section is concerned with theories of thermomechanics of polymers both in rubbery and solid (glassy and crystalline) states with special emphasis on relationships following from the thermomechanical equations of state. In the second section, some of the methods of thermomechanical measurements are briefly described. The third section deals with the thermomechanics of molecular networks and rubberlike materials including such technically important materials as filled rubbers and block and graft copolymers. Some recent data on thermomechanical behaviour of bioelastomers are also described. In the fourth section, thermomechanics of solid polymers both in undrawn and drawn states are discussed with a special focus on the molecular and structural interpretation of thermomechanical experiments. The concluding remarks stress the progress in the understanding of the thermomechanical properties of polymers.

Keywords

Internal Energy Amorphous Region Energy Contribution Draw Ratio Crystalline Polymer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
a0

radius of unstrained sample

a, a1, a2

parameters of van der Waals equation of state of a network

e

uniform (volume) strain

f

retractive force

fs

entropy component of retractive force

fu

energy component of retractive force

p

number of statistical segments

r

end-to-end distance of network chains

rmax

maximum extension of network chains

〈r2

mean square end-to-end distance of network chains in undeformed sample

〈r20

mean square end-to-end distance of unperturbed chains

〈r2i

mean square end-to-end distance of network chains in the reference state

w

degree of crystallinity

xi

generalized coordinate

A0

cross-sectional area of sample

C

heat capacity

C

constant in the Gaussian equation of state for-rubber elasticity

C1, C2

constants in the Mooney-Rivlin equation

\(D',D_m ,\bar D_m\)

strain functions in van der Waals equation of state

E

modulus of elasticity (Young modulus)

Ec

conformational energy of chains

E′

modulus of elasticity of filled rubbers

Ef

internal energy changes in filled rubbers

E

modulus of elasticity along the draw axis

E

modulus of elasticity perpendicular to the draw axis

Ecr

modulus of elasticity of crystalline lattice

EAB

modulus of elasticity of amorphous intrafibrillar regions

EAI

modulus of elasticity of amorphous interfibrillar regions

F

free energy

F*

Free energy of deformation of solids

G

free enthalpy

G*

free enthalpy of deformation of solids

G0

shear modulus

H

enthalpy

H*

enthalpy of deformation of solids

K

modulus of elasticity (volume)

L0

length of undeformed samples

L

length of deformed samples

Li

length of samples in the reference state

M

twisting couple

P

pressure

Q

heat

S

entropy

T

absolute temperature

V

volume

U

internal energy

U*

internal energy of deformation of solids

W

mechanical work

X

portion of interfibrillar amorphous regions

α

volume thermal expansivity

α*

degree of deformation

β

linear thermal expansivity

β

linear thermal expansivity along the orientation axis

β

linear thermal expansivity perpendicular to orientation axis

βcr

linear thermal expansivity of crystalline lattice

βAB

linear thermal expansivity of intrafibrillar amorphous regions

βAI

linear thermal expansivity of interfibrillar amorphous regions

β

linear thermal expansivity under the angle ϕ

γ

= (∂ ln 〈r20/∂ ln V)T, L

γS

shear deformation

γ′

= γ/2

δ

solubility parameter

ε

strain (uniaxial)

η

heat to work ratio

κ

volume compressibility

κL

linear compressibility

λ

elongation (or compression) ratio

λQ

elongation corresponding to inversion of heat

λu

elongation corresponding to inversion of internal energy

λm

limiting elongation

λf

elongation corresponding to inversion of force

μ

Poisson's ratio

ν

number of elastically active network chains

ξ, ξi

generalized force

σ

stress

τ

shear stress

ϕ

angle with the draw direction

ω

internal energy to work ratio

θ

twisting angle

PE

polyethylene

LDPE

low density polyethylene

HDPE

high density polyethylene

PP

polypropylene

PA

polyamide

PS

polystyrene

PET

poly(ethylene terephthalate)

NR

natural rubber

PDMS

polydimethylsiloxane

EPR

ethylene-propylene rubber

SBR

styrene-butadiene rubber

PCR

polychloroprene rubber

NBR

nitrile-butadiene rubber

PBR

polybutadiene rubber

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu. K. Godovsky
    • 1
  1. 1.Karpov Institute of Physical ChemistryMoscowUSSR

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