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Flammability of polymeric materials

  • Roza M. Aseeva
  • Gennadiy E. Zaikov
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 70)

Abstract

This is a state-of-the-art review of ignition, combustion and extinction in polymeric systems. Factors affecting the flammability of polymers are discussed. The relationship between the chemical nature of the polymer and its flammability is analyzed assuming an important role of pyrolysis and gasification reactions occurring in the complex combustion process. Thermodynamic data on the chemical reactions responsible for the combustion of high molecular weight compounds are considered. The action mechanisms of the three major flame retardants for polymer, halogen-, phosphorus- and metal-containing compounds, as well as their relative inhibiting effects are discussed.

Keywords

Heat Flux Polymeric Material Flame Retardant Ignition Time Flame Spread 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Symbols

a

thermal diffusivity

c

heat capacity

D

diffusivity

De

Damköhler number

E

reaction activation energy

ΔH

enthalpy

k

reaction rate constant

k0

preexponential factor

L

thickness

LOI

limiting oxygen index (by ASTM D 2863 as volume fraction or vol %, may also be expressed in mass or molar units)

\(\dot m\)

mass rate of burning or mass loss per time unit

P

pressure

PF

parameter of flammability

\(\dot q\)

heat flux

R

universal gas constant

r

stoichiometric oxidant/fuel ratio

r′

reflection coefficient

T

temperature

V

volume

v

linear velocity

x,y,z

space coordinates

Y

concentration

α

coefficient of convective heat transfer

\(\bar \alpha\)

mean coefficient of absorption (absorptivity)

δ

dimension of region (of heating or reaction)

ε

emissivity

λ

thermal conductivity

ν

reaction order

ϱ

density

τ

time

Subscripts

c

combustion

ck

coke

e

external

ex

extinguishant

F

fuel

f

flame

FR

flame retardant

g

gas

ign

ignition

l

losses of heat

o

initial state

ox

oxidant

p

pyrolysis

s

solid phase, surface

si

self-ignition

v

vaporization, volatilization

*

critical value,

ambient

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roza M. Aseeva
    • 1
  • Gennadiy E. Zaikov
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Chemical PhysicsUSSR Academy of SciencesMoscowU.S.S.R.

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