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Syntactic polymer foams

  • F. A. Shutov
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 73/74)

Abstract

The review deals with a special kind of gas-filled polymeric materials: the syntactic polymer foams, or spheroplastics, consisting of a polymer matrix and a hollow spherical filler. The survey covers the following aspects: preparation and properties of polymeric hollow micro- and macrospheres; physical principles of syntactic foam formation: rheology, regulation of apparent density, space factor and packing of syntactic compositions; chemical and technological principles of formation; preparation of syntactic foams based on epoxy, polyester, phenol, polyimide, and other resins, as well as the newest types of foams — prepregs, poly-phase structures, elastomeric and reinforced foams. The specificity of physical properties and methods of calculation of strength parameters are discussed. Attempts are made to evaluate the effect and contribution of size and packing of spheres on the principal physical properties. The main applications and trends of syntactic foams are outlined.

Keywords

Hollow Sphere Apparent Density Hollow Microsphere Furfuryl Alcohol Syntactic Foam 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ABS

Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer

BJO

USA grade phenolic microspheres

BMC

Bulk molding compound

BV

USSR grade phenolic microspheres

DMC

Dough molding compound

DNPMTA

Dinitrosopentamethylenetetramine

EDM

USSR grade syntactic foam from epoxy resin and phenol microspheres

EDS

USSR grade syntactic foam from epoxy resin and glass microspheres

EK

USSR grade epoxy resin

EMS

USSR grade syntactic foam based on epoxy resin

ENS

USSR grade syntactic foam based on epoxy resin

FREP

Fabricated reinforced epoxy tooling

FTD

USA grade glass microspheres

HTF

USA grade syntactic foam from polyimide resin

OEA

Oligo(ester acrylate)

PhFO

Phenol-formaldehyde oligomer

PMMA

Poly(methyl methacrylate)

PPU

USSR grade polyurethane foam

RIM

Reaction injection molding process

RRIM

Reinforced reaction injection molding process

SMC

Sheet molding compound

SPAB

USSR grade syntactic foam based on OEA

SPB

USSR grade syntactic foam based on polyester resin

SPM

USSR grade syntactic foam based on polyester resin

SPS

USSR grade syntactic foam based on polyester resin

TTPSF

Thermosetting three-phase syntactic foam

Physicochemical Symbols

a

inner radius of a hollow sphere

A

coefficient

b

outer radius of a hollow sphere

B

coefficient

C

concentration, content

D

packing factor, diffusion coefficient, diameter

E

elastic modulus

Ef

elastic modulus of filler

Es

elastic modulus of syntactic foam

E0

elastic modulus of matrix

G

shear modulus

GH

shear modulus of a hollow sphere

GS

shear modulus of a solid sphere

G0

shear modulus of matrix

h

half-thickness of a specimen

H

long-term elastic modulus

J

long-term shear modulus

K

bulk elastic modulus

Kf

bulk elastic modulus of filler

Ks

space factor

K0

bulk elastic modulus of matrix

L

length of specimen

P

molding pressure, external pressure

Pcol

collapsing hydrostatic pressure

Pr

relative hydrostatic pressure

P0

pressure needed to get Ks

P

hydrostatic long-term pressure

r

radius

S

surface area

T

temperature

V

volume

Wτ

water absorption in time τ

W

equilibrium water absorption

αf

coefficient of thermal expansion for filler

α0

coefficient of thermal expansion for matrix

β

parameter of cellular structure

γ

apparent density

γb

density of binder

γt

theoretical apparent density

γ0

apparent density of matrix

tan δ

dielectric losses

ε

compressive deformation

ε′

dielectric constant

ϑb

binder volume fraction

ϑf

filler volume fraction

ϑfm

maximum filler volume fraction

ϑsph

true volume fraction of microspheres

ϑ0

packed volume fraction of spheres

λ

thermal conductivity

ν

Poisson's ratio

ν0

Poisson's ratio for matrix

σcyl

cylindrical strength of filler

σf

flexural strength

σs

compressive strength

σsh

shear strength

σt

tensile strength

σ0

compressive strength of matrix

τ

current time

τ*

relaxation time

χi

dimensionless numbers

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. A. Shutov
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Polymer ProcessingMendeleev Institute of Chemistry and TechnologyMoscowUSSR

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