Chapter 5 Performance issues

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 184)


In this paper, we discuss performance models of local-area networks related to different layers of architecture and various aspects of implementation. Our intention is to make the reader aware of typical questions in the performance evaluation of local-area networks, and to discuss approaches to answer these. Three categories of models are discussed: (1) models to analyze the delay-throughput characteristics of medium access protocols; (2) a model to study the performance of a local-area network on which a file server provides file storage and retrieval service to several intelligent workstations, and (3) a model to investigate potential timing problems in an adapter to a local-area network. The paper is descriptive in nature; analytic details are omitted in favour of a more intuitive explanation of the relevant effects.


Medium Access Control Loss Probability Direct Memory Access Total Throughput Cable Length 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ∣Abramson 77∣.
    Abramson, N., The ALOHA System — Another Alternative for Computer Communications, Proc. 1977 Fall Joint Comp. Conf., Arlington, Va., (1977), AFIPS Press, 117–128.Google Scholar
  2. ∣Agrawala 78∣.
    Agrawala, A.K., Agre, J.R., Gordon, K.D., The Slotted vs. the Token-Controlled Ring: A Comparative Evaluation, Proc. COMPSAC 1978, Chicago, IL., (1978), IEEE, 674–679.Google Scholar
  3. ∣Almes 79∣.
    Almes, G.T., Lazowska, E.D., The Behavior of Ethernet-Like Computer Communications Networks, Proc. 7th Symp. on Operating Systems Principles, Asilomar Grounds, CA., (1979), 66–81.Google Scholar
  4. ∣Arthurs 82∣.
    Arthurs, E., Stuck, B.W., A Theoretical Performance Analysis of Polling and Carrier Sense Collision Detection Systems, Proc. IFIP Conf. Local Computer Networks, (1982), North-Holland, 415–438.Google Scholar
  5. ∣Blair 82a∣.
    Blair, G.S., A Performance Study of the Cambridge Ring, Computer Networks 6, (1982) 13–20.Google Scholar
  6. ∣Blair 82b∣.
    Blair, G.S., Shepherd, D., A Performance Comparison of Ethernet and the Cambridge Digital Communication Ring, Computer Networks 6, (1982) 105–113.Google Scholar
  7. ∣Bux 81a∣.
    Bux, W., Closs, F., Janson, P., Kuemmerle, K., Mueller, H.R., A Reliable Token-Ring System for Local-Area Communication, Conf. Rec. NTC '81, Piscataway, NJ., (1981), IEEE, A2.2.1–A2.2.6.Google Scholar
  8. ∣Bux 81b∣.
    Bux, W., Local-Area Subnetworks: A Performance Comparison, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-29, (1981), 1465–1473.Google Scholar
  9. ∣Bux 82∣.
    Bux, W., Closs, F., Janson, P.A., Kuemmerle, K., Mueller, H.R., Rothauser, E.H., A Local-Area Communication Network Based on a Reliable Token-Ring System, Proc. International Symp. on Local Computer Networks, (1982), North-Holland, 69–82.Google Scholar
  10. ∣Bux 83a∣.
    Bux, W., Schlatter, M., An Approximate Method for the Performance Analysis of Buffer Insertion Rings, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-31, (1983) 50–55.Google Scholar
  11. ∣Bux 83b∣.
    Bux W., Truong, H.L., Token-Ring Performance: Mean-Delay Approximation, Proc. 10th Int. Teletraffic Congress, Montreal, Canada, (1983) 3.1-3/1–3.1-3/6.Google Scholar
  12. ∣Bux 83c∣.
    Bux, W., Analysis of a Local-Area Bus System with Controlled Access, to appear in IEEE Trans. Comput. C-32, (August 1983).Google Scholar
  13. ∣Bux 83d∣.
    Bux, W., Truong, H.L., Mean-Delay Approximation for Cyclic-Service Queueing Systems, Performance Evaluation, 3, (August 1983) 187–196.Google Scholar
  14. ∣Capetanakis 79a∣.
    Capetanakis, J., Tree Algorithms for Packet Broadcast Channels, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, IT-25, (1979) 505–515.Google Scholar
  15. ∣Capetanakis 79b∣.
    Capetanakis, J., Generalized TDMA: The Multi-Accessing Tree Protocol, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-275, (1979) 1476–1484.Google Scholar
  16. ∣Clark 78∣.
    Clark, D.D., Pogran, K.T., Reed, D.P., An Introduction to Local Area Networks, Proc. IEEE 66, (1978) 1497–1517.Google Scholar
  17. ∣Cooper 70∣.
    Cooper, R.B., Queues Served in Cyclic Order: Waiting Times, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, (1970) 399–413.Google Scholar
  18. ∣∣.
    Digital 80 Digital, Intel, and Xerox, The Ethernet — A Local Area Network Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specifications, (September 1980).Google Scholar
  19. ∣ECMA 82a∣.
    ECMA TR/14: Local Area Networks Layers 1 to 4 Architecture and Protocols, (September 1982).Google Scholar
  20. ∣ECMA 82b∣.
    Standard ECMA-72: Transport Protocol, 2nd Revision, (September 1982).Google Scholar
  21. ∣ECMA 82c∣.
    Standard ECMA-80: Local Area Networks (CSMA/CD Baseband) Coaxial Cable System, (September 1982).Google Scholar
  22. ∣ECMA 82d∣.
    Standard ECMA-81: Local Area Networks (CSMA/CD Baseband) Physical Layer, (September 1982).Google Scholar
  23. ∣ECMA 82e∣.
    Standard ECMA-82: Local Area Networks (CSMA/CD Baseband) Link Layer, (September 1982).Google Scholar
  24. ∣∣.
    ECMA 83a Standard ECMA-89: Local Area Networks Token Ring, (September 1983).Google Scholar
  25. ∣ECMA 83b∣.
    Standard ECMA-90: Local Area Networks Token Bus (Broadband), (September 1983).Google Scholar
  26. ∣Eisenberg 72∣.
    Eisenberg, M., Queues with Periodic Service and Changeover Times, Oper. Res. 20, (1972) 440–451.Google Scholar
  27. ∣Farber 73∣.
    Farber, D.J., Feldman, J., Heinrich, F.R., Hopwood, M.D., Loomis, D.C., Rowe, A., The Distributed Computer System, Proc. 7th IEEE Computer Society Intl. Conf., Piscataway, NJ., (1973), IEEE, 31–34.Google Scholar
  28. ∣Farmer 63∣.
    Farmer, W.D., Newhall, E.E., An Experimental Distributed Switching System to Handle Bursty Computer Traffic, Proc. ACM Symposium on Problems in the Optimization of Data Communications, Pine Mountain, GA, (1963) 31–34.Google Scholar
  29. ∣Fine 82∣.
    Fine, M., Tobagi, F.A., Performance of Round-Robin Schemes in Unidirectional Broadcast Local Networks, Proc. ICC '82, Piscataway, NJ., (1982) IEEE, 1C.5.1–1C.5.6.Google Scholar
  30. ∣Fratta 81∣.
    Fratta, L., Borgonovo, F., Tobagi, F.A., The Express-net: A Local Area Communication Network Integrating Voice and Data, Proc. Int. Conf. on the Performance of Data Communication Systems and their Applications, (1981) North-Holland, 77–88.Google Scholar
  31. ∣Hafner 74∣.
    Hafner, E.R., Nenadal, Z., Tschanz, M., A Digital Loop Communications System, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-22, (1974) 877–881.Google Scholar
  32. ∣Hamacher 82∣.
    Hamacher, V.C., Shedler, G.S., Access Response on a Collision-Free Local Bus Network, Computer Networks 6, (1982) 93–103.Google Scholar
  33. ∣Hashida 72∣.
    Hashida, O., Analysis of Multiqueue, Rev. El. Commun. Lab. 20, (1972) 189–199.Google Scholar
  34. ∣Hayes 78∣.
    Hayes, J.F., An Adaptive Technique for Local Distribution, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-26, (1978) 1178–1186.Google Scholar
  35. ∣Hayes 81∣.
    Hayes, J.F., Local Distribution in Computer Communications, IEEE Commun. Magazine, (March 1981) 6–14.Google Scholar
  36. ∣IEEE 82a∣.
    IEEE Project 802 Local Area Network Standards, Draft IEEE Standard 802.2, Logical Link Control, Draft D, (November 1982).Google Scholar
  37. ∣IEEE 82b∣.
    IEEE Project 802 Local Area Network Standards, Draft IEEE Standard 802.3, CSMA/CD Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications, Revision D, (December 1982).Google Scholar
  38. ∣IEEE 82c∣.
    IEEE Project 802 Local Area Network Standards, Draft IEEE Standard 802.4, Token-Passing Bus Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications, Draft D, (December 1982).Google Scholar
  39. ∣IEEE 83∣.
    IEEE Project 802 Local Area Network Standards, Draft IEEE Standard 802.5, Token Ring Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications, Working Draft, (September 1983).Google Scholar
  40. ∣ISO 82a∣.
    International Organization for Standardization, Data Processing — Open Systems Interconnection — Basic Reference Model, Draft Proposal ISO/DP 7498, (February 1982).Google Scholar
  41. ∣ISO 82b∣.
    International Organization for Standardization, Data Processing — Open Systems Interconnection — Connection Oriented Transport Protocol Specification Draft Proposal ISO/DP 8073, (June 1982).Google Scholar
  42. ∣Kaye 72∣.
    Kaye, A.R., Analysis of a Distributed Control Loop for Data Transmission, Proc. Comput. Commun. Networks and Telectraffic Symp., Brooklyn, NY., (1982) Polytechnic, 47–58.Google Scholar
  43. ∣Kiesel 81∣.
    Kiesel, W.M., Kuehn, P.J., CSMA-CD-DR: A New Multi-Access Protocol for Distributed Systems, Conf. Rec. NTC '81, Piscataway, NJ. (1981) IEEE.Google Scholar
  44. ∣Kleinrock 75∣.
    Kleinrock, L., Tobagi, F.A., Packet Switching in Radio Channels: Part I — Carrier Sense Multiple Access Modes and their Throughput-Delay Characteristics, IEEE Trans. Commun., COM-23, (1975) 1400–1416.Google Scholar
  45. ∣Kleinrock 76∣.
    Kleinrock, L., Queueing Systems, Vols. I and II, (1976) New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  46. ∣Konheim 74∣.
    Konheim, A.G., Meister, B., Waiting Lines and Times in a System with Polling, J. ACM 21, (1974) 470–490.Google Scholar
  47. ∣Kuehn 79∣.
    Kuehn, P.J., Multiqueue systems with nonexhaustive cyclic service, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 58, (1979) 671–698.Google Scholar
  48. ∣Kuemmerle 82∣.
    Kuemmerle, K., Reiser, M., Local-Area Communication Networks — An Overview, J. Telecommunication Networks 1, (1982) 349–370.Google Scholar
  49. ∣Lam 80∣.
    Lam, S.S., A Carrier Sense Multiple Access Protocol for Local Networks, Computer Networks 4, (1980) 21–32.Google Scholar
  50. ∣Limb 82∣.
    Limb, J.O., Flores, C., Description of Fasnet, a Unidirectional Local Area Communications Network, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 61, (September 1982) 1413–1440.Google Scholar
  51. ∣Liu 77∣.
    Liu, M.T., Babic, G., Pardo, R., Traffic Analysis of the Distributed Loop Computer Network (DLCN), Proc. Nat. Telecommun. Conf., Piscataway, NJ., (1977), IEEE, 31:5-1–21:5-7.Google Scholar
  52. ∣Metcalfe 76∣.
    Metcalfe, R.M., Boggs, D.R., Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks, Commun. Ass. Comput. Mach. 19, (1976) 395–404.Google Scholar
  53. ∣Penney 79∣.
    Penney, B.K., Baghdadi, A.A., Survey of Computer Communications Loop Networks: Parts 1 and 2, Computer Communications 2, (1979) 165–180 and 224–241.Google Scholar
  54. ∣Reames 75∣.
    Reames, C.C., Liu, M.T., A Loop Network for Simultaneous Transmission of Variable Length Messages, Proc. 2nd Ann. Symp. Comput. Architecture, Houston, TX., (1975) 7–12.Google Scholar
  55. ∣Rothauser 77∣.
    Rothauser, E.H., Wild, D., MLMA: A Collision-Free Multi-Access Method, Proc. IFIP Congress 77, (1977) North-Holland, 431–436.Google Scholar
  56. ∣Rubin 81∣.
    Rubin, I., DeMoraes, L.F., Polling Schemes for Local Communication Networks, Conf. Rec. ICC '81, Piscataway, NJ., (1981), IEEE, 33.5.1–33.5.7.Google Scholar
  57. ∣Saltzer 80∣.
    Saltzer, J.H., Pogran, K.T., A Star-Shaped Ring Network with High Maintainability, Computer Networks 4, (1980) 239–244.Google Scholar
  58. ∣Shoch 80∣.
    Shoch, J.F., Hupp, J.A., Measured Performance of an Ethernet Local Network, Comm. ACM 23, (1980) 711–721.Google Scholar
  59. ∣Spaniol 79∣.
    Spaniol, O., Modelling of Local Computer Networks, Computer Networks 3, (1979) 315–326.Google Scholar
  60. ∣Spaniol 81∣.
    Spaniol, O., Analysis and Performance Evaluation of HYPERCHANNEL Access Protocols, Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Distributed Computing Systems, Piscataway, NJ., (1981), IEEE, 247–255.Google Scholar
  61. ∣Swartz 80∣.
    Swartz, G.B., Polling in a Loop System, J. ACM 27, (1980) 42–59.Google Scholar
  62. ∣Thomasian 79∣.
    Thomasian, A., Kanakia, H., Performance Study of Loop Networks Using Buffer Insertion, Computer Networks 3, (1979) 419–425.Google Scholar
  63. ∣Tobagi 77∣.
    Tobagi, F.A., Kleinrock, L., Packet Switching in Radio Channels: Part IV — Stability Considerations and Dynamic Control in Carrier Sense Multiple Access Modes, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-25, (1977) 1103–1120.Google Scholar
  64. ∣Tobagi 80a∣.
    Tobagi, F.A., Hunt, V.B., Performance Analysis of Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection, Computer Networks 4, (1980) 245–259.Google Scholar
  65. ∣Tobagi 80b∣.
    Tobagi, F.A., Multiaccess Protocols in Packet Communication Systems, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-28, (1980) 468–488.Google Scholar
  66. ∣Tobagi 80c∣.
    Tobagi, F.A., Rom, R., Efficient Round-Robin and Priority Schemes for Unidirectional Broadcast Systems, Proc. IFIP WG 6.4 Int. Workshop on Local Area Networks, (1980), North-Holland, 125–138.Google Scholar
  67. ∣Wilkes 79∣.
    Wilkes, M.V., Wheeler, D.J., The Cambridge Digital Communication Ring, Proc. Symposium on Local Area Commun. Networks, Boston, (1979) 47–61.Google Scholar
  68. ∣Wong 82a∣.
    Wong, J.W., Bux, W., Analytic Modeling of an Adapter to Local-Area Networks, Proc. GLOBECOM 82, Piscataway, NJ., (1982), IEEE, C.2.3.1.–C.2.3.6.Google Scholar
  69. ∣Wong 82b∣.
    Wong, J.W., Bux, W., Analytic Modeling of an Adapter to Local-Area Networks, IBM Research Report RZ 1175, (1982).Google Scholar
  70. ∣Wong 84∣.
    Wong, J.W., Bux, W., Performance Evaluation of Logical Link Control in a Local-Area Ring Network, to appear as an IBM Research Report, (1984).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Bux
    • 1
  1. 1.Communications and Computer ScienceIBM Research LabortoryRuschlikonSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations