Advertisement

Properties and applications of liquid-crystalline main-chain polymers

  • M. G. Dobb
  • J. E. McIntyre
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 60/61)

Abstract

The development is reviewed of liquid-crystalline polymers whose mesophase formation derives from the nature of the chemical units in the main chain. The emphasis lies primarily on highly aromatic condensation polymers and their applications. The general properties of nematic phases formed by such polymers are surveyed and some chemical structures capable of producing nematic phases are classified in relation to their ability to form lyotropic and thermotropic systems. The synthesis, properties, physical structure and applications of two of the most important lyotropic systems and of a range of potentially important thermotropic polymers are discussed with particular reference to the production and use of fibres, films and anisotropic mouldings.

Keywords

Nematic Phase Ethylene Terephthalate Aramid Fibre Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Aromatic Polyamide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

6 References

  1. 1.
    Flory, P. J.: Proc. Roy. Soc. A234, 60 (1956)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Flory, P. J.: Proc. Roy. Soc. A234, 73 (1956)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Robinson, C.: Trans. Faraday Soc. 52, 571 (1956)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Robinson, C., Ward, J. C., Beevers, R. B.: Disc. Faraday Soc. 25, 29 (1958)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Elliott, A., Ambrose, E. J.: Disc. Faraday Soc. 9, 246 (1950)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Courtaulds Ltd. (Ballard, D. G. H.): B.P. 864,962 (priority 21 April 1958)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Courtaulds Ltd. (Ballard, D. G. H., Griffiths, J. D., Watson, J.): U.S.P. 3,121,766 (priority 9 May 1961, U.K.)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hermans, J. J.: Adv. Chem. Phys. B13, 707 (1967)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wee, E. L., Miller, W. G.: J. Phys. Chem. 75, 1446 (1971)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    DuPont de Nemours & Co., E. I. (DuPont) (S. L. Kwolek): B.P. 1,198,081 (priority 13 June 1966, U.S.A.)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    DuPont (S. L. Kwolek): B.P. 1,283,064 (priority 12 June 1968, U.S.A.)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd. (ICI) (Goodman, I., McIntyre, J. E., Stimpson, J. W.): B.P. 989,552 (priority 19 Feb., 1962)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    ICI (Goodman, I., McIntyre, J. E., Aldred, D. H.): B.P. 993,272 (priority 22 May, 1962)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    The Carborundum Co.: B.P. 1,303,484 (priority 28 May, 1969, U.S.A.)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roviello, A., Sirigu, A.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Letters Ed. 13, 455 (1975)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    DuPont (Kleinschuster, J. J., Pletcher, T. C., Schaefgen, J. R.): Belg. P. 828,935 (priority 10 May, 1974, U.S.A.)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jackson, W. J., Kuhfuss, H. F.: J. Polym. Sci., Polymer Chem. Ed. 14, 2093 (1976)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eastman Kodak Co. (H. F. Kuhfuss, W. J. Jackson): B.P. 1,435,021 (priority 28 Sept. 1972, U.S.A.)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Papkov, S. P. et al.: Vysolcomol. Soed., Ser. B, 15, 357 (1973)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ciferri, A.: Polymer Engng. Sci. 15, 191 (1975)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Blumstein, A., Hsu, E. C.: Liquid crystalline order in polymers with mesogenic side groups, in: Liquid Crystalline Order in Polymers (ed.) Blumstein, A., p. 105, New York, Academic Press 1978Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Porter, R. S., Johnson, J. F.: The rheology of liquid crystals, in: Rheology, Vol. 4 (ed.) Eirich, F., p. 317, New York, Academic Press 1967Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Capaccio, G., Ward, I. M.: Nature 243, 143 (1973)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Teijin, K. K.: B.P. 1,501,948 (priority 27 Dec., 1974)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Teijin, Co.: Data sheets for HM-50 (1982)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Robinson, C.: Tetrahedron 13, 219 (1961)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Uematsu, I., Uematsu, Y.: Adv. Polym. Sci. 59, 37 (1983)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Flory, P. J.: Statistical Mechanics of Chain Molecules, p. 183, New York, Interscience 1969Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Papkov, S. P. et al.: J. Phys. Chem., Polym. Phys. Edn. 12, 1753 (1974)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Savinov, V. M., Sokolov, S. B., Fedorov, A. A.: Vysokomol. Soed., Ser. B 10, 111 (1968)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Panar, M., Beste, L. F.: Macromolecules 10, 1401 (1977)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bair, T. I., Morgan, P. W., Killian, F. L.: Macromolecules 10, 1396 (1977)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    DuPont (Hartzler, J. D.): B.P. 1,501,948 (priority 23 Sept. 1977, U.S.A.) (U.S.P. 3,642,707)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Morgan, P. W.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Symp., No. 65, 1 (1978)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jackson, W. J.: Br. Polym. J. 12, 154 (1980)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Eastman Kodak Co. (Jackson, W. J., Morris, J. C.): G.B.P. 2,002,404 (priority 8 Aug. 1977, U.S.A.) (U.S.P. 4,169,933)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Volksen, W. et al.: Polym. Prepr. 20, 86 (1979)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cottis, S. G.: Mod. Plastics, July 62 (1975)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    The Carborundum Co. (Cottis, S. G., Economy, J., Wohrer, L. C.): B.P. 1,499,513 (priority 25 Jan. 1975, U.S.A.)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Celanese Corp. (Calundann, G. W.): B.P. 1,585,511 (priority 13 May 1976, U.S.A.) (U.S.P. 4,067,852)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Celanese Corp. (Calundann, G. W.): G.B.P. 2,006,242 (priority 20 Oct. 1977, U.S.A.) (U.S.P. 4,161,470)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Celanese Corp. (Calundann, G. W.): U.S.P. 4,184,996 (priority 15 Feb. 1978)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Celanese Corp. (Calundann, G. W., Charbonneau, L. F., East, A. J.): U.S.P. 4,357,917 (priority 6 Apr. 1981)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    DuPont (Schaefgen, J. R. et al.): B.P. 1,507,207 (priority 10 May 1974, U.S.A.) (cf. Ref. 16)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    DuPont (Payet, C. R.): U.S.P. 4,159,365 (priority 19 Nov. 1976)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    DuPont (Harris, J. F.): U.S.P. 4,294,955 (priority 10 Dec. 1979)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Eastman Kodak Co. (Jackson, W. J., Gebeau, G. G., Kuhfuss, H. F.): U.S.P. 4,153,779 (priority 26 June 1978)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    DuPont (Morgan, P. W.): U.S.P. 4,048,148 and 4,122,070 (priority 9 May 1975)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Celanese Corp. (Choe, E. W., Calundann, G. W.): G.B.P. 2,050,399 (priority 7 May 1979, U.S.A.)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    ICI (McIntyre, J. E., Milburn, A. H.): U.S.P. 4,272,625 (priority 24 July 1978, U.K.)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    McIntyre, J. E., Milburn, A. H.: Br. Polym. J. 13, 5 (1981)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Strzelecki, L., Van Luyen, D.: Europ. Polym. J. 16, 303 (1980)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Roviello, A., Sirigu, A.: Europ. Polym. J. 15, 61 (1979)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Aguilera, C. et al.: Makromol. Chem. 184, 253 (1983)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    DuPont (Kleinschuster, J. J.): U.S.P. 3,991,014 (priority 10 May 1974) (cf. Ref. 42)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Milburn, A. H.: unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Griffin, A. C., Havens, S. J.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Edn. 19, 951 (1981)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    McFarlane, F. E., Nicely, V. A., Davis, T. G.: Liquid crystal polymers. II. Preparation and properties of polyester exhibiting liquid-crystalline melts, in: Contemporary Topics in Polymer Science, Vol. 2 (ed.) Pearse, E. M., Schaefgen, J. R., p. 109, London, Plenum 1977Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rhône-Poulenc-Textile (Fayolle, B.): U.S.P. 4,057,597 (priority 27 Aug. 1975, France)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lenz, R. W., Feichtinger, K. A.: Polym. Prepr. 20 (1), 114 (1979)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jackson, W. J., Kuhfuss, H. F.: J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 25, 1685 (1980)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Martins, A. F. et al.: Macromolecules 16, 279 (1983)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Van Krevelen, D. W.: Properties of Polymers (2nd Edn.), p. 99, Amsterdam, Elsevier 1976Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Warner, S. B., Jaffe, M.: J. Crystal Growth 48, 184 (1980)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Blundell, D. J.: Polymer 23, 359 (1982)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bhadani, S. N., Gray, D. G.: Proc. 28th. Macromolecular Symp., IUPAC, p. 813 (1982)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tseng, S.-L., Laivins, G. V., Gray, D. G.: Macromolecules 15, 1262 (1982)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tseng, S.-L., Valente, A., Gray, D. G.: Macromolecules 14, 715 (1981)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Aharoni, S. M.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Letters Edn. 19, 495 (1981)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Suto, S., White, J. L., Fellers, J. F.: Rheol. Acta 21, 62 (1982)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Shimamura, K., White, J. L., Fellers, J. F.: J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2165 (1981)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kesuya, S., et al.: Polym. Bull (Berlin) 7, 241 (1982)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Uematsu, I., Watanabe, J.: Proc. 28th. Macromolecular Symp., IUPAC, p. 821 (1982)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Magat, E. E.: Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A294, 463 (1980)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Allen, S. R. et al.: Macromolecules 14, 1135 (1981)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Akzo, N. V.: B.P. 1,547,802 (priority 21 Feb. 1975, Netherlands)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    DuPont (Blades, H.): B.P. 1,393,011 (priority 28 April 1971, U.S.A.) (U.S.P. 3,767,756)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Monsanto Co. (Morgan, H. S.): U.S.P. 3,414,645 (priority 19 June 1964)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    DuPont (Blades, H.): B.P. 1,391,501 (priority 28 April 1971, U.S.A.) (U.S.P. 3,869,430)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    DuPont: Information Bulletin No. 6E (1974)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Northolt, M. G., Van Aartsen, J. J.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Symp. 58, 283 (1977)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Greenwood, J. H., Rose, P. G.: J. Mater. Sci. 9, 1809 (1974)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Dobb, M. G., Johnson, D. J., Saville, B. P.: Polymer 22, 960 (1981)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hamza, A. A., Sikorski, J.: J. Microscopy 113, 15 (1978)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Carlsson, D. J., Gan, L. H., Wiles, D. M.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Edn. 16, 2365 (1978)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Haraguchi, K., Kajiyama, T., Takayanagi, M.: J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 23, 915 (1979)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Northolt, M. G.: Eur. Polym. J. 10, 799 (1974)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Yabuki, K., Ito, H., Ota, T.: Sen'i Gakkaishi 31, T524 (1975)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Dobb, M. G., Johnson, D. J., Saville, B. P.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Symp. 58, 237 (1977)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Dobb, M. G., Johnson, D. J., Saville, B. P.: Polymer 20, 1284 (1979)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Dobb, M. G., Johnson, D. J., Saville, B. P.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Edn. 15, 2201 (1977)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hagege, R., Jarrin, M., Sotton, M. J.: J. Microscopy 115, 65 (1979)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wolfe, J. F., Bock, H. L., Arnold, F. E.: Macromolecules 14, 915 (1981)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Allen, S. R., et al.: J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 291 (1981)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Adams, W. W., Azaroff, L. V., Kulshreshtha, A. K.: Kristallogr. 150, 321 (1979)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Roche, E. J., Takahashi, T., Thomas, E. L.: A.C.S. Symp. Ser. No. 141, 303 (1980)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wellman, M. W., et al.: Macromolecules 14, 935 (1981)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gupta, N.: Textile Inst. and Ind. p. 39, Feb. (1980)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    DuPont (Elliott, S. P.): U.S.P. 4,093,595 (priority 19 Nov. 1976)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wissbrun, K. F.: Brit. Polym. J. 12, 163 (1980)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Griffin, B. P., Cox, M. K.: Brit. Polym. J. 12, 147 (1980)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Cogswell, F. N.: Brit. Polym. J. 12, 170 (1980)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Celanese Corp. (Ide, Y., Wissbrun, K. F.): U.S.P. 4,093,595 (priority 15 July 1980)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Baird, D. G.: The rheology of polymers with liquid-crystalline order, in: Rheology, Vol. 3, Applications (ed.) Astarita, G., Mannicci, G., Nicolais, L., p. 647, New York, Plenum, 1980Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wissbrun, K. F., Griffin, A. C.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 20, 1835 (1982)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Celanese Corp. (Ide, Y.): U.S.P. 4,332,759 (priority 15 July 1980)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Celanese Corp. (Calundann, G. W.): B.P. 1,585,512 (priority 13 May 1976, U.S.A.)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Celanese Corp. (Calundann, G W., Charboneau, L. F.): U.S.P. 4,224,433 (priority 16 Mar. 1979)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Celanese Corp. (Charbonneau, L. F., East, A. J., Calundann, G. W.): U.S.P. 4,357,918 (priority 6 April 1981)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    DuPont (Luise, R. R. et al.): B.P. 1,508,646 (priority 10 May 1974, U.S.A.)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    ICI (Brody, H.): Europ. P. Appn. 41,327 (priority 29 July 1980, U.K.)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    ICI (Cogswell, F. N., Griffin, B. P., Rose, J. B.): Europ. P. Appn. 30,417 (priority 30 Nov. 1979, U.K.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. G. Dobb
    • 1
  • J. E. McIntyre
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Textile IndustriesThe University of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations