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Polymer-supported phase transfer catalysts: Reaction mechanisms

  • Warren T. Ford
  • Masao Tomoi
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 55)

Abstract

Polymer-supported phase transfer catalysts are insoluble polymers having covalently bound functional groups active as catalysts for reactions between anions and neutral organic substrates. The active functional groups may be quaternary ammonium or phosphonium ions, crown ethers, cryptands, grafted poly(ethylene glycols), or analogues of dipolar aprotic solvents. The polymer most often used is polystyrene, but other synthetic polymers, silica gel, and alumina have been used also. The reactions are carried out in triphase mixtures of organic liquid, solid or aqueous inorganic salt; and solid catalyst. The chemical reactions take place within the polymer matrix or on the polymer surface. With heterogeneous catalysts the reaction rates may be limited by mass transfer of reactants to the catalyst surface, intraparticle diffusion of reactants to the active sites, or intrinsic reactivity at the active sites. An analysis of the experimental parameters which affect catalytic activity and their mechanisms of action is presented.

Keywords

Crown Ether Intraparticle Diffusion Phase Transfer Catalyst Phase Transfer Catalysis Observe Reaction Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Warren T. Ford
    • 1
  • Masao Tomoi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of EngineeringYokohama National UniversityYokohamaJapan

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